Skip to main content

Full text of "Western electrician"

See other formats


EVERY SATURDAY. 



"mass, institute'^ 

OF 



TECHNOLOGY 
NOV 17 1894 

Vlibrary.j 



^''^4'3" 



l-^nA 



VOLUME VI. 




NUMBERS 1-26. 



Januafy 4 — June ^8, 1890. 




Electrician Publishing Company, 



CHICAGO. 



ii^oEix:- 



Accumulator Plate, Correns. Illustrated 233 

Accumulator Plate, Hagen. Illustrated 331 

Accumulator wiih Gelatinous Electrolyte 271 

Accumulators, Automatic Switch for, by Charles A. 

Pfluger. Illustrated 270 

Accumul^itors. A Theory of, by Dr. Paul Schoop. 

(Chicago Electric Club.) Illustrated 147. 14S 

149. 159. 196 

Accumulators, A Theory of, by Dr. Paul Schoop. 249. 250 

Accumulators. Theory of, by Prof. H. S. Carhart 170 

Accumulators for Galvanoplastic Work, by Dr. Paul 

Schoop. Illustrated 170, 171 

Accumulators for Telegraph Work 341 

Alternating Current Apparatus, Some Tests of the 

Efficiency of, by Dr. Louis Duncan and W. F. C. 



Hasson. Illustrated, and Discussion. (Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers.) 199, 200 

213, 2[4, 215 

Alternating Current Motor Tests 1 76 

Alternating Currents, Method of Measuring. Illus- 
trated 21 r 

Alternating Circuits, Cardew Grounding Device for. 

Illustrated 257 

Alternator, Westinghouse Compound Engine and. 

Illustrated 52 

America, Electrical Engineering in, by G. L. Adden- 

brooke 9, 10, 20, 21, 22 

American Electric Light Company's Plant in Kansas 

City. Illustrated 75, 76, 77 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers 58, 59, 



71, 72, 131, 132, 133, 151, 152, i6r, 162. 163, 
199, 200, 213, 214, 215, 268, 295, 296, 297, 29S, 
299. 300, 3oi,.303. 304. 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 
310. 319. 320, 321 

Arc Lamps, Hood for. Illustrated. (Western Elec- 
tric Co.) 64 

Ampere (Andre Marie). Biography and Portrait. 

Practical Electrical Units 55, 56 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Annual and 
General Meeting of the. Report of Proceedings. 
Electricity in the Navy, by Gilbert Wilkes, 

U. S.N 295 

Electric Lighting in the Tropics, by Wilfrid H. 

Fleming 296 

Life and Efficiency of Arc Light Carbons, by 



Louts B. Marks. Illustrated 296. 2Q7. 

29S. ^99, 300, 

Note on a New I'holometer. by Edward L. 
Nichols. Illustrated 301, 

Industrial Utilizition of the Counler Klectromo- 
tive Force of Sclf-Induclion. by Thomas D. 
l,ockwood 303, 304, 

Magrnctic Pata of (he Spraguc Street Car Molor, 
by 11. K. I*arshall Illustrated . . .305. 306. 

The l.imitations of Steam and Electricity in 
Transportation, by O. T. Crosby. Illus- 
trated ' 306, 307, 30S, 309, 

The Banquet 

Ampere (lauge. Sir William Thomson's. Illustrated. 

2S. 



Illustrated 

Illustrated. (Knapp Electrical 



Ampere Meter. Kac. 

Annunciator, Hotel. 
Works.) 

Arc I^amp. Double Carbon. Illustrated 

Arc L'lmp. New. Illustrated 

,\rc Lamp. Nine Vc.irs with the, by M. D. Law. and 
Discussion. (National Electric Light Associa- 
tion.) 109, 

.\rc Lamp. Patent Litigation over Double Carbon . . 

Arc I-amps. Tests of Alternating Current 

Arc Lamps and Continuous Current Transformers, 
Report on Alternating Current 

.\rc Light Circuits, Method of Measuring Giounds on, 
by J. J. O'ConnclI. Illustrated 

Arc Light Circuits Safe. How to Make, by J E 
Lockwood, and Discussicn. Illustrated. (Na- 
tional Electric Lipht Association.) lio, 

Armature, Ferranti. Illustrated 

.Armature with Iron Coils, Alternatiog Current. Il- 
lustrated 245, 

Atlanta Electric Club 

Auditorium, Electrical Scenic EfTects at the Chicago. 
lllustT.ited 221, 

Auditorium Theater, Lighting of the Chicago. Illus- 
trated 

Aurora, III.. Proposed Electric Railway at 

Australia, Progress of Electric Light in, by E. J. Ers- 
kine 



301 

303 

305 
307 

310 

29 
'43 

if. 
29 
14 

( 
110 
340 

1S5 

201 



121 

I S3 

246 
352 



280 

341 

2S9 

53 

S2 

294 

53 

.(,9 



267 
22.^ 
271 

2.SS 

167 

32S 



267 
209 

262 



Batter)', Disque LeClanche. Illustrated. (Western 

Electric Co.) 190 

Batt*)-. Renaud- Illustrated 235 

IJ.-»ttery, Primary. Illustrated. (J. H. Mason) ...44. 226 
Batter)*. New Induction Coil and. Illustrated .... 50 
Battery Plates, Forming Secondary. Illustrated .... 31 

Batteries. Plate for Secondary. Illustrated 14 

Baxter Constant Current Motor. Illustrated . . . 19O 
Beck Twin Compound Engine. Illustrated. (Taylor 

Mfg. Co.) 321 

Belt Wire Link. Illustrated. (George Kelly & Co.) 225 

Belting. Advancing Prices of 313 

Berlin. Electric Lighting in 232 

Binding Post. Delany. Illustrated 289 

Blower. Electiic. Illustrated. (C. & C. Motor Co). 222 

Boiler Cleaner, Magnetic, by William B. Bull . . 3-'2 

Book Table 197. 244, 245, 26S 

Boot Blacking Machine. Illustrated -. . 352 

Boston, Industrial Exposition at 145 

Boston, Proposed Wiring Regulations in 31 

Boston, West End Railway Power Station in. Illus- 
trated 17 

Brake. Test of the Forbes-Tiramis Electric 19 

Brooklyn fnectrical Society 184 

Brooklya -N: Coney Island Railroad. Illustrated. 

(Thomson-Houston Co.) 317 

Brush, Improved Carbon. Illustrated 2S2 

Brush Company vs. JuHen Company — Decision of 

Judge Coxe in the Storage Battery suit 187, i88 

Brush Lamp Patent Sustained — Decision of Judge 

(iresham . 7, 8 

Brush Station at Rochester, N. V. Illustrated 13 

Business Mention (Notes ). ... 12, 24, 36. 4S. 62, 73. 
74. S5. 86, 139, 140, 154, 1G5, 166. 180, 192. 
206, 218, 230, 242, ^53, 254, 266, 277. 278, 292. 
3 '2. 325. 338. 349> 350, 362 

C, & C. Twenty-Five Horse Power Motor. Illus- 
trated 256 

Cable Telegraphy. Dclany's Receiving Apparatus for. 

Illustrated 235 

Cable Rooms in the Western Electric Company's 

Factory. Testing and. Illustrated 141, 142 

Canal Drier, Gilmer's Electric Root. Illustrated .... 143 

Canton, China. Electric Lighting in 31G. 317 

Carbons. Lift* and EfTiciency of Arc Light, by Louis 
B. Marks. Illustrated. (American Institute nf 
Electrical Engineers.) ...296, 297, 29S, 299, 300, 301 
Carbon Manufacturers, Meeting of. (National Elec- 
tric Light Association.) 1 24 

Carlwn Tests, by E. F. Peck. (National Electric 

Light Association.) 1 10 

Carbons, Freight on. (National Electric Light As- 
sociation.) .- 113 

Cardew Grounding Device for Alternating Circuits. 

Illustrated 257 

Carpet-Sewing Machine. Electric. Illusli^tcd. . 155, 156 

Census, Electrical Data for the 235 

Census, Electricity in the 52 

Census, Investigation of the Electrical Industry for 

the. (National Electric Light Association.) 113 

Census, Investigation of the Electrical Industry for 

the Eleventh, by Allen R. Foote 32 

Central Stations, Construction of, by C- J. IL Wood- 
bur)', and Discussion. Illustrated 95, 96 

Chariton, la.. Electric Lighting Plant.it. Illustrated. 

(Hawkeye Electric Manufacturing Co.) 231 

Chelsea Electricity Supply Company's Station and 

Sub-stations. Illustrated 342. 343 

Chicago, Bright Outlook for 256 

Chicago, Damage to Electric Wires in 193 

Chicago, Electric Lighting in, by John P. Barrett, 77, 78 



Chicago, Electric Lights in the Windsor Tt.ealtr in . . 

Chicago, Ele:tric Railway in 128, 

Chicago, Electric Road in 340, 

Chic; go. Gas Explosions in 

Chicago, New Arc Station in 

Ct ic3go. Overhead Wiie Controversy in , . , . . 

Chicago Public Lighting in . 

Chicago. Removal of Police Telephones in 

Chicago, Telephone Trouble in - - 

Chicajjo Auditorium, Electrical EfTecls at the Illus- 
trated 221. 

Chicago Auditorium Theater. Lighting of ihc. Illus- 
trated 

Chicago Board of Trade Quotations 

Chicago City E'ectric Light Plant.. 130, 194. 226, 231, 

Chicago City Electric Light Plant. Ideal Engines in 
the. Illustrated 

Chicago City Electric Light Plant — North Side Power 
Station. Illustiated 

Chicago Ciiy Electric Light Plant — Throop Street 
.Station. Illustrated 327, 

Chicago City Telephone Seivice 

Chicago Edison Company's .Elation. Dynamo Room 
in the. Illustrated .... 

Chicago E'ectric Club 19. ^o, 

33. 34. 41. 43. Ah 64. 66. 67. 79, 82. 83. 84, 

87. 145, 147. 14S.-149. 159. 173. 174. 175. iSS, 

, iSg, 215. 226,237, 

Chicago Kltctric Club Reception in Honor of the Del- 
egates to the National Electric Light Convention 
at Kansas City 

Chicago Electrical Franchises 339, 

Chicago Telephone Company and the Retail Drug- 
gists' Association 

Chicago Telephone Company, Henry B. Stone Presi- 
dent 

Chicago Telephone Company, Suits against the. . . . 

Chicago's Electrical Department . 

Chicago's Influence in Electrical Circles 169, 

China, Electric Light for 40, 

Cigar Lighter, Electric. Illustrated 

Cincinnati, Joint Ownership of Poles in 76, 

Cincinnati, Telephone- Electric Railway Suit at. — De- 
cision of Judge Taft 135, 136, 

Cincinnati Electric Railway Telephone Suit 

Clark Automatic Safety Device. Illustrated 

Clarke Elevated Railway System. Illustrated 

Cleat. Self-Binding. Illustrated. (Central Electric 
Company) 

Cleats, Fiber Insulating. Illustrated. (Electrical 
Supply Co.) 

Cleveland Short Electric Railway at Illustiated. . . . 

Clipper, An Electric. Illustrated 

Clutch, Novel. Illustrated 

Coal Consumption in Electric Light Plants. (Com 
munication) 

Coil and Battery, New. Induction. Illustrated .... 

Conduits, Interior. 346, 

Columbia College, Electrical Engineering at 

Columbia Theater, Chicago, Electric Lights in the 
321. 

Compounding Dynamos for Constant Potential, 
Theory of, by Dr. Louis Bell. (Chicago Electric 
Club) ig, 

Condensers, Method of Repairing Short-Circuiied. . . 

Connecticut Electric Light Association 

Consolidated Electric Li;4ht Company's Plant at Kan- 
sas City. Illustiated 

Copper, Duty on 32, 

Copper, Report of the Committee on. (National Elec- 
tric Light Association) 89 

Copper, Tariff on 

Copper, Tempered 1S9, 

Copper Age, The 

Copper in Hungary, Electrol) tic Extraction of 

L'orrespondence 10, it, 

-2, 31. 35- 45. 46. 47. 59- ^o. 61, 72, 84. 1^6. 
138, i3g, [52, 153, 164, 165, 177. 178. rgo, rgi, 
203. 204, 215, 216, 217, 227, 22S, 229, 239, 240, 
241 250. 251. 252, 253, 262, 263, 264. 275. 276, 
277, 29c, 291, 3] I, 323, 324, 335, 336. 337. 347, 
.^48, 349. 359. 

Coulomb (Charles Auguslins) Biography — Practical 
Electrical Units 

Cranes, I'-leclric. Illustrated 

Cut-out, Hawkeye Double Pole. Illustrated. (Cen- 
tral Electric Co.) 

Cut-out, Storage Battery. Illustrated 

Cutout for Series Incandescent Lamps Illustrated. 

234 235 

Cut-out Board, Multiple. Illustrated. (Western IClec- 

tric Co, ) 209 

Cutting Electric Light Wires. Tool for. Illustrated 256 

Dallas Rapid Transit Railway. Illustrated. {Sprague 

Electric Railway i\: Motor Co.). 294 

Daniel!. (John Frederick) Biography and Portrait. 

Practical Electrical Units. 57 

Decatur, Rae Motors at i^2 

Demagnetizing Watches. Illustrated 21 

District Telegraph Box. Illustrated. (Monitor Elec- 
tric Co.) 81 

Double Carbon Lamp Lit'gation 141 

Drill. Electric Percussion Power. Illustrated 207 

Drill. Barnes Sensitive. Illustrated 176 

Dynamo, An ICnglish 352, 353 

Dynamo, Fisher Incandescent, Illustrated. (Fisher 

Electric Co.) 128 

Dynamo, Four-Pole Drum Illustrated 273 

Dynamo, Hauberg. Illustrated 237 

Dynamo and Engine for the Dutch Navy. Illustrated 2-19 
Dynamo, Combined Ideal Engine and Sperry. Illus- 
trated 193 

Dynamo Mather-Platt Alternating Current. Illus- 
trated 65,66 

Dynamo, National Direct Current. Illustrated. .232, 233 



S7 
340 

256 

231 
335 
234 
170 

41 
157 

77 

137 
175 
247 
270 

271 

245 
40 

3 
330 



347 

23s 



20S 

5 

63 
33 

90 
280 
igo 

35S 
2S5 



Dynamo, New English. Illustrated 225 

Dynamo, New Excelsior Constant Curient. lllus- 

traied 15S, 159 

Dynamo, New Hawkeye. Illustrated 20S 

Dynamo, Polechlo's Illustrated . 233 

Dynamo, Rae. Illustrated. (Lelroit Electrical Works.) 

243. 244 

Dynamo, Western Electric Company's Hij^h Tension. 

Illustrated *. . . ; 50 

D_>namos for t'ons'ant Potential, Theory of Compound- 
ing, by Dr. Louis Bell, and Discussion. (Chicago 

Electric Club) rg. 20, 33, 34 

Dynamos. Constant Poiential with Over compounded 

by Alex. Dow. Illustrated , 1S4 

Dynamos New Features in. by C. L. Imhof. Illus- 
trated (tg 



East End Electric Light Company of Pittsburgh. Il- 
lustrated 25 

E<1ison's Exhibit at the Woman's Exchange 

Edison Station at Philadelphia, Boiler Room in. Il- 
lustrated 

Editrrial (Notes) 6, 18, 

30 42, 54, 68, So, 98, 134, 146. 160, 172, 186, 
19S, 212, 224, 236. 24S. 260, 272, 286, 302, 318, 

332,344. 

Eddy Electric Motor. Illustrated 

Electricity, .Seeing by 

Electricity, The Mystery of by Force Bain . . 161, 

Electricity and Music 274, 

Electricity for Steam, The ProbUm for Substituting 

Electricity for. by Practique. 225, 

Electricity in Modern War f.. re 

Ell clr icily in Modtrn Life, by Franz Bendt 

Electric Light The (Notes) 11 23, 

35. 47. f>r. 72. 73. S4. 85. 139, 153- 165. 17S. 

179. 191, 204, 205, 2:7. 229 241. 2=>3, '.:64, 265, 

277, 2gt. 311. 324, 337. 349, 360. 

Electric Light, The Representative of. Illustrated.. 
Electric Light Asserts its Superiority over Gas ... . 
Electric Light Contract Discovered, Missing . . . 167, 
Electric Light Plants. Management of Small Gas and 

Eitctric Light 176, 

Electric Lighting, P'uropean Opinions of Safety and 



26 
21 1 



175 



356 
79 

1S3 
162 

275 

2:6 
59 

3^5 



361 
210 

225 
168 

177 

203 
162 



95 



Elci-tric Lighting, Municipal Control of Gas and. . . . 

Electric Lighting and Public Safety by Sir William 
Tt omson 6q, 

Electric Lighting Interests, Report of the Committee 
on Harmonizing Insurance and (National Electric 
L'ght Association) 91, 92 93, 94, 

Electrical Engineering, Experience as a Teacher in, by 
Force Bain. Illustrated. (Chicago Electric Light 
Club). 43.44 

Electrical Theories. A Review of Modern by Prof. 
William A. Anthony Illustrated and Discussion 
(American Institute of Electrical Engineers).-.. 
58, 59 7'. 72 

Electrocution, Opposed to (Opinions of European 

Scientists.). 329, 330 

Electro-Magnetic Induction Experiments, Prof. Elihu 

Thomson's, by J, A. Fleming. Illustrated 

333. 334. 335 345. 34^ 

Elevators in the Auditorium, Signaling Device for. 

Illustrated 2 

Elevator Installation, Electric, Illustrated. (Sprague 

Electric Railway lS: Motor Co.) -. . . 3 

Engine, Compcund Highspeed. Illustrated 28 

Engine, Duplex Rot-iry. Illustrated 210 

Engine, New Valveless Compound. Illustrated. 

(Triumph Compnund Engine Co.) 67 

Engine, The Beck Twin Compound. Illustrated. 

(Taylor Mfg. Co.) 321 

Engine, The Steam, by Fted E. Sickles, (National 

Electric Light Association) 96, 97, 99 

Engine and Allernalor. Westinghouse Compound. Il- 
lustrated 52 

Engine and Sperry Ilynnmo. Ideal. I lustrated ... 193 

Engine for Heavy Duty, Rice Automatic Tandem 
Compound Condensing. Illustrated. (John T. 
Noye Mfg. Co.^ 316 

Engines in the Chicago Electric Light Plant, Ideal. 

Illustrated 258 

l-'ngland, l-'lectric Light In ig6 

Ensign, (W. Va)., Short Electric Railway at. Illus- 
trated 39 

Evans System of Driving a Dynamo. Illustrated. .81, 82 

Excelsior Constant Current Dynamo. New. Illus- 
trated 158, 159 

E.\ccutions, Electrical 52 53, 317 

Execution Law Declartd Constitutional, Electrical. 1, 2 

Execution Constitutional, Electrical 181, 294 

Fan, Ventilating. Illustrated. (Central Electric Co.) 340 

Fan Motor, New Belding. Illustrated 145 

Faraday (Michael), Biography and Portrait. Practical 

Electrical Units 56, 57 

Ferranti Alternating Current Motor. Illustrated ... 158 

Ferranti Armature. Illustrated 183 

Ferranti Conductors. Safety of 257 

I-'erranti's Woik not a Failure. 25S, 259 

Fcrranti's Work in London 238 . 

Fiber Insulating Cleats. Illustrated. (Electrical Sup- 
ply Co.) 245 

Filaments of Incandescent Lamps, .Shaping. Illus- 
trated 340 

Fisher Incandescent Dynamo. Illustrated. (Fisher 

ElcctricCo.) i-^S 

Fiske Electrical Method of Finding the Position of 

Distant Objects Illustrated 51 

Fort Wayne Electric Club 256, 335 

Frankfort. Electrical P^-xhibition at 335 

j-riction Cone. Iwans. Illustrated Si, 82 

Fuse Box. Diamond Combination Switch and. Illus- 
trated. ( Knapp Electrical Works) 340 

Fuse Box, Kammeyer. Illustrated 330 



Galvanoplastic Work, Accumulators for, by Dr. Paul 

Schoop. Illustrated 1 70, 171 

Gas and Electric Light 200, 220 

G IS Explosions in Chicago 2Sq 

Gas in Manholes, Escape of . 243 

Gas Man's Opinion of Electric Lighting 346 

Gauss, (Carl Friedrich.)Biography and Portrait — Practi- 
cal Electrical Units 55 

Generator, Rae. Illustrated. (Detroit Electrical 

Works) -MS. 244 

Glasier IL A , Death of 220 

Gibbens, Death of Daniel L 2^1 

Grapnel, Cable. Illustrated 287 

Great Western Electrical Supply Company 289, 290 

Grounding Device for Alternating Circuits, Cardew. 

Illustrated 257 

Grounds on Arc Light Circuits, Method of Measuring 

by. J. J. O'Connell. Illustrated 173 

Grounds on Electric Railways, Apparatus for Locating. 

Illustrated 2S2 

Ilalske. Johann Georg, Death of 225 

Hawkeye Dynamo, New. Illustrated 20S 

Heat Regulation, Automatic Electric. Illustrated. 

(F. M. Sparrow) 129, 130 

Heat, Electricity from 3.^3 

Heater. Electric. Illustrated 200 

Hertz, Prof. Henry, with Portrait I 

Hewson (E. S.,) Death of 233 

High Tension Currents and Electrical Distribution, 

Underground, by H. B CQbb_ 44, 45 

Hoists, French Electric. Illustrated 223 

Hood for Arc Lamps. Illustrated. (Western Electric 

Co.) ._... 5'6 

Hopkinson's, (Dr. John,) Letter to the Senate Investi- 
gating Committee 202, 203 

Horse Power Lost in a Mile of Copper Wire Volts 

and 200 

How our Paths May be Made Paths of Peace, by H. 
W. Pope. (National Electric Light Associa- 
tion) no, I [ I 

Ideal Engines in the Chicago City Electric Light 

Plant. Illustrated - 25S 

Illinois State Electric Light Association 3S 

Incandescent Light and Gas 247 

Incandescent Lamps, Device for Adjusting the Posi- 
tion of. Illustrated. (B. D. Sanborn). 64 

Indianapolis, Opening of the Electric Railway in — . 358 

Inter-State Electric Light Company's Plant at Kansas 

City, Illustrated * 75, 76 

Insulation from the Standpoint of Practical Experience, 
Line, by Charles A. Harber. (National Electric 
Light Association) 120 

Insulator, Duplex Pin and. Illustrated. (The E. S. 

Greeley & Co) 16S 

Insurance and Electric Lighting Interests, Report 
of the Committee on Harmonizing. (National 
Electric Light Association) gi, 92, 93, 94, 95 

Isolated Plant, The Largest 269 

Jacobi, (Moritz Hermann von,) Biography and Por- 
trait — Practical Electrical Units 57 

Jamaica, International Exhibition at 226, 227 

Jenney Electric Motor. Illustrated 245 

Joule, (James Prescott,) Biography and Portrait — 

Practical Electrical Units 57 

Julien Storage Battery 35S, 359 



Kansas City, Electric Lighting in. Illustrated. 37, 

-_ 38, 63, ps. 76. 77. 7S 

Kansas City Electric Light Company's Station, 

Dynamo Room in the. Illustrated 339 

Kansas State Electric Light Association iSi 

Kemmler's Case, Proceedings in 274 

Kemmler's Execution Postponed 243, 261, 262 

Knapp Electrical Works, Fire at the. 273 

Lamp Bunnell Arc. Illustrated 14 

Lamp, Double Carbon Arc. Illustrated 29 

Lamp, Nine Years with the Arc, by M. D. Law and 
Discussion. (National Electric Light Association.) 

109, no 

Lamp Litigation, Double Caibon 141 

Lamp, Patent Litigation . - . . 167 

Lamp Patent Sustained Brush — Decision of Judge 

Gresham ■ - . - 7, '8 

Lamp Patents, Litigation over Double Carbon Arc. . . 340 
Lamp Shade. Ijcandescent. Illustrated. (Central Elec- 
tric Co) 71 

Lamps, Device for Adjusting the Position of Incan- 
descent. Illustrated. (B. D. Sanborn) 64 

Lamps. Hood for Arc. Illustrated. (Western Elec- 
tric Co) 64 

Lamps, Japy Arc. Illustrated 341 

Lamps and Continuous Current Transformers, Report 

on Alternating Current Arc 201 

Lamps, The Diathermancy of Air in Relation to the 

Efficiency of Incandescent, by F. Higgins 259 

Launches, Electric 247 

Law ' Myron D ,) In Honor of 197 

Lawrence, Mass., Mill Tramway at. Illustrated. 

(Thomson-Houston Electric Co.) 185 

Lenox Lyceum, Electrical Effects at the New York. 

Illustrated .219, 220 

Lenox Lyceum Miniature Electric Railway. Illus- 
trated 255 

Lighting, Municipal Control of 200 

Lightning Arrester. Illustrated. (Western Electric 

Co) 209 

Lightning Arrester, Mayo. Illustrated. (Rockford 

Electric Manufacturing Co). . . 64 

Lightning Guard. Lodge. Illustrated 2S7 

Lindrum Steam Generating Apparatus. Illustrated. . 5 



Locomotive for Metal Mines, Electric (Sprague Elec- 
tric Rail-vay and Motor Co.) Illustrated 51 52 

London, Ferranti's Work in 23S , 

Lubricator Spray Feed. Illustrated. (Lunkenheimer 

Brass Mfg. Co.) 311 



Magnetizing Iron with the Alternating Current. Illus- 
trated. 282 

Maine Electric Light Association 

Makeshift, A, by Prof. J. E. Davies 

Mather-Platt Alternating Current Dynamo. Illus- 
trated 65, 

May Lightning Arrester. Illustrated. (Rockford Elec- 
tric Mfg. Co.) 

Measuring Electric Currents Method of. Illustrated. 

Megohm Box, The Standard (James W. Queen & Co.) 
Illustrated 

Meter, The Walker Electric. Illustrated ........ 

Meter, Wright Ferranti Alternating Current. Illus- 
trated 

Meters, Electric. Illustrated 

Method of Finding the Position of Distant Objects, 
Fiske Electrical. Illustrated 

Mica, Proposed Tariff on 

Michaelis, Death of Major O. E -. 

Michaelis Eectric Mining Machine. Illustrated. .1S2, 

Milwaukee, Another Electric Street Railway for 

Milwaukee. Electric Railways in 133, 

Mines, Electric Locomotive for Metal. Illustrated. 
(Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Co.) 51, 

Mines. The Use of Electricity in, by M. Chalon, 
C. E 157, 

Mining Locomotive. Illustrated 

Mining Machine Michaelis Electric. Illustrated. 1S2, 

Minneapolis, Power House on the Fourth Avenue Elec- 
tric Railway at. Illustrated 

Minneapolis and St. Paul, Henry Villard's Plans 
for 237, 

Minneapolis and St. Paul Electric Railways 

Minneapolis Electric Road Contracts 193, 

Minneapolis. Proposed Municipal Control in 

Miscellaneous Notes. 23, 24, 36, 48, 62, 85, 154, 179, 
iSo, 192, 205, 206. 217, 230, 241, 242, 253, 265, 
266, 277, 292, 312 325, 337, 338, 349, 362. 

Mitchell, Chariei L., Death of 

Motor, The Electric (Notes) 11, 12, 23, 35,36, 47, 48, 
61, 73. 85, 139, 153. 154. 165, 179, 191, 205, 217, 
229, 241, 253, 265, 277, 291, 312. 324, 325, 337, 
349, 361, 362. 

Motor, A Toy. Illustrated. (Beckwith Mfg. Co.) 

Motor Alternating Current. Illustrated 

Motor, Alternating Current. Illustrated. 195, 269, 270, 

Motor. Baxter Constant Current. Illustrated 

Motor, Future of the Electric 

Motor, Jenney Electric. Illustrated 

Motor, Magnetic Data of the Sprague Street Car, by 
H. F. Parshall. Illustrated. (American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers) 305, 

Motor, New Belding Fan. Illustrated 

Motor, Operating Small Machines by Electric. Illus- 
trated. (Thomson- Houston Co ) 

Motor, Phonograph, Illustrated 

Motor, Sprague Fifty Horse Power. Illustrated. ... 

Motor, The Electric, by Foree Bain 

Motor, The Ferranti Alternating Current. Illus- 
trated 

Motor, Twenty-Five Horse Power, (C. l\: C. Electric 
Motor Co.) Illustrated 

Motor, The Sperry Constant Current. Illustrated... 

Motor and Fan, Combination Stationary. Illustrated 
(Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Co.) ,. . 

Motor in a Grocery, Excelsior Arc Illustrated 

Motor in a Printing Office, Electric, 37, 

Motor in a Shoe Factory, Excelsior. Illustrated .... 

Motor Tests, Alternating Current. ... 

Motor Dynamo, A. Illustrated (Foree Bain) 

Motors, Eddy Electric. Illustrated 

Motors, Switch for Constant Potential Illustrated. . 

Motors in General Railway Work, Electric, by Dr. 
Louis Bell and Discussion (Chicago Electric 
Club) 173. 174. 175. 188, 

Motor in a Printing Office, Illustrated (Sprague Elec- 
tric Railway & Motor Co. ) 

Motors with High Tension Currents, Operation of 
Electric, by Elmer A. Sperry and Discussion. 
Illustrated. (Chicago Electric Club) 66, 67, 82, 83 

Municipal Control in Minneapolis, Proposed 

Municipal Control of Electric Plants 267, 

Municipal Control of Lighting 

Municipal Control of Lighting and Power Plants, 
Mayor Cregier and, by Municipal 246, 

Municipal Ownership of Plants 

Muskegon Electric Railway 



283 

45 
77 

66 

64 
316 

1S4 
2og 

3^S 

53 



20S 
261 



15S 
351 

I S3 

144 

238 
181 
194 
2S1 



143 



14 
354 
282 
196 
193 
245 



256 
1S3 

1S3 
211 
38 
181 
176 
310 

79 

27 



354 



84 
2S1 
26S 
200 

247 

341 

244 

National Direct Current Dynamo. Illustrated. .232, 233 
National Electric Ljght Association. 

Marsden J. Perry, President of the National 

Electric Light Association, with Portrait. ... 87 
Electric Limited Train to the Kansas City Con- 
vention . - 87 

Chicago Electric Club Reception to the Electric 

Light Convention Delegates 87 

Members and Guests 88 

Mayor Davenport's Address of Welcome 88, 8g 

President Weeks' Annual Address 8g 

Treasurer's Report 89 

Report of the Copper Committee 89, 90 

Report of the Committee on Conduits and Un- 
derground Conductors 90 

Report of the Committee on the Standardization 

of Potential ..90, 91 

Report of the Committee on Harmonizing Insur- 
ance and Electric Lighting Interests and 

Discussion 91, 92, 93. 94, 95 

Construction of Central Stations, by C. H. J. 

Woodbury, and Discussion. Illustrated . 95 , 96 



The Steam Engine, by Fred E. Sickles ..96, 97, 
Editorial 

Economical Generation of Steam for Electric 
Stations, by Geo. H . Babcock, and Dis- 
cussion . 99, ICO, 

Development of Generating Stations for Incan- 
descent Light and Power, by C. J. Field, and 
Discussion. Illustrated. . loi, 102, 103, 104, 

A System of Station .\ccounts. by T. Carpenter 
Smith, and Discussion 104, 105, 

Cost of Products to Central Stations, by A. J. 
De Camp, and Discussion 106, 107, 

High Voltage in \'irginia 

Nine Years with the Arc Limp, by AL D. Law, 
and Discussion 109, 

Carbon Tests, by E. F. Peck 

How Our Paths may be Made Paths of Peace, by 
H. W. Pope no. 

Safety and Safety Devices in Electric Installa- 
tion, by Prof. Elihu Thomson, and Discus- 
-sion Ill, 112, 

Report of Committee on Data 

Investigation of Electrical Industry for the Census. 

Freight on Carbons 

Election of Officers 113, 

Electricity Applied to Street Railways, by Frank 

J. Sprague, and Discussion 

.114, 115, 116, 117, 

Prodigality in Economy, by C. C. Haskins 

iiS, 119. 

Line Insulation from the Standpoint of Practical 
Experience, by Charles A. Harber 

How to Make Arc Light Circuits Safe, by J. E. 
Lockwood, and Discussion. Illustrated. 120, 

Report of the Committee on State and Municipal 
Legislation and Discussion 121, 

Report of the Executive Committee 122, 

Address by E. H. Johnson on the Phono- 
graph 123, 

Phonograph Exhibition 

Electric Light Competition 

Convention Notes 

Exhibits 124, 125, 

National Electric Light Association, Eastern Delegates 

to the Kansas City Convention of the 

National Electric Light Association, Railroad Ar- 
rangements for the Kansas City Convention of 

the 15, 16, 40, 50, 51, 63, 64, 

National Electric Light Association, the British Asso- 
ciation and the 

National Electric I..ight Association, Twelfth Conven- 
tion of the 

Naval Battle of the Future 

Navy, Electricity in the, by Gilbert Wilkes, U. S. N. 

(American Institute of Electrical Engineers) . . . 
New England Electrical Exchange, Annual Meeting 

of the - 

New Hampshire Electric Light Associations, Rhcde 

Island and 

New London, Electric Club Organized at 

New York, Electric Wires in 

New York, Fire in an Edison Station 

New York Lenox Lyceum, Electrical Effects at the. 

Illustrated 219, 

New York, Mayor Grant and Overhead Wires in ..31, 
New York, Practical Working of the Electrical Sub- 
ways of, by William Maver, Jr. Illustrated. 

(American Institute of Electrical Engineers) ... 

131, 132, 

New York Result of Wire Cutting in 

New York Board of Electrical Control 27, 28, 

New York Electric Club 142, 

New York Electric Lighting Interests Combined 

New York Electrical Society 45.137, 13S, 

New York Grand Jury's Findings 

New York Life Insurance Building in Kansas City, 

Electric Light Plant in the. Illustrated 37, 

New York Question 

New York Situation 

Niagara, Utilizing the Power of 

Niagara Falls, Harnessing 

Niagara Falls, to Utilize the Power of 



108 

108 



no 
no 



113 
113 
113 
113 
114 

nS 
120 
120 
121 



124 
124 
124 
124 
126 



. 76 
197 

351 
275 

295 

233 

27 

317 

59 

13 



17 

65 

143 

50 



38 
19 



156 
207 



Ohm (George Simon), Biography and Portrait, Piac- 

tical Electrical Units 56 

Oil Burner, Fuel. Illustrated (E. E. Billow & Co.). 4, 5 
Omnibus, Electric 275 

Pan-American Conference on Patent Laws and Trade- 
marks 156, 157 

Paris Exposition, Electrical Exhibit from the United 

States at the, by Carl Hering 33 

Paris, First Central Station in. Illustrated. ....... 15 

Passes, To Stop the Issuance of Electric Railway. ... i 

Patent Bill, Canadian iSr 

Patent Laws and Trademarks^ Pan-American Confer- 
ence on 156, 

Patent Legislation, Impending (Communication). 330, 

Patent Office Decision, Important 144, 

Patents, Electrical. (Issued in the United States.) 
12. 24, 36, 48, 62, 74, S6, 140, 154, 166, iSo, 
192, 206, 21S, 230, 242, 254. 266, 278, 292, 326, 

33S. 350 

Patent not Affected by the Lapse of Foreign Patents, 

United States 19+ 

Patton Motor Car. Illustrated 244, 259 

Peckham Cantilever Motor Truck. Illustrated 45 

Perry, Marsden J., President of the National Electric 

Light Association. (With portrait.) S7 

Philadelphia, Plans of Edison Station Boiler Room. 

Illustrated 175 

Phonograph, E. H Johnson's Address on the. (Na- 
tional Electric Light Association.) 1 23, 

Phonograph Speech at the Kansas City Convention, 

Mr. Edison's 

Phonograph Convention 3Mi 



157 
331 
H5 



362 



124 



329 



21^444 



I'honograph Doll. Illu<>trated 3-\S 

rhonograph Motor. Illustrated 231 

Phonograph. The Licscgang 353 

Photography, Aerial. Illustrated 197 

Photometer. Note on a Ne*r, by Edward L. Nichols. 
Illustrated. (American Institute of Electrical 

Engineers.) 30'. 303 

PhotOfDeler. Portable. Illustrated (Jas. \V. Queen 

^VCo.) 271 

Pin and Insulator. Duplex. Illustr.>ted. (The E S. 

<.;reelev A: Co.) 16S 

Pittsburg. East End Electric Light Company of. Il- 
lustrated 25 

Plea by the Unappreciated, A, by I'ractique ... . 261 
Potentials. Report of the Cornmittee on the Standartl- 
izing of. (National Elecfic Light Association.) 

90. 9* 

Postal Telegraph Company, Electric Generators at the 
Chicago Office of the. Illustrated 279. 2S0, 2St 

Practical Electrical I'nits. by F. B. Badt. With Por- 
traits 55. .^f>. 57 

Practical Electrical Units, Modifications of the, by 

Prof. H. S. Carhart 82 

Prodigality in Economy, by C. C. liaskins. (Na- 
tional Electric Light Association.). .. iiS, 119, 120 

Protective Device, The Thomson. Illustrated 195 

Quotations no Longer Furnished 208, 209 

Rae Generator, Illastrated. (Detroit Electrical 

Works.) 243. 244 

R.ie Horn Measuring Instrument. Illustrated 143 

Rae Motors at Decatur 162 

Rae's Switch for Compounded Railway Generators. 

Illustrated 2Sr, 2S2 

Railway, Evolution of the Electric. Abstract of an 

Address by Joseph Wetzter 238, 239 

Railway, In Favor of the Electric 280, 28 1 

Railway. Social Side of the Electric 168, 169 

Railway at the Lenox Lyceum Miniature Electric 

Illustrated 253 

Railway Contract. Two-M'Ilion Dollar 130 

Railway Litigation. Electric 143 

Railway Pole, Street. Illustrated 247 

Railway System. Clarke Elevated II ustrated 270 

Railway System. Short Electric. Illustrated 39, 40 

Railway W^ork, New Electric. Illustrated. (Thom- 
son- Houston Co. ) 317 

Railway Woik. Electric Motors in General, by Dr 
louisBell. (Chicago Electric Club.) .173, 174, 

175. >SS 1S9 

Railways. Apparatus for Locating Grounds on Elec- 
tric. Illustrated. 2S2 

Railways, Economy of Electric. Abstract of a paper 

by Eugene Griffin 213 

Railways, Electricity as Applied to Street, by Nelson 

W. Perry. E. M 150. 151 

Railways, Electricity as Applied to Street, by Frank 
J. Sprague. and Discussion. (National Electric 

Light Association.) 114, 115, ri''>, 117. 118 

Railways and the Census 255, 256 

Regulator for Constant Current Dynamos, Warner. 

Illustrated .268 

Regulator for Constant Current Dynamos. Illus 

trated 352 

Rents. Electric Lights and 243 

Resistance, the influence of the Medium upon, by 

Francis H. Crocker 273 

Resistance of Conductors to Transient Currents. .209. 210 
Resistance Set, Portable Testing. Ill-jstrated. (Queen 

&Co.) 315 

Rheostat with Submerged Coils. Illustrated 269 

Rhode Island and New Hampshire Electric Light As- 
sociations 27 

Rice Automatic Tandem Compound Condensing En- 
gine for Heavy Duty. Illustrated. (John T. 

Noye Manufacturing Co.) 316 

Rink, an Electric. Illustrated 157 

Roads, Elevated Electric . . 34 1 

Rochester. N. V., Brush Electric Light Station at. 

Illustrated 13 

Rochester. N. Y., Another Electric Railway at 322 

Rochester's Electric Railway System 223 



Sifclv and Sifety D..'vices in Electric Installations, by 
Elihu Thorn wn, and Discussion. (National 
Electric Light Association.) 111,112, 

Safety Device, Clarke Automitic. Illustrated 

Saginaw, Mich.. Electric Railway .11. Illuslrated. 

293, 



13 
'V 

294 
222 
3 '3 



Saginaw Electric Road, Victory for 

San Francisco, Burying Telephone Wires in 

San Jose and Santa Clara Railway. Illustrated 

(Thomson-Houston Co.) 317 

Science, Borderland of 29 

Scientific Research. Fields for. Abstract of an ad- 
dress by Prof, Oliver J. Ix)dge 249 

Self-induction, the Industrial Utilization of the Count- 
er PZlcclromotive Force of , by Thomas D. Lock- 
wood. (American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
ne* rs ) 303. 304. 305 

Separator, Edison Magnetic. Illustrated 355 

Shells. Device for locating Flaws in. Illustrated ....3x4 

Short Electric Railway System. Illustrated 39, 40 

Siemens, Dr. W^erncr von. Biography and Portrait. 

Practical Electrical Units.. : 57 

Siemens. Sir William. Biography and Portrait. Prac- 
tical Electrical Units . . 57 

Siemens' Opinion of the Dangers of Electric Light- 
ing. Prof 3S 

Sign.aling Across Rivers in India, by W. F. Mclhuish. 

Illustrated 259 

Signaling Device for Elevators in the Auditorium. 

Illustrated ~ 

Solar Radiations, Electric Phenomena Produced by. 

Illustrated lO 



Soldering, Electric. Illustrated 

Soldering Iron, Carpenter. Illustrated 

Spark .Arresters. Central. Illustrated 

Spert-y Constant Current Motor. Illustrated 

Sperry Dynamo. Ideal Engine and. Illustrated 

Spiritualists, Electric Light and Bogus. Illustratfd. 

Spokane Falls, Electric.il Progress in, by a Traveling 
Correspondent. Illuslrated 2S3, 2S4, 

Sprague Street Car Motor. Magnetic Data of the. by 
H. F. Pjrsh.Tll. Illustrated. (American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers.) 305, 

Spragu; Fifty- Horse Power Motor. Illustrated. - . . 

St Louis, Electric Lighting in 

St. Louis, Electric Motor Power in 

St. Louis. Electric Roads for ■ . . 

St. Louis, Public Lighting in 

St. Louis, Telephone Service in 

St. Louis City Electric Light System 

St. Louis Electrical Exposition 

St. Louis Electric Light Plant 

St. Louis E.\posiiion Elcctr cal Exhibit 257, 

St. Louis. Rapid Transit for 76, 

St. Louis, Underground Wires in 

St. Paul Electric Railways, Minneapolis and 

St. Paul and Minneapolis, Rapid Transit in 274, 

State and Municipal Legislation, Report of the Com- 
mittee on. (National Electric Light Associa- 
tion.) 

Station Accounts, A System of, by T. Carpenter 
Smith, and Discussion (National Electric Light 
Association.) . . 104 T05, 

Stations, Cost of Products to Central, by A. J. De 
Camp, and Discussion. (National Electric Light 
Association.) 106, 107, 

Stations for Incande?cent Light and Powe-, Develop- 
ment of Generating, by C. J. Field, and Discus- 
sion Illustrated. (National Electric Light As- 
sociation) 101, 102, 103. 104, 

.Steam for Electric Stations. Economical Generation 
of, by George II . Babcock, and Discussion 
(National Electric Light As ociation.). . .99, 100. 

Steam and Electricity in Transportation, Limitations 
of, by O. T. Crosley (American Institute of 
Electrical ICnglneers.) 306, 307. 308, 309, 

Steam Pipes and Electrical Subwajs. 

Stephenson (John) and Electric Cars .... 

Stone, Henry B , President of the Chicago Telephone 
Company 

Stone's Election, Henry B 

Storage Battery. Carpenter . 

Storage Battery Cut-Out. Illustrated .... 

Storage Battery in a Dental Tiffice Illustrated. 
(Pumpelly Storage Bittery and Motor Co.) 

Storage Battery Motor Company ... 

Storage Batteries in Car Lighting 

Storage Batteries in the Palmer House. Chicago . . . 

Storage Batteries to the Rescue, by J. K. Pumpelly. 
and Discussion. (Chicago Electric Club.).. 215, 

Street Railways, Electricity as Applied to. by P'rank 
J Sprague, and Discussion. (National Electric 
Light Association.) 114 115,116,117, 

Subway Explosions, Causes of 

Subways of New York Citv, Practical Working of the 
Electrical, by William Maver, Jr. (American 
Institute of Electrical l-lngineers ) Illustrated 
131, 132, 133 151, 152, 162, 163, 

Subways, Steam Pipes and Electrical 

Subway Vaults, Improved Cover for Illustrated . - - 

Sweeper, Electric. Illustrated 

Switch, McLennan Single Contact. Illustrated. 
(Knapp Electrical Works.) 

Switch. Single Contact. Illustrated. (Central Elec- 
tric Co.). 

Switch and Fuse Box, Diamond Combination. (Knapp 
Electrical Works.) Illustrated 

Switch for Accumulators, .\utomatic, by Charles A. 
PtUiger. II ustrated 

Switch for Compounded Railway Generator, Rae's. 
Illustrated .' 281, 

Switch for Constant Potential Molors. Illustrated, ... 

Switch for Ra'.lway Dynamos. One Movement. (De- 
troit Electrical W^orks.) Illustrated 

Switch-b'inrd, Combination. (Western Electric Co.) 
Illustrated 

Switch-board, Short Electric Railway. Illustrated.. . 

Switch-bo:ird, Thomson-Houston Arc Light. Illus- 
trated 

Synchronizing (Vliernate Current Machines, Method 
oL Illustrated 353, 



194 

331 
M5 

183 
193 
330 

285 



306 

130 

34 
215 

269 
16 

255 
133 
271 
258 
U5 
-M3 
181 
285 



106 



310 
3.S3 
145 

232 

261 
335 
194 

27 
1S5 
141 
274 



[18 



164 
353 
331 

15 

234 

222 

340 

270 

2S2 
27 

313 

197 
39 

41 

354 



Tanning. Electric 323 

Telephone (Notes) 12, 23. 61. 73, 154, 165, 217, 265, 

31-:. 325 337. 349. 3'Ji 3^2 

Telephone, Contracts by 244 

Telephone, Warned by 141, 142 

Telephone and Telegraph Wires Buried 289 

Telephone ICxchange .Switch-board, Testing Apparatus 

for. Illustrated . , 269 

Telephone Service in St. Louis 16 

Telephone Signal Bells by Current from a Central 

Station. Operating. Illustrated 156 

Telephone Toll Box, New. Illustrated 222, 223 

Telephone Trouble in Chicago 169 

Telephone Wires in San Francisco, Burying 313 

Telephone-Electric Railway Suit at Cincinnati — D^- 

ci^ion of Judge Taft 135, i j6, 137 

Telephones in (.'hicago. Removal of Police 53 

Telephony, Acoustic Principles Underlying the Art oL 70 
Telegraph (Notes) 12, 36, 48, 62, 73. 85, 139, 154, 

165, 179, 191. 192, 205, 217, 229. 241, 265, 277. 

3'2.3-5.337 3''2 

Telegraph, Arguing for a Postal 200 

Telegraph, Sending Pictures by. Illustrated... 169 246 

'i'elegr.iph and the Lottery 331 

Telegraph Line, Proposed New . 231 

Telegraph Project, Postal 331 



Telegraph Superintendent Compelled to Te.stifv. ... 

Telegraph Superintendents, The Association of Rail- 

^ . ^vay 357, 

Teleg'aph System, Proposed Government 

Telegraph Tournament 143, 144, 

Telegraph Tournameni at St Louis 

Telegraph Woik, Accumulators in 

Telegraphing Tournament, Fast 

Telegraphy, Delany's Receiving Apparatus for Cable. 
Illustrated 

Testing and C.tble Rooms in the Western Electric 
company's Fdciory. Illustrated 141, 

Thomson and Electric Lighting. Sir William, by George 
Wesiinghouse, Jr 149, 

Testing and Resistance Sets, Portable. Illustrated. 
('^)ueen & Co.) 

Theories, A Review of Modern Electrical, by Prof. 
William A. Anthony. Illustrated, (.\merican 
Institute of Electrical Engineers ) 58, 

Thomson's Ampere Guage, Sir William. Illustrated. 28, 

Thomson's (Elihu) Electro-Magnetic Induction Ex- 
periments, by J. A. Fleming. Illustrated 

, ■••; 333. 334. 33.S, 345. 

1 homson's. Sir William, Letter to the Senate Invtsti- 
gating Committee. 202, 

Thomson's Protective Device. Illustrated. . 

Thomson-Houston Arc Light Switch-board. Illus- 
trated 

Thurston, Benjamin F., Death of 

Toll Box, New Telephone. Illustrated 222. 

Torch, An Electric. Illustrated 

Tower of Light. Illustrated (Electrical Ejects at the 
New York Lenox Lyceum) 

Train Dispatchers' Convention. ... 

Train Lighting by Electricity 

Tramway at a Mill, Electric Illustrated. (Thomson- 
I louston Co. ) . . . . - ... 

Tramway at Lawrence, Mass.. Mill. Illustrated. 
(Thomson-Houston Electric Co.) 

Transfer Table, Electric. Illustrated (Sprague Elec- 
tric Railway and Motor Co.). 

Transformers, Report on Alternating Current Arc 
Lamps and Continuous Current. 

Transportation, Limiatio IS of Steam and Electricity 

in, by O. T. Crosby, (.\merican Institute of 

Electrical Engineers) .. 306, 307,308,309. 

Trap, An Electric 

Trolley Guard. Illustrated 233, 

Trolley Wheel. A Departure in. Illustrated 

Tropics. Electric Lighting in the, by Wilfrid H. 
Fleming. (American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers) 

Truck, Peckham Cantilever Motor. Illustrated 



.•558 
164 
162 
32S 
341 
22 J 

235 

142 

150 

315 



34O 

203 
»95 

41 
176 
223 
257 

219 

340 

69 

185 
142 



310 
209 

234 
282 



296 

45 



Underground, High Tension Currents and Electrical 

Distribution, by H. B. Cobb 44, 45 

Underground Construction for Electric Wires, by Nel- 
son W. Perry 201, 202 

Underground W^ires in Ohio 79 

Underwriters, Proposed Inspection of Electric Light 

Plants by 207 

Units. Practical Electrical by, F. B. Badt, with por- 
traits 55,56, 57 

Underground Work at Nostetl Priory. Illustrated. . 37 

Utica Belt Line Railway. Illustrated- Thomson- 
Houston Co.) 342 

Valve Controller. Illustrated 195 

Volta. (Count Alessandro,) Biography and Portrait, 

Practical Electrical L'nits 56 

\'oltmeter, Ayrton & Perry's Twisted Strip. Illus- 
trated 288, 289 

Volts and Horse Power Lost in a Mile of Copper Wire 200 

Walker Electric Meter. Illustrated 209 

Warfare, Electricity in Modern 59 

Warner Regulator for Constant Current Dynamos. 

Illustrated 268 

W'atches, Device for Demagnetizing. Illustrated. ... 2 
Water Power, Utilizing. Illustrated. (Stillwell & 

Bicrce Mfg. Co.) 274 

Watt, James, Biography and Portrait. Practical 

Electrical Units 57 

Weber, Wtlhelm Edward, Biography and Portrait. 

Practical Electrical Units 55 

Welding. A Wi'inkle in Electric. Illustrated 156 

Wielding Machines, Automatic I'^Iectric, by Hermann 
Lemp. Illustrated. (American Institute of 

Electrical F.ngineers.) 319,320, 321 

West End Railway Power Station at Boston. Illus- 
trated 17 

Western Electric Company's Factory, Testing and 

Cable Rooms in the. Illustrated 141, i-(2 

Western I'lectric Company High Tension Dynamo. 

Illuslrated 50 

Western Electric Railway y\ssociation 64 

Western University, Electrical Engineering in the... . 15 
Westinghouse Compound Engine and Alternator. 

Illustrated . 52 

Westinghouse Electric Railway Company 238 

Westinghouse Railway System ... 275 

Western Union Building at St. Louis Destroyed by 

Fire •. 26 

Western Union Telegraph Company. Electric Genera- 
tors at the Chicago Ollice of the. Illustrated. 127, 128 
Wimhurst M.achine. Illustrated.' (Electrical Sup- 
ply Co.) 81 

Windsor Theater, Chicago, Electric Lights in the ... 38 

Wire Peeler. Illustrated. (Central Electric Co ) 268 

Wire Calculator. Illusti'ated. (The E. S. tireeley 

.■^Co.) 342 

Wiring Regulations in Boston. Proposed 31 

Wiring Table, Standard ". 19 

W^isconsin Electric Club Hanquct 287, 288 

World's Fair, The , - . 157 

Worid's Fair Rapid Transit Projects 351, 352 




$3 per Annum. 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



I O cents per Copy. 



r 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 4, 1890. 



No. I. 



^s 



W^g\J, 



SPEAm& TUBES aid WHISTLES, 

Oral. Electric, Pneumatic, and Mechanical 

ANNUNCIATORS AND BELLS 
W. R. OSTRANDER & CO., 



2 1 , 23 and 25 Ann St. New York. 

Factory, 1461 and 1463 DeKalb Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
■ Send for Naw Catalogue, out August 1st. 




AHEAD OF ALL OTHERS! 

THE IXTARING 

ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRES AND GABLES. 

Standard Underground Cable Co.. Mf'rs. 

General Offices, 708 PENN AVE., - • PITTSBURGH, PA. 
BRANCH OFFICES : ] ^f ^'"fkll%^'^'^%^^^^^t^'^1^:^ 




DAY'S KERin INSULATION. 

Tlie acknowledged Standard for durable and higrh 
Insulation. Its merits proved by a record of over 
quarter of a century. Adapted to all electrical purposes. 



Oectrlc Light and Power. 

Telegraph and Telephone, All Sizes 

"':rc"h«rsraling. ^^''''f''-^^'''^''-" 



Aerial Use, 

Subterranean Use, 
Submarine Use 

Concealed Wiring in all Locationt. 



E. B. McGLEES, General Manager, i6DeySt,NEW york. 

Western Electric Co., Chicago, 111., Sole Agents for the West. 

-TOTS 

umm CO, 

PUSH-BUTTON 




TORRINGTON, CONN., 



95 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK. 




MANUFACTUREES OF AND DEALERS IN 



t ElBCtric Co. 

SD DEALERS IN 

EVERYTHING ELECTRICAL. 

SdND FOB S5G FACE GATAIiOCiUE, 

1 11 Arch Street, BOSTON, MASS. 





NEW YORK BELT! NG&PAGKINC CO 



JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treas., 15 PARK ROW, NEW YORK. 

Oldest and Largest Manufacturers in the United States of 

VULCANIZED RUBBER FABRICS 

for nrechanlcal Purposes. 

MACHINE BBIiTINe 

With Smooth Metallic Eabher anrface for use 

on Dynamos and swift running machines. 
VULCANITE EMERYWHEELS. RUBBER MATS 
MATTING AND STAIR TREADS. 
rBANCHES: Boston, Phiiadelphia.Cleueland. Detroit, Chicago, C ncinnati, St Louis, Minneapolis. Denver. 

THE ASHTON VALVE CO. 

^ The Ashton Noiseless Blow Back 

Til© .^\.s33.t02X Xjo olac Sg,fe«y "XT'a.lTT-©, 

I'll© .A.rsZx'tozL V\/'a.tex- XleUef '^T'm.Itt^ 

THE ASHTOU YALVES n^eajridereputaUon as tel-slheMOBt perfect « 

TH"RTT5 S A "F"RT Y V A T.VRS <"'^ perfect eemrity a?alnBt boiler explosion, 
■■■ ■"■■1^-'-'-^ OJ».XXiJ.J. tAUTX/O whether Steamboat, Locomotive or StatioEarx. 

THEIR WATER RELIEF VALYES l^'sI^SFeMlSL^^&Si 

now in the market. 
Simple in consttuction, Automatic In action, Perlectly Controlling the Pressare of the hose at whit- 
ever speed the eng'ne or pump is working. 

AsMonYalyeCo. 271FratliiiSt. Boston. I ^""^^^y^^-ri'li^^^'i'^l'S^^^o^ 
ANSONIA BRASS & COPPER COMPANY, 

Sole Manufacturers of COWLES' PATENTED 

Fire -Proof and Weather - Proof 

ELECTRIC LIGHT LINE WIRE. 

C B S A. 



CUT SHOWING STVLB OF INSULATION. 

X— Copper Wire. B. B.— Two Braids, saturated with Fire-Proof Insulation. C*-Bnia«a Cotti% 

ttJutated with a Black, Weather-Proof Composition. , — «^_ 

Approved by New York Board of Fire Underwriters. Samples fumiBned npon OpphcatlOll. Poi» mm^ 
trie Copper Wire, bare and covered, of every description. 

WAPrnnnue. S 19 and 21 Cliff St.. New York. FACTORIES: 

WARtKUUM&. -j^gg ^^^ ^gg WabasH Ave., Chicago, III. ANSONIA, CONN. 



THE EDISON MACHINE WORKS, 

MANVFACIUREBS OF 

Weatherproof Wire. Insulated Iron Wire. Magnet Wire. Rubber Covered House Wire. 
Annunciator Wire. German Silver Wire. Office Wire. Flexible Brush Holder Cable. 
Gas Fixture Wire. Arc Lamp Cords. Tinsel Cords. Flexible Cords. 

Telephone, Telegraph and Electric Light Cables. 
PARAGON TAPE. 

JAMES F. KELLY, General Sales Airent, - 19 Dey Street, NEW YORK. 

WOMK8: SCMENECTADT, N. T. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1S9 



THE THOMSONiOUSTON ELECTRIC CO.,^ 

Axe and Incandescent " ^^s^Micbigan Am^cuIcTGo, ill. £lectric Railiirav * 



£lectric 
Iiighting Apparatus. 



bigan . 
115 Broadway, New York, N. Y, 
315 W. 4th St., Ci.NciNNATi, Ohio; 

IIG Gravier St., New Oklean.s, La. 

503 Delaware St., Kan.sas City, Mo. 
319 N. 3d St., St. Louis, Mo. 
234 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Electric Railway- 
Equipment. 
Electric Motors. 




All' l>v 11:11110. 



No better proof of the superiority of our arc apparatus 
can be offered than the fact that of the 21,000 arc lamps 
operated by Gas Companies in this country, over 11,000, or 
52 per cent., are Thomson-Houston. The dynamo is entirely 
automatic in its regulation, perfect in mechanical construc- 
tion, and economical in operation. The lamps burn steadily 
and uniformly, and hold their adjustment better than any 
other lamps on the market. 




Our direct current incandescent dynamo is rapidly gain- 
ing favor with practical electric lighting men, as its many 
features of excellence are recognized. Like the arc dynamo 
its regulation is automatic, permitting any number of lamps 
to b " iihrown on or off without in the least affecting the 
others in service. Our incandescent lamps have an un- 
equaled record for long life. 



Direct I'lirrt'iil incaiKlescent Dynamo. 




The problem of long distance incandescent lighting is 
practically solved by the alternating current dynamo, and to 
meet the demand for a machine of this character we have 
constructed what is unquestionably the most perfect alterna- 
tor offered the public to-day, embracing as it does, all the 
features that combine to make a perfect dynamo — automatic 
regulation, perfect mechanical construction, highest effici- 
ency, and economy of operation. 



Altematine Carrcnt Dj'nanio. 




The employment of electric motors for driving small ma- 
chinery is becoming so common, and its advantages so well 
known, that it is unnecessary to elaborate in this direction. 
In the construction of our motors we feel that we have reached 
a point where their superiority cannot but be admitted. 



LIGHTNING ARBE8TEB. —All of our installations are 
protected from destruction and injury by our lightning arrester, which 
we will fully guarantee to operate successfully in every instance. The 
Company guarantees to repair or replace apparatus injured by light- 
ning where these arresters fail to operate. 



January 4, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



CHAS. D. JENNEY & CO., 




One H. P. Constant Potential Slotor. 

AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC MOTORS 



-ox* i*-^si- 



HIGHEST EFFICIENCY 

For both Arc and Incandescent Oircnits, from 1-2 to 100 
H. P. All of our Motors have Self-Oiling Boxes. 



ox*x*xcje: : 



224 S. ILLINOIS ST, - INDIANAPOLIS, IND, 



!T?HE3= 



ELECTRO-DYNAMIC CO. 

224 Carter St., Philadelphia. 

Dynamos, Motors, Batteries, 



THE MITCHELL VANCE CO., 

(Snccsssors to nlTCHEI,!,, VANCE & CO.) 
DESIGNERS AND MAKERS OF 

ARTISTIC ELECTROLIERS AND COMBINATION FIXTDRES. 



Having no Special Agent 
in Chicago for our 

Goods, we Solicit Cor- 
respondence from 
Buyers, which 

we Promptly Answer. 

Combination Fiitnres, 

Electroliers, Brackets. 
Pendants, Reflectors, 




Architects' and Decora- 
tors' Designs and 
Suggestions Carried Out 

with Fidelity 
to the given Motive. 

Insnlating Joints, 

and All Fittings for 
Incandescent Lighting, 



MANUFACTORY, SALESROOM, 

24 and 25th St. and 1 0th Ave., 836-38 Broadway and 13th St., 

NEW YORK CITY. 




Voltmeters and Ammeters, Switches, 



Liaia- 



Complete Electric Linht 

and Power Plants. 
STREET CARS EQUIPPED 

FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION. 



The Oldest and Most Experienced Electric Mo- 
tor Company in the World. 



Chicago Office, 502 Phenix Building. 

Detroit- Office, 30 Atwater St., East. 

San Francisco, 220 Sutter St. 





QOMPANY 



> 



DYNAMOS. 



C. SCHUMACHER, Pres't. 

Office: 42 Exchange Place. 



NEW YORK. 

VICTOR SCHAUER, Treas. 



MOTORS. 



p. CLAUS, Supt. 



Factory: 162 and 164 1. 27tli St. 




Our Dynamo is cast in one piece, and combineB inde- 
structible solidity with the greatest simplicity of design and 
compactness; the highest efficiency with a total absence of 
the many objectionable features of the machines heretofore 
in use. No outside magnetism. Current generated without 
sparking, therefore steady light, and small wear of brushef 
and commutator. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1896 



THE IVATIOIVAIL, C^I^OOIV CO 



CleT7-ela,r3.d., OIilIo. 

-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS and BATTERY MATERIAL. 



JARVIS 



ENBINEERING CO. 

61 OLIVER STREET, 



tosTOir. 



CONTRACTING ENGINEERS FOR ERECTING 
COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS FOR 

ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER STATIONS. 

NATIONAL FEED WATER HEATER. 

JARVIS BOILER SETTING, to Burn Anlhracile Coal and Coka 

Screenings. 
NATIONAL ROCKING AND SHEFFIELD GRATE BARS 

SEND FOR NEW CATALOGUE. 



ECONOMICAL ARC LAMPS 

FOR INCANDESCENT CIRCUITS 

These lamps, burning in series, require about 50 volts and 8 amperes of current. 

Electrical contractors can make money by acting as our agents. When writing please state voltage and system used. For 
pikes and loformalion regarding our new and improved IHultipie Arc, Multiple Series and Search Lamps, address 

THE ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION & SUPPLY CO.. ■ 18 Cortlandt Street, New York City. 





v,^' 



KIIIiMnAX LAMP. 



Dynamo Belts Carried in Stock. 




WM. S. TDBNBB. J LESTEn WOODBRIDGB. 

ITirOODBRIDGi: ^ TURNER, 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 


|l|iniMFO CORI-ISSOI* Hlt^H SPEED WITH BOILERS, Etc. 

rNulNtO For Driving Dynamos. 




steam Plants (or Electric Light and Power. Arc and Incandescent Lights Installed. 
Designs and KHtlniates iSnbnilttetl. 


I| Complete Steam Plants Furnished and Erected. 

LNGL SH. MORSE & CO,'"':zrr:o. 


lEONARD PAOBT. CUAKLES J. KINTNER. 

PAGET & KINTNERy 

Chemical and Electrical Experts and Electrical Engineers. 

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENTS. 


SEND FOR SPECIAL CIRCULARS. 





THE KN APP ELECTRICAL WORKS 




GENERAL WESTERN AGENTS 



PERKINS INCANDESCENT LAMP CO., 



NEW YORK INSULATED WIRE CO,, 

MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

Grimshaw White Core, 

CABLES, 

AND TAPES. 



We Carry a Full Line of these 

Groods at Factory Prices 
Write for Quotations. 

EVERYTHING ELECTRICAL. 



54 and 56 Franklin Street, 





Best Incandescent Lamps 

IN THE MARKET. 

Highest JEfflciency, Long Life, and 
absolutely no Discoloration. 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 



January 4, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



THE REYNOLDS 

Improve d Corliss Engine 

Is especially adapted for electric plants 

of all kinds, and has made a record in 

this field which cannot be excelled. 

IT IS USBQTTAIiED FOB EOONOMT OF FDEL. BESXTLABITT OF 
MOTION, AHD DUBABrLITY IN V3S. 




SOUB BUILDERS 



EDW. P. ALUS & CO., 



RELIANCE WORKS. 



MIL! ADKEE, WIS, 



W^rlte for our Catalosraes. 



ManDfactnrerB of and Dealers in 

Pulleys, Gears, Shafting, Hangers, Leather, Rubber 

and Cotton Belting, Lubricants, and Mill and 

Engine Supplies of Every Description. 

CHICAGO BRANCH, 41 ail 43 SOUTH JEFFERSON ST, 



BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO. 

INGANDESGENT LAMPS 

FOR 

ARC-LIGHT CIRCDITS. 

SIMPLE. RBIilABLB. DURABLE. 



Tlie only safe socket for series lamps, and the only 
socket having Insulating material for the outside 
parts. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

620 ATLANTIC AVBNTJB, 

CHICAGO OFFICE. 80 Adams SIreet, GEORGE OUnER, Agent, 




EXCELSIOR ELECTRIC CO. 

MOTORS 

FOR 

Arc § Incandescent Clrcnlts 

WOCJfB FOB ASY CUBKEST. 

PERFECT AUTOMATIC REGIILATIOH. 




^E Highly Efficient and Economical. 



CONSTANT SPEED UNDER ALL LOADS. 

F. W. HORNE, Manager 

WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES. 

1 1 EAST ADAMS STREET, - - CHICAGO. 




COMPOUND. 



CONDENSING OR 
NON-CONDENSING. 

16 Sizes, 5 to 600 S. P. Hot yet equaled iy any form of Engine fop 
HIGH FUEL DUTY AND SIMPLICITY. 



SELLING DEPARTMENTIN THE UNITED STATES. 



STANDARD. ^Illflgi," 1!"^.'" 

3,000 in use in all parts of the Civilized World. 



JUNIOR. 6 Sizes in stock, 5 to 50 H. p. 

AH AUIOMTIC EH8IHE OBEATES THAH A SLIDE VALVE, 
well Built. Economical, Reliable, Over 300 sold the first year. 



NEW YORK, 

BOSTON, 

PITTSBURGH, 

CHICAGO, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

ST. LOUIS. 

KANSAS CITY, 

DENVER, 

OMAHA, 

PINE BLUFFS, Ark. 



Church, Kerr 
<SCo. 



Hathaway Bxiilding-, , 
Westinghouse Building, f 
156, ISSXake Street, J 
608 Chestnut St., M. R. MucklS, Jr. & Co. 
3(K, 304 Washington Ave. !„„.,, ,„ 
.313 Union AvenSe. i- Fajf^futo 

1830 Seventeenth Street, ) '^ '~°- 
1619 Capitol Avenue, F, C. Ayer, 

Geo. M. Dilley & Sons. 



AU^e ahove bnilt stnctly to Gauge ^th Interchangeable Parts. 
Repairs Gamed m Stocb. Send for Illustrated Oatalognes. 



SALT LAKE CITY, 259 S. Main St. I Utah & Montana 
BUTTE, MONT. E.Granite St, ) Machmery Co, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 21 and 23 Fremont St„ Parke & Lacy Co. 
PORTLAND, OR. 33, :55N. Front St., Parke & Lacy Mch. Co, 

CHARLOTTE, N. 0. 36 CoUege St., (.,,,,„„ . „ !,■„„«„ 

ATLANTA, G A. 46 S. Prfor St. rThe D. A. Tompkins Co. 
DALLAS, TEX. Keating Imp. & Mch. Co, 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN. C. E.James & Co. 



W. D. SARGENr, Pres. 



JOHN A. BARRETT, Vice-Prep, and Cons Elec. E. H. CUTLER, Treas. and Mgr. FRANK A. FERRET, Elec. 



THE ELEKTRON MANUFACTURING CO., 

78-8X 'V^ciiBlilzi.stozi, St., :Bz*oo3s.l3rzi, 20". "S"., 

MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PERRET ELECTRIC MOTORS AND DYAMOS. 



ATJTOMATICALLY KEGULATBD, TJNEXCELLED IN SIMPLICITY 

AND DURABILITY. 



The Only Machines Having Laminated Field Magnets of Softest Charcoal Iron 

By Means of Which Higher Efficiency, Closer Regulation and Slower Speed 

RE OBTAINED THAN IS POSSIBLE OTHERWISE. l:^CAREFUL INVESTIGATION INVITED. 





TUBING AL 



Pure Sheet Tfubber' Etc. ^T 



SaiTiple-s and prices upon application. 
f^iir^^^ Jȣ B.r.C00Df?/CM Co. 



AKffON RUBBER WORKS 

AKftON. OHIO. 







(Specialties OF all kinds to order 

S:> - Se/\id for C^TAi-oeuE. ■^ — - 



VI 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 



THE BEGINNING OF THE END. 




WESTINGHOUSE COMPANY DEFEATED. 



Sawyer-Man Patent Decided by the Court to be a Fraud and Absolutely Valueless. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE DECISIOIT OF JUSTICE BRADLEY, OCTOBER 5, 1889- 



Circuit Court of the United States, \ 

For the Western District of Pennsylvania. \ 



THE CONSOLIDATED ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY ("'S:;"), 
McKGESPOKT LIGHT COMPANY ("tVy) 



No. B May Term, 

ON BILL AND FINAL HEARING. 



OI=13iTXO^T O^ the: OOTJieT. 



BRADLMY, Circuit Justice: 

"The great question in this suit is, whether the patent 

sued on is valid, so far as involves a general claim for the use in electric 
lamps of incandescing carbon conductors, made of fibrous or textile sub- 
stances. If it is, the complainant must prevail. If it is not, the bill 'must 
be dismissed.' " 

"Is the patent valid for such a broad claim ? The de- 
fendants contend that it is not. First, because no such invention wss set 
forth in the original application, but was introduced more than four years 
after it was filed, and after the same material had been used by Edison 
and claimed by him in application for a patent. Secondly, because Edison, 
and not Sawyer-Man, was really the original and first inventor of an in- 
candescent condustor made of fibrous or textile material for an electric 
lamp." 

"It is very clear to us that in the original application for 

the patent sued on, the applicants had no such obj°ct in view as that of 
claiming all carbon made from fibrous and textile substances as a conductor 
for an incandescing electric lamp. Nothing on which to base any such claim 
is disclosed in the original application; we have carefully compared it with 
the amended appl'cation on which the patent was issued, and are fully 
satisfied that after Edison's inventions on this subject had been published 
to the world there was an entire change of base on the part of Sawyer & 
Man, and that the application was amended to give it an entirely different 
direction and purpose from what it had in its original form." 

"By an adro't amendment made in 1885, they say, 'Our 

improvement relates more especially to the incandescing conductor, its 
substance, its form, and its combination with the other elements com- 
posing the lamp.' The purpose of this amendment is obvious and needs 
no comment." 

"The fact is that Sawyer & Man were unconscious that 

the arc was not new, and supposed that they could get a patent for it; but 
as their eyes were opened, they changed about and amended their appli- 
cation, and made the material of the conductor the greit object — carbon 
made from fibrous and textile material. Compare the original with the 
amended application, as first stated in this opinion, and this purpose most 
obviously appears." 

"The fact that the whole object of the application was 

changed, is evinced by the correspondence of the parties." 

"This testimony of Mr. Broadnax, which is undoubtedly 

to be relied on, in connection with the letter just quoted, shows that the 
idea of claiming carbons made from fibrous and textile materials was an 
after-thought, and was no part of the purpose of the original application. 



The amendments relating to this new and broad claim were made after- 
wards, in February and March, 1885. 

"We are of the opinion that the changes made in the application in 
this regard were not justifiable, and that the claim in question cannot be 
sustained." 

"We are not at all satisfied that Sawyer & Man ever 

made and reduced to practical operation any such invention as is set forth 
and claimed in the patent in suit. Their principal experiments were made 
in 1878, and perhaps the beginning of 1879. The evidence as to what they 
accomplished in the construction of electric lamps is so contradictory and 
suspicious that we can with difficulty give credence to the conclusions 
sought to be drawn from it. We are not Satisfied that they ever 
produced an electric lamp with a burner of carbon made 
from fibrous material or any other material which was a 
success." 

' The application for the patent in suit was iiot 

made until January, 1880, nearly or quite a year after all 
their experiments had ceased, and after the inventions of 
Edison had been published to the world." 

"The explanations made by the complainants 

for the delay in applying for the patent in suit, fail to satisfy 
our minds that Sawyer & Man, or their assignees for them, 
have not sought to obtain a patent to which they were not 
legitimately entitled. 

"But -suppose it to be true, as the supposed inventors and some of the 
other witnesses testify, that they did in 1878, construct some lamps with 
burners of carbon made of fibrous material and of an arched shape, which 
continued to give light for days or weeks, or months; still, were they a 
successful invention? Would any one purchase or touch them now? Did 
they not lack an essential ingredient which was necessary to their adoption 
and use? Did they go any further in principle, if they did in degree, than 
did other lamps which had been constructed before? It seems to us that 
they were following a wrong principle — the principle of small resistance 
in an incandescing conductor, and a strong current of electricity; and that 

the great discovery in the art was that of adopting high re- 
sistance in the conductor with a small illumicating surface 
and a corresponding diminution in the strength of the cur- 
rent. This was accomplished by Edison in his filamental 
thread like conductors, rendered practicable by the perfection 
of the vacuum in the globe of the lamp. He abandoned the old 
method of making the globe in separate pieces, cemented together, and 
adopted a globe of one entire piece of glass, into which he introduced 
small platinum conductors, fastened by fusion of the glass around them, 
thus being able to procure and maintain perhaps the most perfect vacuum 
known in the arts. In such a vacuum the slender filaments of carbon at- 
tenuated to the last degree of fineness, may be maintained in a state of 
incandescence without deterioration, for an indefinite time, and wit ha small 

expenditure of electric force. This was really the grand discov- 
ery in the art of electric lighting, without which it could 
not have become a practical art for the purposes of general 
use in houses and cities." 

"The principal and great thing described is the 

attenuated filament, and its inclosure in a perfect vacuum." 

"We think we are not mistaken in saying that 

but for this discovery electric lighting would never have 
become a fact. We have supposed it to be the discovery of 
Edison, because he has a patent for it. This may not be the 
case; it may be the discovery of some other person. But 
whoever discovered it, it is undoubtedly the great discovery 
in the art of practical lighting by electricity." 

"The bill must be dismissed." 



PRICE OF LAMPS MUCH REDUCED. SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST OF LAMPS. 

UNITED EDI$ON MFG. CO. 



} 



65 FIFTH AVENUE. 



T^-Ersj\r 



January 4. 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



CEHTB AL ELECT RIC CO. 

ELECrm LMT SUPPLIES. 

OkoQite Wire, Okonite Tape, Deep Groove Glass Insulators, Silk Incandescent Cord,Candee 
Weatherproof Wire, Manson Tape, Deep Groove D. P. G-lass Insulators, Cotton Incandescent 
Cord, Underwriters Wire, Qrimshaw Tape, Porcelain Insulators, Okonite Cord in Paragon 
Tape, Rubber Hook Insulators, Silk and Cotton White Rubber Tape, Eerite Tape, Soft Rubber 
Tubing, Hard Rubber Tubing, Okonite Tubing, Chatterton's Compound, Soldering Salts, Wire 
Solder and Bar Solder. Stoddard Rosette Cutout. Wood. Cleveland Arc Light Switch. K. 
W. Rosette Cut-out, Wood. Cleveland Incandescent Switch. E, W. Rosette Cut-out, Porcelain. 
Paiste Incandescent Switch. Paiste Rosette Cut-out, Wood. Paste Rosette Cutout, Porcelain. 



Poles, Pins and Brackets, Cross-Arms, Long Handled Spoons, Long Handled Shovels, Digging and Tamping 
Bars, Draw Knives, Comealongs, Wire Stretchers, Pulleys, Blocks and Tackle, Pliers, Vises and Straps, Arc Light 
Windlasses for Raising and Lowering Arc Lamps. 

We are direct importers of Stub's Celebrated Side-cutting Pliers, Arc Light Globes, Sawyer-Man and Edison Incan- 
descent Lamps, Key and Keyless Sockets for all systems. Etc., Etc. 







#^01^ 




Annunciators, Needle- and Gravity Drop, Iron and Wood Box Bells, Wood and Bronze Push Buttons, Annunciator, Office 

and Magnet Wire, Le Clanche Microphone, Diamond and Law Batteries, 

Electric Railway Supplies, 

- Hard Drawn and Soft Bare Copper Wire, Motor Brushes, Silicon Bronze for Trolley. 

TELEGRAPH SUPPLIES, 

Keys, Relays, Sounders, Box Relays, Learner's Instruments, Iron and Steel Line Wire, Calland Batteries. 

We have a complete stock, and make shipments prompt at reasonable prices, and are always looking for orders. 



CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., 

42 La Salle St., CHICAGO. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4. iSgo 



EICKEMEYER DYNAMOS 



-AND- 



ELECT RIC MO TORS. 

(United States Patents, Feb. 22, 1887; Feb. 14, 1888.) 




nachlne Complete. 

Combine the simplest Construction and Highest Efficiency 
yet obtained in Dynamo-Electrical Apparatus. 



PERFECT ELECTRICAL Balance In ARMATURE COILS. 
NO RADIATION OF FIELD MAGNETISM. 



There being no magnetism apparent at any exposed surface of the machine, all the 
lines of force are concentrated within the machine, and pass through the armature. 

NO SPARKING AT THE COMMUTATOR. 




Mftchloe with one Bldfl and half tbe field coUb removed, showing tha Inelde Errangement of armatoie 

and colla. 



These machines, in all sizes, and of any required capacity, are for general sale on 

their merits to the Trade, to Contractine; Engineers, to Elec- 
tric Lleht, Power, and Storas;e Battery Companies, and to 

the public, without restrictions or royalties as to territory or patents. 

Low Prices. Compact Machines. 



SEND FOR DESCRIPTIVE PAMPHLET. 

J. H. BUNNELL 1^ CO., 

SOLE .A-C3-B]SrTS, 

106108 LIBERTY STREET, N. T. 



WESTERN ELECTRIC CO.. 



DISP LeCUNCHE BAHERT. 




We are continually 
increasing the efficien- 
cy of our 

DISQUE LeCLANCHE 

BATTERY, 



And Guarantee It 



est 



IN THE MARKET. 



AMES, OEERAR &. CO., 

N. W. AQBNT8, 

'' ST. PAUL, - MINN. 
Write for Revised Prices. 




STEAm 

PRESSURE 

REGULATOR 



THE CURTIS 

Has been in general use now about seven years, and has from the 
first taken the lead of all others, and stands unrivalled to-day for 
its reliability and durability. It is used wherever the pressure of 
Steam or any other fluid NEEDS TO BE REDUCED AND CON- 
TROLLED on Steam Heating and Drying, Electric Light Plants, 
Marine Engines, Railroad Car Heating Steam, Pumps, Natural Gas. 
Air and Water, in the United States, and in the leading countries of 
Europe, and is sold and endorsed by the trade universally. 

The Curtis Regulator Co., Beverly Street, Boston, Mas». 

NEW YORK, lOQL.ber.ys?^*^^"*'- *^g,?fG'!^V,8 Lakes,. 

PHILADELPHIA. 2035 N. Frort St. ST. LOUIS, 707 Market st. 

MINNEAPOLIS, 210 S. Third It. NEW ORLEANS. 21 Unloi^ it. 



Western Agent. 

I. W. COLBURN d CO. 

Dynamos, Motors, Etc 



Western Actent, 

A. F. MOORES 

Wire and Cables 



G. A. HARMOUNL 

315-321 Wabash Ave.. CHICAGO. ILL 

AGENT FOR ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT 

NEW HAVEN CLOCK CO 



t<ie:^^ 



:, crCDI^r^., 



-M.\NIIKAfTrKKU.-i OK- 



Telegraph Instruments, Gas Ligliting Apparatus, 

DISTRICT TELEGRAPH BOXES, 

REGISTERS AND GENERAL SUPPLIES, 

ell9, Batteries, Buzzers, Buttons, Breakwheels, Burners, 
Brackets, Buri^Iar Alarms. 



Write 



lectroliers, Eccentric Clamps, Electricians' 
Tools, Extension Bells, Elevator Cables, 



pring Jacks, Signal Boxes, 
Cord, Single Relays, Spark 
Silk Coils. Switches, Splicing Tools. 

I f^^t^l/iniMO I "^elegraph 

Supplies, 

Thermostats, Ticket Cases, Telephone Tools, Tin Foil. 



Catalogue. 



January 4, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANTS 




-IN- 




.Public Buildings, Hotels 



.TISES, ETC., ETC. 



THE UNITED STATES 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING COMPANY 



(WESTIN&HOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY. Lessees.) 



More than One Thousand Plants in 

Operation. 



Equitable Building, New York City. 

Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"The Rookery," Chicago, 111. 

American Central Building, St. Louis, Mo 
Mitchell Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

328 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Eamm Building, Portland, Oregon. 

Dallas, Texas. 

Gbarlotte, N. C. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. January 4, 1S90 




of ttie 


S^a<son 


to 


of 



So^^w^X^^^M^an 




January 4, 1S90 ^^^^^H WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



WESTINGIUSE ELECTRIC CO.'S 




FOR- 



ARC LIGHTING 

Improved Waterhoase flpparatas. 



H 



AUTOMATIC 
REGULATION 




-FROM- 

OHE LAMP 

TO 

FIFTY LAMPS. 



Estimates Furnislied on Application. 

THE WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CO., 

PITTSBURGH, PENN., U. S. A. 

BOSTON, NEW YORK, CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS, CINCINNATI. SAN FRANCISCO, 

PORTLAND, CHARLOTTE, DALLAS. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1S90 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM. 

The Pioneer of Successful Eleclrlc Railways. 

The only Award given for Electric Railways at the Paris Exposition of 1889 was a 
GOLD MEDAL presented to the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Company, for the 
most perfect system of Electric Railway Equipment. 



What are the Essential Features in any Comprehensive 
Electric Railway System? 

Main Feeders from Power Station. 

Main Conductor Feeding in Trolley Wire. 

Uniform Size of Trolley Wire, Independent of Length of 
Line, or Number of Cars Operated. 

AND WHY? 

BECAUSE, Thereby only can be secured UniforiQ Electrical Pres- 
sure. 

Absolute Reliability of Service. 

Non interference with one section by interruptions upon any 
other. 



The Sprague Company will guarantee to operate a ten mile 
Thirty Car, Double Track System with 

Less Engine Power; 

Less Dynamo Capacity; 

Less Weight of Conductors; 

Less Loss in Distribution; 

Less Loss in Motors; 

OR IN WORDS THAT ARE UNDERSTOOD BY ALL, WITH 

More Car Miles per Ton of Coal Consumed; 

More Miles of Line with a Given Loss; 

More Territory Covered by a Given Outlay; 

More Reserve Capacity in a Given Plant; 

THAN CAN BE DONE WITH ANY OTHER SYSTEM. 



FEATURES OF A CORRECT MECHANICAL DESIGN OWNED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE SPRAGUE CO. 



Centering the Motor on the Driven Axle; 

Flexible Yielding Support for Relief of Strains; 
Universal Movement of the Trolley Pole; 

Single Lever Movement for Motor Control; 



NO COMPETITOR OF THE SPRAGUE 
COMPANY CAN MAKE A SIMILAR 
GUARANTEE, AND ACCOMPLISH 
IT TO THE LETTER. 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY & MOTOR COMPANY, 

Nos. 16 and 18 Broad St., New York - - Rialto Building, Chicago. 

The Interior E lectrica l Conduit Co. 

A New and Improved Method of Ecinippini; Bnildlngs nich an Insulated Tabe Conduit for any tiybteni of Electric Wiring. 
OODVEIBin^O'XXU^G;^: 

SApEXY— A^9oI"*6 immunity from electric flres. 
/^Cf^ESSIBlLITV— Perfect access to concealed wires. 
ECONOMY— ^loiili <^oi<t ot installation, and freedom from fiitare expeDse. 
DURABILITY — Abtiolntely moieture-proof tube and appliances, insarinp longevity of wires. 

COft VEN IENCE~ i^ysteniB of electric wiring may be laid out on originiil plans !n a manner similar to that employed for gas, water and steam piping; the conductors may be drawn in iit [fleaBiire. 

FOK CIRCULARS. PRIC£ LIST A7f D IS STRCCTIOHfS, ADDRBS8, 



THE INTERIOR ELECTRICAL CONDUIT CO, 



m AND 156 WEST 27TH ST., NEW YORK CITY. 



FRANCIS W. PARKER, 

SOLICITOR of ELECTRICAL PATENTS 

THE OITLT COMPLETE BET OF TJ, S. 
ELECTalCAI. PATENTS IN CHIOAQO. 

1001-3-5-7 Opera House Block. CHICAGO. 



FRANK T. BROWN, Ute 

PRIKCIPAL EXAMINER ELECTRICITY, 
0. S. PATEHr OFFICE, "-- 

Bntterwortli, Hall, Browu & Smitli, 

I'atent Attornej'H, 

25-26 KONORE BUILDING, • • CHICAGO. 

Two complete sets of U. S. Electrical Patents. 



WANTED 

Experienced armature winders and incandes- 
cent wire men. Experienced machinists and 
tool makers. 

Royal Electric Co., 

PEORIA, ILL. 



MICA 



ALL SIZES 
AND 
QUALITIES 



For Electrical Purposes. 

EUGENE MUNSELL & CO., 

218 'Water Street, New York. 



ELECTRICAL WORDS, TERMS \ PHRASES. 



JBsr JEiXSATfrXlNT J°. I^OXTiS'X'OZa', .A.. 3VX. 



656 Pages. 397 lUustrations. Cloth Binding. Price, postage prepaid, to any part of the world, $2.BO. 



Tills Dlctionaiy Includes close upon 2,500 distinct Words, Terms or Phrases. Each 
of the gie»t cUsses or divisions of electrical investigation or utilization comes under 
careful and exhiustive troitment. For some reasons It deserves rather to be 
called an Encyclopaedia than a dictionary. 

The Scheme ol Treatment Is as follows: 

Ist, The words, terms and phrases are invariably followed by a short, concise 
definition, giving the sense in which they are correctly employed, 

2d. A general statement then follows of the Principles ol Electrical Science on 
which the definition Is founded. 



3d. When, from the complexity of the apparatus, or from other considerations, 
It has been thought desirable to do so, an Illustration or Diagram of the apparatus U 
given. 

4th. To fdcllitat? study, an elaborate system of Cross References has been adopted 
so that i', is as easy to find the definitions as the word<i, and aliases are readily detected 
and traced. 

In applying these rules great care has been exercised to secure CLEARNESS, to the 
end that while the dcfloi'.ions and explanations shall be SATISFACTORY TO THE 
EXPERT ELECTRICIAN, they shall a'sj be SIMPLE AND INTELLIGIBLE to 
tliose who have had no training at all in electricity, or are novices In the art. 



ZSXiZSCTRICIAN PUBImISHING CO. 



:xlisxz>£] iBXTiXjiDxsa'ca-, 



OSCIO..^OO. XXjXjXSO-OXS. 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 4, 1890. 



No. I. 



Prof. Henry Hertz. 

The accompanying portrait is that of Prof. 
Henr)' Hertz, whose remarkable experiments 
with waves of electric force have challenged the 
attention of the scientific world. A resume 
of his interesting e.xperiments appeared 
in the Western Electrician during the 
months of November and December last. Dr. 
Hertz is at present professor of physics in the 
Universit)' of Bonn. He was born in 1857 at 
Hamburg. He was the son of Senator Hertz. 
He attended a gymnasium until 1875, and then 
studied engineering at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
Berlin and Dresden. He studied physics in 
Munich and Berlin, and was graduated from the 
university in the latter city in 1880. For two 
years he was the assistant of Prof. Helmholtz, 
who first inspired Prof. Hertz to de- 
vote himself to the solution of electrical 
problems. In 1883 he was located at 
Kiel as "privat docent" for theoretical 
physics. Two years later he was called 
to a professorship of physics in the 
Technical High School in Karlsruhe, 
where he remained four years, resign- 
ing to take the place of Dr. Clausius in 
the University of Bonn. The import- 
ance of Dr. Hertz's work can scarcely 
be overestimated. He has devoted him- 
self to the solution of electrical prob- 
lems with a zeal which borders on en- 
thusiasm. He is a young man, and 
there are many predictions that he will 
render to science services which will 
make his name still more famous. 



passes will benefit the whole company, and then 
only by order of the directors. But the other 
directors, having an understanding with Stewart, 
will order the issuance of passes as before, unless 
restrained. 

Therefore Evans asks the court to grant a 
temporary injunction, restraining the defend- 
ants as above stated, till the case can be heard 
and it be determined whether the injunction 
shall be permanent. 

Mr. Edison's Phonograph Speech at the 
Kansas Citv Convention. 

The programme for the Kansas City conven- 
tion of the National Electric Light association, 
Feb. nth, i2th, 13th, 74th, has been announced. 
Mr. Edison will address the convention by pho- 



Declared 



To Stop the Issuance of Electric 
Railway Passes. 

A curious suit has just been instituted 
in Omaha. T. J. Evans of the Omaha 
& Council Bluffs Bridge Railway com- 
pany has brought an action against John 
T. Stewart, president of the company, 
C. H. Reynolds, superintendent, and 
the other directors. The suit is brought 
for an injunction restraining Stewart 
from issuing passes over the motor line, 
to restrain the directors from authoriz- 
ing the issuing of passes, and to prevent 
Superintendent Reynolds from honoring 
them. 

The petition for the injunction order 
shows that Evans is a director of the 
company, and hold 750 shares, or one- 
tenth of its stock. It alleges that 
John T. Stewart has issued so many passes 
to certain persons and parties, or to whole 
families, that the revenue of the company 
has been decreased §7,500 in 1889; and it al- 
leges that the output of passes for 1890 promises 
to be much greater than that for 1S89, and the 
loss will be correspondingly greater. All these 
passes, the petition goes on to say, do the com- 
pany no good, but are for the special benefit of 
Stewart and the directors favoring them, and are 
issued without authority from the constitution 
and by-laws, or from a majority of the stock- 
holders. The directors, according to Evans' 
allegation, are in collusion with Stewart and re- 
ceive benefit from some of the passes which are 
issued. 

Mr. Evans asserts that the company is one or- 
ganized solely for the purpose of gain, and 
should attend strictly to business. The consti- 
tution and by-laws of the company do not give 
any authority to the president to issue passes 
except to employes, or in cases where such 




PROF. HENRY HERTZ. 

nograph. It is stated that President E. R. 
Weeks called upon Mr. Edison and insisted on 
the latter attending the convention and reading 
a paper. Mr. Edison informed the president 
of the association that he could not possibly 
comply. President Weeks insisted, and at last 
Mr. Edison said: 

" I tell you what I will do if it is satisfactory 
to you. I will talk to my phonograph and send 
it to Kansas City to lecture for me. It will 
make no gestures, but the tone will be perfect, 
and I will warrant that it can be heard all over 
the Opera House." 

This agreement was satisfactory to President 
Weeks, as very few persons have ever heard Mr. 
Edison speak in public. 



The paper which Prof. Elihu Thomson will 
read at the Kansas City convention of the Na- 
tional Electric Light association, will treat of 
"Safety Devices in Electrical Installations." 



Electrical Execution Law 
Constitutional. 

The case of William Kemmler of Buffalo, who 
was convicted of murder and sentenced to be 
executed by electricity, has occupied consider- 
able attention, as it was the first case to come 
under the new law in New York. It will be re- 
membered that an appeal from the sentence was 
taken, and a hard fight made to save Kemmler's 
life. The ground on which the appeal was 
made was that the new law was unconstitutional, 
as the punishment was cruel and unusual. W. 
Bourke Cochran, the eminent New York attor- 
ney, became interested in Kemmler's case, and 
assumed the direction of his defence. On the 
hearing before the referee at New York, many 
well-known scientists were called, and there ap- 
peared a great diversity of opinion as to 
the death-dealing qualities of the elec- 
tric current. Judge Day of Auburn, to 
whom the referee's report was made, 
refused to interfere, and an appeal was 
taken to the General Term. The argu- 
ment was made October iSth, at Roch- 
ester, N. Y., and the case has since 
been under consideration. On Monday 
last the decision was handed down at 
Rochester. The following special dis- 
patch to the Western' Electrici.ax 
from that city tells the story: 

"In the General Term, Monday, Jus- 
tices Barker, Dwight and Macomber 
handed down a decision atBrming the 
order of County Judge Day of Auburn, 
dismissing the writ of habeas corpus in 
the case of William Kemmler, the Buf- 
falo murderer. The opinion by Justice 
Dwight accompanied the decision. 
■\fter briefly reciting the history of the 
case, the opinion describes the English 
Bill of Rights, its adoption into the 
constitution of the United States, and 
Its bearing upon legislation. The ques- 
tion whether punishment by death un- 
der the electrical execution act would 
be cruel or unusual is then discussed, 
and the opinion holds that it must have 
been decided in the negative by the leg- 
islature. The opinion declares that the 
court is not competent to inquire wheth- 
er the legislature, while intending to 
confirm the statute more closely to the 
constitution, has fallen through igno- 
rance of the effect. In concluding, the 
opinion says: 'The court agrees with 
Judge Day that the burden of proof is not 
borne by relator. The evidence is clearly in 
favor of the conclusion that it is within the 
reach of electrical science to generate and apply 
to the convict a current of such known force as 
to certainly produce instantaneous and, there- 
fore, painless death. It detracts nothing from the 
force of evidence in favor of this conclusion that 
we do not know the nature of electricity or how 
transmitted to destroy life; neither do we know 
the nature, gravitation or operative force in 
death by hanging. Experiments disclosed by 
evidence were confined to animals, but the fre- 
quency and publicit)' of death by accidental 
contact with electric wires during the last few 
years, especially in the last few months, have 
made the deadly power of electric currents 
shockingly familiar. In some cases the victim 
has escaped with life, and in some cases death 
has been accompanied with burning and contor- 
tions. In all such cases these effects have evi- 
dently been due to lack of force in current re- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1890 



ceivedr or imperfect application. The general 
result of the demonstrations in the light of the 
scientific evidence in this case is, we think, to 
remove every reasonable doubt that the passage 
of a current of electricity of certain well-deter- 
mined intensity through vital parts of the human 
body under chosen conditions of contact and re- 
sistance must result in instant death.' " 

The result of the appeal will undoubtedly 
be a surprise to the electrical fraternity at large, 
as it was confidently e.\pected that the law 
would bt declared unconstitutional. \n appeal 
will now be taken to New York Court of Ap- 
peals. The opposition to the enforcement of 
the death penalty by electricity is growing in 
New York as elsewhere, and it is believed the 
law will be repealed by the legislature. 

Signaling Device for Elevators in the 
Auditorium. 
The diagrams presented herewith illustrate a 
few of the details of an electric signaling appa- 
ratus which is being applied to several of the 
freight elevators in the Auditorium building, 
Chicago. In this system the attendant is noti- 
fied that the elevator is wanted at a certain 
floor by the ringing of a bell and the lighting of 
an incandescent lamp at the particular floor. In 
order that the action of the apparatus may be 
illustrated, it may be assumed that the car is 
wanted at \V, Fig. i. To give the signal, a 
small knob near the door is pressed. This rings 
an electric gong located in the shaft, and at the 
same time lights a lamp at this floor. As no 
signal lamp above him is lighted, the attendant 
on hearing the bell, knows that the elevator is 
wanted at a floor below. As the lamps which 
are over the doors opening to the several floors 
can be seen by the attendant from a point at 
some little distance above, there is no trouble in 
stopping in the descent at the proper point. As 
will be seen from an inspection of Fig. i, each 



fe 



K 



I Wj/.',4»/^'.7^<-/<v 




Fin. I. SIGNAI-INC DEVICE FOR ELEVATORS. 

floor is provided with a push button and a lamp. 
These are connected at each floor, as shown at 
\V. The details of the push button are repre- 
sented in Fig. 2. A small battery of open cir 
cuit cells furnishes current for the bell. The 
lamps are supplied from the Edison system in 
the building. The practical operation of the 
system is as follows: The inward movement of 
the push button, shown more clearly in Fig. 2, 
serves to close the bell circuit and then throw 1 



small quick action Bryant switch, .S. The bell 
ceases to ring the moment the hand is removed 
from the button. The switch, however, remains 
closed, keeping the current on the lamp. The 
device which is represented diagrammatically at 
E now conies into play for the automatic ex- 
tinguishment of the lights. This consists merely 
of a small roller or wheel which is attached to 
the car, and so arranged that the action of a 
stout spring causes it to bear out against the 
wall of the shaft. The descent of the elevator 




FIG. 2. SIGNALING DEVICE FOR ELEA'ATORS. 

brings E into action. This wheel rolls over the 
beveled blocks, P, which are set, in the manner 
shown in Figs, i and 2, at the end of each 
switch shaft R. As the roller passes over the 
blocks, it meets the protruding end of the switch 
shaft, forces it back, and opens the switch. This 
action extinguishes the lamp. The apparatus 
was designed by C. G. Armstrong, manager of 
the electrical department of the New Haven 
("lock company, Chicago. 



The New York Situation. 

The gangs of linemen under the supervision of 
Commissioner Gilroy continued their work of 
cutting down poles and removing wires in New 
York city, last %veek. The companies, it is stated, 
will institute actions to recover for damages done 
to their property. They are waiting until the 
work of destruction ceases so that they can put 
an estimate on their losses. AV. H. Kelley of the 
East River company made this statement: "I 
can say that it has been definitely determined to 
bring suit for damages probably against Com- 
missioner Gilroy and the city, too. This wanton 
destruction of safe wires is a species of hysteria 
and will cure itself. I believe that Mr. Gilroy 
is honest, but the Board of Electrical Control 
is imposing upon him. He has authority to 
remove dangerous wires only. The inspectors 
point out as dangerous wires all those which 
have been put up in violation of the unreason- 
able rules of the board. But the responsibility 
falls upon Commissioner Gilroy. The East 
River company will sue for something like 
$250,000." 

The work has developed a goodly number of 
humorous incidents. So many of the men are 
entirely unused to the work that they frequently 
get into awkward scrapes. When a gang came 
to remove a pole at Carmine and Bleecker streets 
one of the men climbed partway up, and stepped 
off upon a shed, so that he might push the pole 
in such a way that it would fall into the street. 
The pole went down right enough, and with it 
went the workman's avenue of descent. There 
was no ladder handy and no way of entering any 
adjoining building except through a very small 
window, which was not made to open. A great 
crowd gathered and laughed heartlessly at the 
situation. After a time the residents of the ad- 
joining building removed the window, sash and 
all, and he .S(|ueezed through. 

A New York paper (|uotes a superintendent in 
one of the largest electric light works in the 
United States as saying: "For aesthetic reasons 
I think the wires ought to come down. They 
badly disfigure the city. But that is the only 



purpose that can be served. The general public 
is in only the very slightest danger from the 
overhead wires, if it exercises reasonable care 
over itself. The linemen are almost the only 
people who ever get hurt. And their calling 
will be just as dangerous with the wires under- 
ground as it is now. It will be more difficult to 
keep the wires in proper order after they are bur- 
ied, and I prophesy that there will be just as much 
concern over them then as there is now. Store- 
keepers will be just as likely to lower their lamps 
and the public just as quick to blame the com- 
panies for resulting accidents as m the past. 
But the city will look better, I admit." 



Death of Prof. Luigi Paclnotti. 

Prof. Luigi Pacinotti, the Italian scientist, 
died at Pisa recently, aged 87 years. His entire 
life had been devoted to scientific researches 
and his discoveries brought him into prominence 
early in life. From his youth he was much de- 
voted to mathematics, and gave much attention 
to this subject. He pursued his studies at 
Pisa, and in 1831 was appointed to the chair of 
experimental physics in the university at that 
city. Ten years later the chair of experimental 
science was established at Pisa, and Pacinotti, 
who had done much to promote scientific re- 
searches and experimental work, was promoted 
to the new position. The college of Italian sci- 
entists in i»4ohad highly praised his work, and 
Pacinotti was thus brought into greater promi- 
nence in the scientific world, but it was not until 
1S64 that he announced to the world his best 
known work. This was the Pacinotti ring. The 
question of generating electric currents was oc- 
cupying the attention of scientists at this time, 
especially that of procuring continuous currents 
with little fluctuation in strength. Pacinotti's 
discovery, the merits of which are now appreci- 
ated, was not recognized at the time, and in spite 
of its value, the model of his machine lay for- 
gotten among the collection of instruments at 
the University of Pisa, until its fundamental 
points had been rediscovered, or at least, put 
into practice by others. 

He devoted much time to the development of 
the electric motor, and was one of the earliest 
inventors in this field. Numerous other ma- 
chines of great value were discovered by him, 
and his researches and experimental work were 
of great scientific value. 



Demagnetizing Watches. 

The accompanying cut illustrates a simple de- 
vice for demagnetizing watches. The machine 
consists of an ordinary horseshoe magnet, 
mounted as shown, on a short horizontal shaft, 
and arranged to be revolved rapidly by means of 
gearing. The operation of the device is as fol- 
lows: 

The works of the watch to be demagnetized 




DEVICE FOR DEMAGNETIZING WATCHES. 

are held in the opening shown at the left in the 
cut, within the field of the magnet, the rod being 
employed as a support and a guide for the hand. 
The magnet is then rapidly revolved by means 
of the gearing and the watch-works are revolved 
by the hand and slowly drawn away from the 
poles of the magnet. The magnetized works 
are thus subjected to a rapid and constant 
change of polarity. As the works are slowly 
withdrawn from the magnet, each change de- 
creases in intensity. This operation is repeated 
until the last change is a minimum one, and the 
steel or magnetized parts of the watch are re- 
duced to their normal condition, or nearly so. 

The plate in front of the poles serves simply as 
a guard to prevent the watch from being acci- 
dentally brought into contact with magnet. The 
device is the invention of F. J. Wilton, Boston. 



January 4, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



An Electric Clipper. 

The accompanying cut illustrates a most in- 
genious combination of an electric motor with a 
hair clipper. The little machine is designed to 
be operated by current from a iio-volt constant 
potential circuit, and is run with a 50-volt lamp 
in series. The cut shows the internal arrange- 
ment of the handle, which is nothing more or 
less than the motor itself inclosed in a cylindri- 
cal rujjber case. The shaft which passes through 
the center has fixed upon it the armature and 



\yas a diversity of opinion among them as to the danger to 
life and property, and notwithstanding this, loss of lile and 
the destruction of valuable property continues, and if permit- 
ted to go on, life and property will be daily menaced— a 
condition of affairs which no adequate plan has yet been 
devised to prevent. 

ft is manifest that legislative action should be invoked at 
once to provide a means of preventing further casualties by 
electric currents, ft was recently shown to the Supreme 
court of the state that wires for the transmission of elec- 
tricity have been permitted to become in a condition danger- 
ous to human life, so that passers-by, in short, were liable 
to be struck dead, and therefore that the corporations re- 




AN ELECTRIC CLIPPER, 

extends as shown at both ends. The end at the 
clipper carries a small eccentric. This plays be- 
tween two small pieces which are set into and 
form part of the movable blade of the clipper. 
By this arrangement the revolution of the arma- 
ture gives the blade a rapid reciprocating mo- 
tion. The most ingenious feature of the ma- 
chine is the manner in which the essential parts, 
/. e., the armature and field magnets, have been 
disposed so as to economize space. The field 
magnets are wound so that consequent poles 
will be produced at the armature. It will be 
noticed that the pole-pieces extend the length 
of, and form the body of the handle. The motor 
is shunt wound. A small clip or spring, shown 
in the cut by the side of the upper brush, con- 
stitutes the starting switch. A little hard rub- 
ber plug on the end of the clip extends out 
through a hole in the casing. A slight pressure 
of the operator's finger upon this little plug or 
button serves first to throw the field magnets 
into circuit and then turn the current into the 
armature. The flexible cord shown to the right 
is attached to a plug which fits into an incandes- 
cent lamp socket. It may be mentioned that 
this form of motor is also applicable to quite a 
number of small tools wnich may be most con- 
veniently driven b)' electricity. The end of the 
armature shaft, shown to the right, may be util- 
ized in a variety of ways; tor instance, where the 
clipping machine is in service a revolving brush 
may be fitted on this end. The convenience of 
such an arrangement is evident. The machine 
is the invention of Chas. E. Jones, Elgin, 111. 
The details of the invention were worked out by 
Foree Bain, Chicago. 



sponsible for this condition of things were conducting a 
business by means of an apparatus and a force which, un- 
less properly controlled, subjected the citizens of this city 
to the danger of death. Therefore the court held the facts 
constituted a public nuisance, and directed tbatan injunction 
previously obtained, restraining the authorities from inter- 
feiing with these wires, should be vacated and set aside, on 
the ground that not only the public authorities but any 
citizen would be justified in abolishing the nuisance. Of 
this decision the grand jury heartily approve. Inasmuch as 
the authorities are now engaged in remo\'ing the dangerous 
wires and apparatus condemned by the court, the grand 
jury have not deemed it necessary to take action in refer- 
ence thereto; the result to be accomplished by a criminal 
indictment for a nuisance— to-wit, the abatement of the 
nuisance — having already been brought about by the decis- 
ion of the Supreme court. 

The grand jury is convinced that the business of the gen- 
eration and distribution of electrical currents is one which 
should be investigated by the legislature for the purpose of 
ascertaining the character of legislative enactment required 
to provide a means for carrj'ing on the same without 
danger to the public. 

We therefore recommend that the legislature shall with- 
out delay appoint a committee of its members to inquire 



quired for everj- part of the installation. The 
pump was manufactured by the Otis Elevator 
company specially for the plant, and the ar- 
rangement for reduction of speed between the 
armature shaft and pump is made in the coin- 
pact manner shown in the illustration. The 
motor operates the pump against a pressure. in 
the tank; there is no overflow, and when the 
maximum pressure is reached, the motor runs 
empt3% automatically cutting down the amount 
of electric current taken from the line, so that 
only sufficient current is used to supply the en- 
ergy to keep the motor in revolution. 

Before the installation of the electric motor at 
this place, a gas engine was used to supply the 
necessary power, but gas never proved satisfac- 
tory in this capacity, and the Spiague motor 
was substituted. The motor is giving perfect 
satisfaction, and the plant is one of the finest 
running elevators in Ph ladelphia. 



Electric Lighting in St. Louis 

It has already been stated that the Municipal 
Electric Light company's station in St. Louis 
was not completed. It had been hoped that it 
would be finished by New Year's day, but num- 
erous obstacles were encountered which prevent- 
ed the operation of the plant on January i. 
This was the day set by the contract- for the 
commencement of the city lighting. It will be 
necessary to use gas until the plant is in shape. 
The gas bill will be paid by the electric light 
company. Last week the gas company and the 
representatives of the electric light company met 
to agree upon terms but as the former saw that 
the next few weeks would be the last period in 
which it would light the city, it was not inclined 
to name a low price. 

It is now stated that the Municipal company's 
plant will be completed sooner than has been 
generally thought. An extension of the con- 
tract until April i has been asked for, but one 
of the managers asserts that the plant will be in 



The New York Grand Jury's Findings. 

In New York, December 27, the grand jury 
found an indictment against Charles W. Pierce, 
superintendent of the Brush Electric Light com- 
pany, charging him with manslaughter. The in- 
dictment accuses Mr. Pierce of being instru- 
mental in causing the death of Henry Harris, a 
clerk in a store on Eighth avenue, November 30. 
Harris and another clerk were carrying a show- 
case into the store. The show case touched a 
low hanging arc lamp, and Harris was instantly 
killed. Mr. Pierce furnished bonds in the sum 
of §2,500. 

The foreman of the grand jury handed to the 
court the appended presentment which con- 
tained the result of its deliberation concern- 
ing the fatalities from electric wires: 

The grand jury has devoted a great deal of time to the 
investigation of the various systems of electrical generators, 
and the distribution and transmission of electrical currents 
for light and power purposes by means of aerial and under- 
ground wires through the public streets of the city nov/ in 
operation, for the purpose of ascertaining whether the sys- 
tems are operated with a due and proper regard for the 
lives and safety of the public, and particularly under what 
circumstances such systems can be safely operated. 

For this purpose the grand jury has considered a great 
mass of testimony given by witnesses to casualties occur- 
ring from electric currents, and by scientific men. There 
appears to be a great diversity of opinion among those best 
qualified to testify on every branch of the inquiry and as to 
every detail connected with the subject. It has been 
difficult for the grand jury to come to a satisfactory con- 
clusion. The grand jury has listened to a great deal of 
testimony of so-called experts in the appliance of electricity 
for the production of light, many of whom are retained by 
or interested in the various electric light companies. There 




ELECTRIC ELEVATOR INSTALLATION. 



into the subject and report upon a plan of legislation de- 
signed to prevent furtiier danger to the public from elec- 
trical apparatus. 



ElGctric Elevator Installation 

A view is herewith presented of a hydraulic 
elevator installation recently made at the build- 
ing of the LTnited Security Trust &• Safe Deposit 
company of Philadelphia by the Otis Elevator 
company of Yonkers, N. Y., and Chadbourne, 
Hazleton & Co. of Philadelphia, agents in Penn- 
sylvania for the Sprague Electric Railway & 
Motor company. One of the first things which 
strikes an observer is the minimum of space re- 



readiness before that time. He said: "The 
Municipal Electric Light company, to which the 
contract of Mr. Sutter was transferred, will 
probably be in service by February i. The sup- 
position has always been that the company 
would lose money on the city contracts. The 
new management has had the matter carefully 
estimated by the most expert electricians, and 
they are now confident that the city contracts 
will yield a profit almost equal to the interest on 
the company's bonded indebtedness. The new 
directors have held several meetings, and have 
been so encouraged bv the condition of affairs 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1090 



that they have adopted a definite policy, after 
first considering making temporary arrangements. 
The first of these was to utih'zeihe United Elec- 
tric company's plant, but it was fouUil that it 
would require different lamps and different cir- 
cuits, necessitating the stringing of ni:w wires, 
and the erection of many new poles. 'In addi- 



Fuel Oil Burner. 
The accompanying cuts illustrate a type of 
petroleum burner and setting for it, which are 
in use at a number of Chicago establishments. 
For the benefit of electric light men who may be 
considering the introduction of a fuel oil system, a 
few of the more important details are presented. 



is i)rovided with an internally threaded flanged 
collar set in a circumferential groove, as shown. 
This collar has a wrench socket and is adapted 
to engage the thread of the nozzle C, and when 
turned, moves the latter back and forth as de- 
sired. The oil pipe .4 enters the side of the 
nozzle D, and extends parallel with it on the in- 




FIG. I. REID FUKl. OIL BURNER. 

tion, the use of the United would seriously 
strain its commercial business. Under these cir- 
cumstances it was decided to go ahead as rapidly 
as possible with the permanent work. The ma- 
chinery, it is thought, will all be in place fifteen 
days after the first day of January. To start 
then would probably show imperfections and 




From Fig. i a good idea can be formed of the 
construction of the Reid apparatus. It is of the 
injector type, steam being used as the spraying 
agent. Its novelty is found more particularly in 
the mechanism by which the admission of oil 
and steam into the combustion chamber is regu- 
lated. The regulation is effected by having a 



I'li;. 3. REilli V 

terior. It is provided also with a rack, regulated 
by the lever J/. Rigidly fi.xed to the recipro- 
cating nozzle C is a lug, which carries a pin 
working the connecting rod R. The latter carries 
an inde.\ hand, and its left hand end is attached 
to the oil cock lever If, an anti-friction roller 
being arranged to work in a slot in this lever. 




i ^kiimm 



necessitate a stoppage of fifteen to thirty days. 
To avoid this about fifteen days will be con- 
sumed in testing and perfecting the entire plant. 
In the meantime the light will be turned on dis- 
trict by district, as the company feels safe in do- 
ing it without possibility of having to suspend." 
The United Electric Light & Power company, 



FIG. 2. REID FUEL OIL BURNER — BOILER SETTING. 

movable nozzle arranged as shown. This con- 
trols the steam supply and is so connected that 
when it is operated either to increase or dimin- 
ish the flow of steam, the oil cock also will be 
opened or closed. The nozzle is designated by 
the letters C C ; B is the steam port. The nozzle 
has the usual funnel-shaped mouth, which fits 



It will thus be seen that the oil cock and steam 
regulator are so connected as to be compelled to 
work in uni.son. The graduated strip S passes 
around the oil pipe .-/, and its opposite end is 
slotted so as to permit free motion of the pin of 
the connecting rod R. The scale rod .V has a 
guide, as shown, through which the rod K pass- 



^^"Z . 






Z y Z/ / 

/(A ' 





whi h has the contract for illuminating the pub- 
lic alleys in St. Louis had a large number of the 
1 ights in the western and northwestern parts of 
the city burning for awhile last week, by way of 
testing the circuit and lights. 



It is stated that the Norwalk Light & I'ower company 
ef Norwalk, O , will build an electric railway in that city. 



.). REID FUEL DH. BUR.NKK — llOILEK SETTING. 

jvcr the end of the interior nozzle, D /). It will 
be readily understood that when the e-xterior 
portion C is moved the opening between its 
mouth and that of the nozzle J) will vary, and 
thus regulate the volume of issuing steam. The 
rear end of the nozzle C is threaded and fur- 
nished with suitable packing and a gland to in- 
sure steam tightness, while the fixed nozzle D 



.\ftcr tile parts liuve been put together and 
tested, the rod .S' is suitably graduated to indi- 
cate the quantity of oil passing into the burner 
for a given time. The burners are made in four 
sizes. 

In Figs. 2, 3 and 4 is shown the form of boiler 
setting which is recommended for use in connec- 
tion with the burners. It will be noticed that 



January 4 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



S 



the grate bars, firing doors and ash pit doors 
have been removed. A wall is built up from the 
floor to a level with the bearing bar, about eight 
inches thick and thirty five inches distant from 
the front facing. From this eight inch wall an 
incline is made to meet the top of the old bridge 
wall, the space between the walls being filled with 
sand. The angle of incline between these walls 
should be as near forty-five degrees as possible. 
Should it occur that the distance between the walls 
is too great to permit of this, it should be accom- 
plished by making the angle of forty-five de- 
grees from the front wall, thence going back in 
a straight line to the top of the old bridge wall. 
This wall and incline should be faced with the 
best fire-brick, and well cemented. An eight 
inch wall should be erected in the rear of and 
against the old bridge wall forming a hollow 
space of five inches as shown. 

This is covered with brick laid edgewise, four 
inches apart. The distance between the upper 
sides of these bricks and the bottom of the boiler 
should be about eight inches. Two 6-inch air 



should be bricked up tightly so as to prevent the 
cold air from entering the furnace. 

Among the companies using the Reid system 
may be mentioned the Brush Electric Company, 
Cleveland, Badger Electric Light Company, 
Racine, Wi.s, the Illmois Steel company, and a 
large number of other manufacturers. The bur- 
ner is handled by E. E. Billow & Co., Chicago. 



Lindrum Steam Generating Apparatus. 

The accompanying cut illustrates the prin- 
cipal features of a boiler setting, recently pat- 
ented by F. Lindrum, Chicago. In the usual 
form of boiler setting, the heat going back be- 
neath the boiler returns to the front arid through 
the flues, and thence goes directly up the stack 
or chimney. In the Lindrum setting the heat 
is caused to pass along side flues back to the 
chimney at the rear of the boiler. The boiler is 
almost covered, and the heat passages are closed 
at the top, the chamber at the rear end being 
isolated from the side flue passages. The flame 



lector near its bottom e.vtends through this neck 
and the plate, outside of which it is provided 
with a valve, by means of which the discharge 
from the collector may be regulated as desired. 
This pipe is threaded near its outer end, and is 
provided with check nuts and soft washers on 
each side of the plate to form a secure and tight 
joint. Another feature is the method of setting 
tubes in the boiler in such manner as to allow 
the introduction or removal of any tube without 
disturbing any other portion, or injuring the 
tubes or apertures. The old method of clinch- 
ing the ends of the tubes renders their removal 
impossible without injury. This invention, it is 
claimed, facilitates the operation while avoiding 
the common difficulties. In the small sectional 
illustration, A represents a tube having taper 
ends which respectively fit corresponding aper- 
tures in the tube plates. B represents the man- 
ner of tightening the tubes in place. A rod, 
threaded at one end, is passed through the tube, 
the threaded portion passing through a cup bear- 
ing that is seated around the tube aperture. The 




flues are then constructed, beginning from an 
opening at the back wall and extending to and 
connecting with the hollow bridge wall. Fig. 3. 
They are run parallel to the side walls, and at 
a distance of from fifteen to eighteen inches 
from them. They may be made of fire-brick or 
tile. Two supporting walls should be built for 
these flues. Two air flues should also be built 
in the ash-pit, as shown in Fig. 2, 7-inch open- 
ings being left at the back end of the lower and 
the front end of the upper section. Fire-brick 
standing on end is used in these. The whole 
should be thoroughly cemented. The ash-pit 
should then be filled with ashes to a level with 
the lower section. The firing place and ash-door 
openings should then be closed entirely. Damp- 
ers may be placed in the air flues to assist in 
regulating the supply. In using ashes care 
should be taken to have them as free from coal 
dust as possible. When a burner is set under a 
boiler it should be connected with both the 
steam and oil line by a swinging joint, so that 
the direction of the flame can be easily changed 
upward or downward, or to either side, as may 
be required to secure a uniform heat. The front 
end of the burner should be about six inches 
inside of the fire opening, and after being con- 
nected up, this opening around the burner 



LINDRUM STE.'^M GENERATING APPARATUS. 

passes, as usual, beneath the boiler, thence up 
and into the flues to the front end, where space 
is provided. The heat then pours out to each 
side into the passages, thence meeting in the 
chimney, as indicated by the arrows. The back 
fire chamber is accessible through a door in the 
side of the masonry. An interesting feature of 
the apparatus is the boiler cleaner, which is so 
constructed that it gathers the sedimentary mat- 
ter and disposes of it so that it can be blown 
out. Inside the boiler is a large cylindrical tube 
with closed ends, extending nearly the length of 
the boiler, and supported a little above the bot- 
tom of the latter. At short intervals along the 
top of the cylinder are vertical tubes with fun- 
nel-shaped openings reaching up to just beneath 
the normal water line. The water in boiling 
causes the foreign matter to be thrown to the 
surface and gather ^long the central line, which 
is comparatively quiescent. These particles in 
sinking again are caught by the funnel tubes, 
and pass down into the collecting cylinder. A 
large aperture is formed in the front head of the 
boiler, from which a projecting neck or tube ex- 
tends to a point in front of the boiler setting. 
There it is closed by a plate securely bolted to 
the annular flange at the extremity of the neck, 
A blow-off pipe from the front head of the col- 



nut draws the tube tightly in place, the large 
washer at the other end forming a bearing for 
the headed end of the rod. The tube sheets are 
braced as shown at C. For the cut and de- 
Lcription we are indebted to World's Progress. 



The Connecticut Electric Light Asso- 
ciation. 

A meeting of representatives of central sta- 
tion companies doing business in the state of 
Connecticut was held at New Haven, December 
23d. Eleven companies were represented in 
person, and a number of others by letter. A 
majority of the companies of the state having 
reported, and more than a majority of the capi- 
talization in the state being represented in per- 
son, it was resolved to effect an organization at 
once. A constitution was adopted, and the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: 

President, James English; first vice-president, 
I J. A. Manley; second vice-president, J. A. 
Stone; treasurer, John C. English; secretary, A. 
M. Young. Executive committee — James En- 
glish, New Haven; J. A. Hoadley, Meriden; J. 
: A. Stowe, Middletown; John C. English, Bridge- 
I port; A. M. Young, Waterbury; L. S. Beardsley, 
. Naugatuck; F. F. Fuserich, Torrington. 



AVESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1890 




EVERY SATURDAY^^ 

i»i7BLicj5.TioiT omcEs: 
6 Lakeside Building. - - CHICAGO. 

Tflrplione 1740. 

W A KREIDLER. Editor and Pablieher. 

J. W. DRKERSON, / 

,1 g 0'U\R\ '-Aceociate Ediiore. 

p; L.' TERRY.' S 

A. C. Dl'KBOROW. JR., . - - - • Bnsmees Manager. 

Eastern Office: 1*25 Temple CourTjNewYork. 

W. II. Temtlb, Manager. 

Trade Supplied by Western News Co. 

COPYBIOHT. — Not onlv (lie title, but the fr,(irf contents of 
each number of the Westers Electrician are copyrighted. 
Thie paper ia entered at the Chicago Poatofflce as maii matter of 
the E<econd clads. 

BUBSCRII^ION, in advance, post^e prepaid, $3.00 for a full 
Tear of 52 numhere; in clubs of four or raore. J'^.SO, with free 
extra copy for ei^ht subscriptions: foreiLm countries, $5.00 a year; 
single copiee, 10 cents. When change of address is requested, the 
old'^address as well as the new should be given. 

CORRESPONDENCE relating to electricity, or any of Its prac- 
tical applications, is cordiallr invited, and the cooperation of all 
electrical thinkers and workers earnestly desired. Clear, con- 
cise, well wTitten articles are especially welcome; and communi- 
cations, views, news items, local newspaper cliDpings, or anv in- 
formation likely to interest electricians, will he thankfully 
received and cheerfully acknowledged. 

ADVERTISING.— The Western Electrician— ^/i" ont}/ elec- 
tricnt )fnirunl pMfcftsi/ierf in fAe ITpa/— thoroughly covers a 
territ-jjv ^srj'isicelp iis own. This is a claimwhich can be made 
BT Nil t'tTHER ELEcTBiCAL .JocRNAL IN THE UNITED STATES. Elec- 
trical merchants and manufacturers desirina Western trade wiW 
appreciate the unequaled value of this journal as an adverliBin| 
medium in its special fleld. Advertising rates are moderate, and 
will be promptly furnished on application. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

PAGE 

Prof Ht-nrj- Hertz, with Portrait i 

To Stop the Issuance of Electric Railway Passes i 

Mr. Edison's Phanograph Speech at the Kansas City Convention. i 

Electrical Execution Law Declared Constitutional i, 2 

Signaling Device for Elevators in the Auditorium. Illustrated.. 2 

The New York Situation 2 

Death of Prof. Luigi Pacinnoti 3 

Device for Demagnetizing Watches. ■ lUu.trated 2 

An Electric Clipper. Illustrated 3 

New York Grand Jurv-'s Findings 3 

Electric Elevator Installation. Illustrated 3 

EU-ctnc Lighting inSl. I ouis ..3, 4 

Reid Furl Oil Burner. Illustrated 4, 5 

Lindrum Steam Generating Apparatus. Illustrated 5 

Connecticut Electric Light Association 5 

Editorial 6 

Brush Arc Lamp Patent Sustained 7, 8 

Cause of Suhway Explosions S 

Electrical Engineering in America, by 0. L. Addenhrooke^ 

Part II 9, 10 

DRPABT.1IBNn!t. 

Correspondence in, 11 

The Electric Light 11 

The Electric Motor 11, 12 

The Telephone 12 

The Telegraph 17 

Electrical Patents 12 



"La Grippe," which is so disagreeably affecting 
so many persons in all parts of this, country and 
Europe, is the result of a disturbance of atmos- 
pheric conditions by the generation of electricity, 
according to a New Yorker, who thinks he is 
quite learned. This erudite individual says: 
"You will observe that the influenza is most 
prevalent and malignant in Europe in places re- 
mote from the seashore, where the air from the 
ocean partially neutra'.izes the baneful effects of 
artificial electricity. London, in fact, Great 
Britain, is as yet but little troubled. Artificial 
electricity is literally changing the very constitu- 
tion of our atmosphere." What is artificial elec- 
tricity, by the way? 



The General Term of the Supreme court of the 
State of New York has sustained the position of 
Judge Day, and pronounced the law providing 
for electrical executions constitutional. .\ brief 
summary of the proceedings and decision in this 
celebrated case is given elsewhere. The decis- 
ion of the court will surprise the electrical fra- 
ternity. Jtidge Dwight in his opinion refers 
to the recent deaths in New York in a manner 
that would indicate that he and his associates 
had been somewhat influenced by these calami- 
ties. The fight over the constitutionality of the 
case will, of course, be continued. .'\n appeal 
will now be taken to the New York State Court 



of Appeals. The prospect for securing a re- 
versal of the decision is not particularly bright, 
inasmuch as it is a well-known fact that the 
Court of .Appeals rarely overrules Judge Dwight 
as he is recognized as one of the ablest jurists 
in New York State. It is believed that there is 
a growing sentiment against electrical execu- 
tions, and unipiestionably the legislature will be 
asked to repeal the act. Certain it is, if the 
wishes of tlie electrical fraternity are consulted, 
the obnoxious law will be erased from the statute 
books. 



The London correspondents of daily newspa- 
pers have recently kept us well informed of the 
progress of ele,;tric lighting in London. Several 
correspondents have cabled the fact that the ac- 
cidents in New York had had a depressing effect 
on the English electric light men, but the latest 
report contained in the following cablegram pre- 
sents a dift'erent aspect: "The Board of Trade 
has received from England and Wales 170 ap- 
plications for provisional orders relating to elec- 
tric lighting. Of these twenty-three relate sole- 
ly to London, the order.^ covering practically all 
parts of the city three times over. The metrop- 
olis is divided into sections, especially arranged 
with reference to electric lighting, so that no 
company or, indeed, small syndicate of compa- 
nies, shall have a monopoly. The city proper 
will be supplied by three companies, and other 
sections of the metropolis will fare in a similar 
manner. In laying sub-wires recently in the 
Strand the workmen tore up the sidewalk instead 
of the street. The wires were laid in separate 
conduits, only about three-quarters of a foot be- 
low the surface of the concrete sidewalk. Now 
that electric lighting has been made cheaper, and 
improved facilities have been granted by Parlia- 
ment, the project is being carried forward with a 
boom all over the kingdom. The cheapness of 
London gas, as compared with the New York 
gas charges, is still an important factor in the 
fight against electricity. London gas costs sixty- 
two cents a thousand feet, and electricity cannot 
yet hope to compete with that price." 



A New Jersey inventor thinks he has hit up- 
on a method of establishing peace permanently 
upon the earth by means of electricity. He does 
not propose to remodel human nature, but ex- 
pects to make warfare so deadly that it will be 
sheer madness for one nation to attack another. 
According to his plan warfare would result in 
the substantial extermination of all who ventured 
to engage in it. The inventor describes his idea 
thus: "In a word, my scheme is to produce arti- 
ficial lightning. Thus far the experiments have 
been confined within narrow limits, but with the 
use of a small dynamo attached to my invention 
a slight shock can be produced, effective enough 
to kill the flies in a 20x20 room. I claim, with 
the use of powerful dynamos, under my plan, a 
flash of lightning can be directed against an 
army a mile or more away and without injury to 
the party operating the gun, scattering death and 
consternation among the troops. With power- 
ful dynamos thousands of soldiers can be killed 
at a flash, and a number of flashes are enough to 
destroy an army. It can be used at any time 
except on rainy or damp days. If the effect of 
giving this discovery would be, as I hope, to put 
an end to war, I should feel repaid, but I dread 
to think of electricity being used in war under 
my plan. The consequences would be enormous. 
It means nothing less than extermination to the 
opposing army. Before going any further with 
It I would ask your opinion as to the efi'ect upon 
war of an instrument such as I have hinted at. 
Would it retard or facilitate war?" 



Postmaster-General Wanamaker's project 
that he be authorized by Congress to organize a 
limited postal telegraph service, will be consid- 
ered by the committee on postofhces and post 
roads. Congressman Hopkins, who isa member 
of that committee, was asked when he was in 
Chicago a few days ago, what he thought of the 
plan. He said: "Mr. Wanamaker earnestly de- 
sires that the government try the telegraph busi- 
ness, and the friends of the postal telegraph 
scheme will make a strong fight. So far as I am 
concerned I doubt the advisability of increasing 
the number of public employes to the extent 



that a postal telegraph system would necessitate- 
It might, however, be a practical plan to make 
some contract with the telegraph companies so 
that the postal department could have messages 
transmitted at a low rate, and deliver the mes- 
sages by carrier. If such an arrangement could 
be made with the telegraph companies it would 
certainly be better than creating several thou- 
sand new positions in the civil sen'ice." 

The limited postal telegraph scheme does not 
arouse any great amount of enthusiasm. It is 
too mild a measure for those who believe in 
governmental telegraph and it does not attract 
those who are opposed to that idea. A contem- 
porary says: " It is hard to see what practical 
end it would serve. If there is a complaint 
against the existing telegraph service, the com- 
plaint must be that the charges are too high or 
the delivery is too slow, or, possibly, that some 
small places cannot be reached. The postal tel- 
egraph plan under consideration is restricted to 
free-delivery places and consequently applies 
only to towns already supplied with ample tele- 
graphic facilities. As to prices, it is not to be ex- 
pected that existing lines will allow the govern- 
ment to become their lessee to underbid them. 
If the government is allowed to send messages 
by its leased lines at a low rate, it will be be- 
cause the slower delivery provided for will more 
than counterbalance in the mind of the public 
the decreased rates. The sender of a telegraph 
message wants it delivered at once. If he wanted 
it delivered as mail he would write and not tele- 
graph." 



The most sensible article on the electric light 
question in New York, which has thus far been 
published in a New York paper, appeared in the 
New York Sun last week. So much common 
sense is shown in the article in question that a 
considerable part of it is well worth reproduc- 
ing. Speaking of the discontinuance of the 
electric light service, it says: "The interruption 
of the electric lighting in so large a part of the 
town has served as a practical demonstration 
that the new method of illumination has become 
a necessity to the community. When the people 
had the electric lights in the streets they did not 
appreciate their vast superiority to the old gas 
lamps, which they had gradually replaced. But 
now that they are gone and we are forced to rely 
again on gas alone, ever)'body discovers how 
much was gained when modern invention util- 
ized electricity for illuminating purposes. Un- 
doubtedly the precise manner in which the elec- 
tricity was made available was bad and danger- 
ous." The dangers arising from poor construction 
are referred to, and the necessity of making the 
system of lighting absolutely safe is emphasized. 
The article cortinues: "But the interruption of 
this now necessary illumination will be tempo- 
rary only. We must have the electric light. \\'e 
cannot get along without it. It has become es- 
sential to business, which has been regulated 
with reference to it, and civilization in a great 
town would suffer a set-back were we deprived 
of it. The only thing to do is to reduce to more 
scientific order the careless and experimental 
methods of its first introduction. There is no 
doubt that electric lighting can be made safe, so 
far at least as ordinary contingencies go, and 
that its vast superiority to every other for public 
and very many private purposes justifies any 
cost which such safety will render necessary. It 
is a problem for expert electricians to solve, and 
which they are capable of solving. A private 
individual would have no doubt as to where to 
go to get the matter settled, and the authorities 
have no reason for hesitation as to their manner 
of procedure. The treatment of electricity has 
become one of the recognized professions, and 
though so much is yet to be learned as to the 
agent, enough is already known to make entirely 
possible a suflicient remedy of the great evils 
due to the make-shift arrangements for the 
original introduction of the electric light. 

"The period of deprivation, therefore, will be 
short, and when the light is again made available 
for safe use in all parts of the town the demand 
for it will be greater than before, and the cost of 
the improvements will be recompensed. The 
companies can afford to incur the additional 
expense, now that it has been practically dem- 
onstrated that they provide the community 
with what is indispensable to modern life." 



Ijinuary 4, lisgo 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Brush Lamp Patent Sustained. 

Judge Gresham, in the United States Circuit 
court at Indianapolis last week, handed down a 
decision in which he sustained the patent of 
Charles F. Brush, for an improvement in a 
double carbon arc lamp. The suit was insti- 
tuted by the Brush Electric company against 
the Fort Wayne Electric Light company and 
others. The full text of the decision follows: 

The Brush Electric company vs. The Fort Wayne Electric 
Light company, el al. 

This suit is brought for an alleged infringement of Let- 
ters Patent No. 219,20s, granted to Charles F. Brush, 
September 2, 1S79, for improvement in double carbon 
electric lamps of the arc type. Brush assigned the patent 
to complainant before suit was brought. 

"When two ordinar)-, pointed, carbon sticks are in con- 
tact in an electric current the circuit is closed, and the 
current freely passes through the carbons without the pro- 
duction of any appreciable amount of heat or light at the 
point of contact. If, however, while the electric current is 
passing through them, the carbons are slightly separated, 
the current will continue to flow in crossing or leaping the 
small space between the separated carbon points and in- 
tense heat and light will be produced. This is known as 
the electric arc lamp, and the one generally used for illu- 
minating; large buildings and hails, and for lighting streets. 
The incandescent electric light is produced by causing a 
current of electricity to pass through a filament in a glass 
bulb, from which the air has been exhausted. In its pas- 
sage the current encounters great resistance, and as a con- 
sequence it is heated to a degree producing a bright, white 
light throughout its entire length. This light is well 
adapted to use indoors. 

As early as iSio Sir Humphrey Davy with a battery of 
2,000 cells succeeded in producing an arc light between 
two horizontal charcoal pencils, insulated, except a small 
portion at their ends, but owing to the rapid combustion of 
the soft charcoal points, and the great cost of the batter)' 
and the short duration of the light, it was of no practical 
or commercial value. But little progress was made in the 
improvement of this arc light or lamp until 1S44, when 
Foucault substituted pencils made of a hard gas carbon for 
the charcoal pencils of Da\'y', and thereby for the first time 
produced a persistent but short-lived electric arc light. By 
a clock-work mechanism Foucault fed the carbon pencils 
toward each other so as to imperfectly regulate their burn- 
ing away and maintain the arc. The voltaic battery did 
not generate electricity on a sufficiently large scale, the 
light was expensive, and it did not go into general use. 

Later the dynamo-electric machine was developed, in 
which a powerful current of electricity was produced by 
revolving coils of wire in a field of magnetic force fur- 
nished by powerful permanent magnets, after which the 
arc electric light was successfully used in lighthouses in 
England, and later (.'S67) in France. But up to this time 
no means had been devised for producing an adequate cur- 
rent of electricity for illumination at a practicable cost, and 
it was not until the invention of the Gramme dynamo elec- 
tric machine, in 1S72, that electricity was produced in a 
manner and of sufficient strength to render electric light- 
ing practical and useful. This machine was afterward 
improved in details of construction. In this state of the 
art, Brush entered the field of invention, and on May 7, 
187S, obtained Patent No. 203,412 for his arc lamp, which 
was superior to any lamp that had preceded it. This lamp, 
however, was not capable of burning continuously more 
than eight or ten hours, and when used for all-night light- 
ing it was necessary to extinguish the light and renew the 
carbons; and in order to obviate this defect Brush invented 
the lamp in suit. The invention and the means by which 
it is carried out are thus described in this specification: 

"JNIy invention relates to electric lamps or light regulat- 
ors, and it consists, firs^ in a lamp having two or more 
sets of carbons adapted, by any suitable means, to burn 
successively — that is, one set after another; second, in a 
lamp ha^-ing two or more sets of carbons, each set adapted 
to move independently in burning and feeding; third, in a 
lamp ha\nng two or more sets of carbons adapted each to 
have independent movements, and each operated and in- 
fluenced by the same electric current; fourth, in a lamp 
having two or more sets uf carbons, said carbons, by any 
suitable means, being adapted to be separated dissimulta- 
neously, whereby the voltaic arc between but a single set 
of carbons is produced; fifth, in the combination, with one 
of the carbons or carbon holders, of a lamp employing two 
or more sets of carbons, as above mentioned, of a suitable 
collar, tube or extended support, within or upon which the 
the carbon or carbon holder to which it is applied shall 
rest and be supported. 

' I desire to state at the outstart that my invention is not 
limited in its appHcation to any specific form of lamp. It 
may be used in any form of voltaic arc light regulator, and 
would need but a mere modification in mechanical form to 
be adaptable to an indefinite variety of the present forms 
of electric lamps. 

"My invention comprehends broadly any lamp or light 
regulator where more than one set of carbons are employed 
wherein — say in a lamp having two sets of carbons — one 
set of cartipns will separate before the other. For the pur- 
pose mereh' of showing and explaining the principles of 
operation and use of my invention, I shall describe it in the 
form shown in the drawings as applied to an electric lamp 
of the general type shown in the United States Letters 
Patent Xo. 203.411, granted to me May 7, 1879. reissued 
May 20, 1S79. and numbered 8,718. The leading feature 
of this type of regulator is that the carbon holder has a 
rod or tube which slides through or past a friction clutch, 
which clutch is operated upon to grasp and move said car- 
bon rod or holder, and thus to separate the carbons and 
produce the voltaic-arc light; and I shall refer to such a 
lamp in my following description: 

"A represents one set of carbons; A' another set, each 



carbon having an independent holder BB'. The carbon 
holders BB' may either be in the form of a rod or tube, 
and each of them is made to pass through a clamping and 
lifting device CC, respectively. These clamps and lifters 
CC are shown in the present instance in the shape of rings 
surrounding their respective carbon holders BB'. This 
form, while I have found it for general purposes the best, 
is not necessarily the only form of clamp that may be used 
in carr)ing out my present invention. Each ring clamp 
CC is adapted to be lifted from a single point, thus tilting 
it and causing it to grasp and lift its inclosed carbon holder. 
This tilting and lifting movement is imparted to the clamps 
CC by any suitable lifter, D, and this lifter may have its 
movement imparted either by magnetic attraction due to 
the current operating the lamp, or by the expansive action 
of heat upon any suitable apparatus connected with the 
lamp, said heat generated by the electric current operating 
the lamp. 

"I do not in any degree limit myself to any specific 
method or mechanism for lifting, moving or separating the 
carbon points or their holders, so long as the peculiar func- 
tions and results, hereinafter to be specified, shall be ac- 
complished. The Hfter D' in the present instance is so 
formed that when it is raised it shall not operate upon the 
clamps CC simultaneously, but shall lift, first, one and 
then the other (preferably the clamp C first and C second, 
for reasons which shall hereinafter appear). This function 
or dissimultaneous action upon the carbons or their holders, 
whereby one set of carbons shall be separated in advance 
of the other, constitutes the principal and most important 
feature of my present invention. In the lamp shown in 
the drawings the lifter D is actuated and controlled through 
the agency of magnetic attraction due to the influence of 
the current operating the lamp, and this is accomplished 
as follows: One, two or more spools or hollow helices, E, 
of insulated wire are placed in the circuit, within whose 
cavities freely move cores E'. The electric current passing 
through the helices, E operate to strongly draw up within 
their cavities their respective cores E', in the same manner 
as specified in my former patent, above referred to. The 
cores E' are rigidly attached to a common bar, E-. and the 
upward and downward movement of this bar, due to the 
varying attraction of the helices E, is imparted by a suit- 
able link and lever connection, E^ E^, to the lifter D. By 
this connection the lifter will have an up and down move- 
ment in exact concert with the cores E'; and it is apparent 
that this connection between magnet and lifter may be in- 
definitely varied without any departure from my invention; 
and, therefore, while preferring for many purposes the 
construction just specified, I do not propose to limit myself 
to its use. 

"The lifter D may be so consfucled and applied as to 
separate the carbons A and A' successively or dissimulta- 
neously by being so balanced that any diflerence. however 
slight, between the weights of the carbons AA', or iheir 
holders BB', shall result in one being lifted and separated 
before the other. 

"In order properly to balance the attractive force of the 
magnets, a coil-spring F, or its equivalent, may be em- 
ployed, substantially as shown; and to insure a steady 
motion to the magnets and to the Cirbon points, AA', a 
dash-pot G, or its equivalent, should be employed, as this 
prevents any too sudden, abrupt or excessive movement of 
parts. 

"HH' are metallic cables through which the current is 
conducted from above the clamps CC to the carbons AA'. 
By this provision is not only insured a good connection 
between the upper carbon points and the mechanism above 
it, but another important advantage is obtained, and that 
is the prevention of spaiks due to any inttrruption of the 
current between the carbon holder BB' and its clamp or 
bearings. This spark, if occurring too frequently, is liable 
to burn and roughen the rods BB' or their bearings or 
clamps, and thereby render their operation uncertain, be- 
cause it is important that a free movement to any degree, 
however minute, may be allowed the carbon bolder. I'hese 
cables HH', while operating as just specified, are suffi- 
ciently flexible and yielding not to interfere with any move- 
ment of their respective carbons or carbon holders. 

■'The operation of my device, as thus far specified, is as 
follows : When the current is not passing through the 
lamp, the positive and negative carbons of each set AA* 
are in aciual contac". When, now, a current is passed 
through ihe lamp, the magnetic attractions of the helices 
E will operate to raise the lifter D. This lifter, operating 
upon the clamps C andC tilts them and causes them to 
clamp and lift the carbon holders BB^ and thus separate 
the carbons and produce the voltiac arc light; but it will 
be especially noticed that the lifting and separation of these 
carbons is not simultaneous. One pair is separated before 
the other, it matters not how little nor how short a time 
before. This separation breaks the circuit at that point, 
and the entire current is now passing through the un- 
separated pair of carbons A'; and now and then the Hfter, 
continuing to rise, separates these points, the vcltaic arc 
will be established between ihem and the light thus pro- 
duced. 

" It will be apparent by the foregoing that it is impossi- 
ble that both pairs of carbons AA' should \ urn at once, 
for any inequality of weight or balance between them 
would result in one pair being separated before the other, 
and ihe voltaic arc would appear between the last separated 
pair. This function, so far as X am aware, has never 
been accomplished by any previous invention, and by thus 
being able to burn independently and one at a time two or 
more carbons in a single lamp, it is evident that a light 
may be constantly maintained for a prolonged period with- 
out replacing the carbons or other manual interference. In 
the form of lamp shown, I can, with twelve inch carbons, 
maintain a steady and reliable light without any manual in- 
terference whatever for a period varying from fourteen to 
twenty hcurs. 

"It is for some reasons desirable that one set of carbons 
— say the set A A — should be consumed before the other 
set commences to burn, although it is not eisential, in 
carrying out my invention, that the carbons should be con- 



sumed in this manner, inasmuch as, if desirable, they 
may be arranged to burn alternately instead of successive- 
ly. It is apparent, however, if one set of carbons can be 
made to entirely consume before another set begins to 
burn, that there will be less interiuption in the light than 
if the different pairs were allowed to conscme in frequent 
alternation. I have therefore shown, in the present inven- 
tion, one method of securing a consumption of one set of 
carbons before another shall begin to burn. This I ac- 
complish through my suitable support K, and in such a 
construction of the lifter D that it shall be positive in its 
function of separating one set of carbocs before the other; 
or in case where more than two sets of carbons are em- 
ployed, to separate said sets successively. 

"In the lamp as shown in the drawings, the support 
K is in the form of a tube surrounding the carbon holder 
B, and this suppcrt K is made of such a length that when 
the carbons A' shall have been sufficiently ccnsumed a 
head upon the carbon holder B will rest upon the top 
of the support K. whereby the weight of the car- 
bon holder B and its support K. shall at all times and un- 
der any circumstances be supported by the lifter D. 

"Besides the carbon holder B, with its carbon, and the 
support K, the lifter D (when the lamp is in oper- 
ation) should also be made to carry the carbon holder E^ 
and its carbon. 

"The lamp is primarily adjusted so that the magnets 
through the lifter D shall alwa) s carry a definite load, to- 
wit {in the lamp shown) the carbon holders E and B' and sup- 
port K. The desirability of this construction and arrange- 
ment may be explained as follows: Supposing, as is de- 
signed in ihe present instance, the carbons A are first con- 
sumed. During this time, of coure, the magnets are lift- 
ing both carbon holders BB'. Now, when the carbons A 
are consumed, if no provision is made to the contrary, 
the carbon holder B would not be lifted during the 
consumption of the carbons A', and this diminishment of 
the weight carried by the magnets would be liable to ma- 
terially disturb the adjustment of the lamp and impair its 
operation accordingly. To obviate this difficulty I have 
provided the support K, by which provision the magnets 
shall be made to carry both carbon holders BE' and the 
support K. The difference in weight, owing to the con- 
sumption of the carbons, is a practically unimportant mat- 
ter, and does not materially interfere with the operation of 
the lamp. 

"Inthecaseof a lamp where the carbon holders BB' 
are very light and where the weight of one might be re- 
lieved from the magnet {or other moving agent) without 
material disturbance, the support K might be dispensed 
with. Said support K might also be omitted, if desired, 
in a lamp where the lifter is actuated through the agency 
of the expansion of the metal wire or bar by the action of 
heat generated by the current operating the lamp, inas- 
much as the force due to said expansion being practically 
irresistible, it would not be so necessary to obtain a bal- 
ance between the various parts as is the case with a lamp 
as shown in the drawings 

"Thus far I have mentioned but two ways of impaiting 
dissimultaneous motion to the carbons of an electric lamp — 
viz: Through magnetic attraction and through the expansive 
action of heat. This function of my device may be ac- 
complished by clock work or equivalent mechanical contri- 
vance; and in this respect, as before stated, I do not limit 
my inventicn. 

' LL' are metallic hoods or protectors for inclosing and 
shielding the upper projecting ends of the carbon holders 
BE'. 

"In the form of lamp shown in the drawing I obtain 
very satisfactory results by constructing the helices E ac- 
cording to letters patent No. 212,183. granted to me Feb. 
II, 1879. In each helix E two independent wires sur- 
round the lifting magnets E', one of fine and one of coarse 
wire, and each placed in the general circuit operating the 
lamp. These two wires (the fine and the coarse) aie con- 
structed and connected in such a manner as to carry cur- 
rent in opposite directions around the inclosed core, thus 
exerting 1 neutralizing influence upon each other, where- 
by a governing function is secured for a better description 
and understanding, of which reference is made to said pat- 
ent No. 212,183. 

"The poles of the lamp shown in the drawings are con- 
structed in the form of suspending hoops or loops, from 
which the lamp is suspended, and the corresponding hoops 
or loops, with which they engage in the ceiling (or other 
locality where the lamps are used) are the positive and neg- 
itive poles of the current generating apparatus. Thus, by 
the simple act of suspension, the lamp is placed in circuit. 

"I will now specify a construction whereby the protect- 
ing globe surrounding the light can be raised and lowered 
for convenience in renewing carbons and handling the 
lamp. This I accomplish by making the platform of gall- 
ery O, upon which the globe rests, vertically adjustable 
upon a rod O', attached to the lamp frame in any conven- 
ient manner. A set-screw should be provided, whereby 
the globe can be adjusted fo any desired position. By this 
an'angement the work of renewing carbons and the reliable 
adjustment of the globe in relation to the voltaic arc are 
materially assisted. 

"In order to accommodate long sticks of carbon, the 
platform or gallery O should be perforated to allow pas- 
sage down through it of said carbon sticks. I prefer mak- 
ing the platform or gallery O of metal, and of such shape 
that globules of molten copper from the coverings of the 
carbons, in dropping away, shall not escape to do damage. 

"It will be particularh observed that in the form of 
dash-pot employed the cylinder is the movable and the pis- 
ton or plunger the stationary element. This construction 
implies more than a mere reversal of the usual make and 
operation of the dash pot, for by making the cylinder the 
movable element the general construction of a lamp can 
very often be materially simplified, as in the present in- 
stance. This form of dash-pot is designed to be employed 
in connection with any of the moving parts of the mechan- 
ism of an electric lamp where it is desired to retard a 
downward movement." 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1890 



The lamp covered by patent No. 203.411 is referred to 
only for the purpose of illustrating the operation of the 
invention in suitand the complainants' right, to the relief 
prayed for does not depend upon the validity of this pat- 
ent. The lower carbon of this lamp is held in a hxed posi- 
tion andii> uppsr carban is carried by a sliding rod which 
pisaJS l^rouj;h a ring cla-np ja>t large enougn to permit 
it to slide freely through when the clamp lies Hat on the 
floor of the r^-gulator case, but which binds upon the rod 
when it is lifted by one edge. The lifter which is upon 
the edge of the cl.imp is attached to a soft iron core which 
plays inside a wire heli.x, through which the current pro- 
ducing the li;,'ht circulates. The attracting strength of this 
coil is proportionate to the strength of the current flowing 
through it. When there is no current (lowing through the 
lamp the coil has no attraction at all. and the core conse- 
quently rests at the lowest limit, and the ring clamp lies 
flat on its floor. In that situation the carbon rod slips 
freely through the clamp and the upper carbon rests in 
contact with the lower one. 

Upon the establishment of the current through the 
lamp it passes through the carbons with little resistance 
because they are in acluii contact. The circuit is, there- | 
fore, a strong one and energizes the coil strongly and it in 
turn attracts the core strongly and pjlls it downward. This 
movement being communicated to the lifter it, in turn, 
first liftsthering clamp by one edge; this causes it to im- 
pinge closely upon the rod, and then lifts the rod and car- 
bon and so separates the cirbon points. This es'ablishes 
the arc. But the arc introduces a resisiance to the current 
which diminishes its strength, the resistance increasing as 
the arc grows longer. Hence, as the arc lengthens by 
the consumption of the carbons and the increase of the 
space betiween them, the current grows weaker, and the 
attracting pjA-er of th: ciil diiiiaij'iej until it lets the 
core move downward SLfficiently to release the grasp of 
the clamp on the rod, so that it slips downward. .Vs the 
upper carbon approaches the lower and so shortens the arc 
and diminishes its resistance the current's strength in- 
creases, the coil again pulls the core upward and so tight- 
ens the clamp upon the rod, and this holds the upper carbon 
suspended at its norm \1 distance from the lower. This 
process goes on until the carbons a e consumed. 

It will be observed from the description of the lamp in 
suit that when the current is first passed through it, the 
current divides at the lamp and passes through both pairs 
of carbons and instantly ene-gizing the solenoids, draws 
upwardly the cores, and through the bar K, link E. lever E 
and lifter D, separates the pair of carbons A'. The sep- 
aration o* this pair of carbons does not operate to break 
the circuit and for.n an arc between them, but simply di- 
verts the entire current through the remaining and unsepa- 
rated pair of carbons A. The lifter D, continuing to rise, 
next separates the carbons A, thereby in errup'.ing the cir- 
cuit and establishing the a-'c between the last reparated 
pair of carbons A. After the arc has been established be- 
tween one pair, the carbons of the remaining pair are held 
separated by ihs ring clamp, their initial separation being 
such that the idle pair will be retained in their separated re- 
lation while the re:^alaior automatically moves and adjusts 
the burning pair, to separate or approximate them, as the 
conditions may require to regulate the length of the arc, and 
also to automatically feed them to maintain the arc. When 
the burning p»ir of carbons has been consumed the effect- 
ive pull of the solenoids is diminished to such an e.xtent 
that tie caibons of the idle pair are b'ought into contact 
which causes the entire circuit to be instantly diverted 
through th;m. thi effect of which is to strengthen the 
solenoids and separate the carbons, and au:omatically es- 
tablish the arc between them. 

The separation of the two pairs of carbons, so that the 
arc is established between one pair and maintained be 
tween the carbons of that pair until they have been con- 
sumed, and then automatically established between 
the carbons of the other pair and maintained between 
them until they have been consumed, is a dissimultaneous 
and successive arc-forming separation and it is this feature 
which distinguishes the lamp in suit from all prior lamps. 

The six claims of the patent which it is alleged are in- 
fringed, read: 

"i. In an electric lamp two or more pairs or sets of 
carbons, in combination with mechanism constructed to 
separate said pairs dissimultaneously or successively, sub- 
stantially as and for the purpose specilied. 

"2. In an electric lamp, two or more pairs or sets of 
carbons, in combination with mechanism construcred to 
separate said pairs dissimultaneously or successively and es- 
tablish the electric light between the members of but one 
pair (to wit. the pair last separated) while the members of 
the remaining pair or pairs are maintained in a separate 
relation, substantially as shown. 

"3. In an electric lamp having more than one pair or 
set of carbons, the combination, with said carbon sets or 
pairs, of mechanism constructed to impart to them inde- 
pendent and dissimultaneously separating and feeding 
movements, whereby the electric light will be established 
between the members of but one of said pairs or sets at a 
time, while the members of the remaining pair or pairs, are 
maintained in a separate relation substantially as shown. 

• 4. In a single electric lamp, two or more pairs or sets 
of carbons, alt placed in circuit, so that when their mem- 
bers are in contact the current may pass freely through all 
said pairs alike, in combination with me.-hanism constructed 
to sjparate said pairs dissimultaneously or successively, 
substantially as and for the purpose shown. 

"5. In an electric lamp wherein more than one set 
or pair of carbons are employed, the lifter D or its 
equivalent, moved by any suitable means, and constructed 
to act upon said carbons or carbon holders dissimultaneous- 
ly or successively, and substantially as and for the purpose 
shown. 

"6 In an electric lamp wherein more than one pair or 
set of carbons arc employed, a clamp, C, or its e<)uivalent, 
for each said pair or set, said damp C, adapted to grasp 
and move said carbons or carbon holders dissimultaneously 



or successively, substantially as and for the purpose 
shown." 

It is admitted by the defendants' counsel that the patent 
in suit describes a new and useful meclianism for which 
lirush was entitled to a patent, but it is urged that the first, 
second, third and fourtli claims are for functions or results 
without regard to mechanism, and are therefore, void. 

The claims are not open to this objection. Tlie speci- 
fication describes mechanism whereby a result may be 
accomplished, and the claims are not for mere functions, 
nor fairly construed, can it be said that they cover other 
than equivalent means employed to perform the same 
functions. The first claim, construed in connection with 
the means described in the specification, is for an arc lamp 
in which two or more pairs of carbons are used, the adjust- 
able carbons or each pair being independently regulated by 
one and the same mechanism, and in which there is a dis- 
simultaneous or successive separation of the pairs, so 
effected as to secure the continuous burning of one pair 
prior to the establishment of the arc between the other 
pair. Thus construed, the invention claimed is limited to 
the particular means described in the specification and their 
substantial equivalents. 

The second, third and fourth claims also refer to the 
particular mechanism described in the specification for the 
accomplishment of results covered by these claims. They 
are for combinations of specific mechanisms, and their sub- 
stantial equivalents, and not for results irrespective of 
means for their accomplishment. 

It is true that in the specification Brush declared, "I do 
not in any degree limit myself to any specific method or 
mechanism for lifting, moving or separating the carbon 
point •, or their holders, so long as the particular functions 
and results hereinafter to be specified shall be ac- 
complished." 

He did not say, however, that he claimed all mechanisms 
irrespective of their construction and modes of operation. 
By this language he simply notified the public that he did 
not restrict himself to the particular lamp described in the 
patent, but that his invention embraced that and all other 
lamps operated substantially the same way by equivalent 
mechanism. 

It is urged that the fifth claim covers the lifter simply, 
and that the sixth claim covers nothing but the clamps and 
being only for detached parts of the lamp, incapable of 
separately performing the functions ascribed to them and 
these claims are void. 

The fifth claim is for a combination of which the lifter 
D Is an element, and thus construed, the claim is for a 
novel and useful invention. 

The sixth claim Is not for the two clamps aside from 
other connected mechanism. It \z for the two clamps in 
combination with the mechanism described In the patent 
for actuating the clamps and causing them to grasp and 
move the carbons dissimultaneously. substantially as and 
for the purpose described in the specification. 

Patent No. 147,827, issu;d to Matthias D.iy. Jr. Febru- 
ary 24, 1874, is relied on as an anticipation of the first, 
second, and fourth claims of the patent in suit. This de- 
fense is based upon a const uction of these claims that 
gives no effect to their concluding restrictive language, 
which construction, we have seen, is not aathoriz-ed The 
patent in suit tlescribes mechanism which designedly and 
positively effects a dissimultaneous separation of the car- 
bons, and Professor Birker, the defendant's expert, testi- 
fied that the Day lamp was not so constructed, and did not 
so operate. It is true that the Day patent describes a 
lamp which contains two or more pairs of carbons, but not 
such a double carbon lamp as Brush Invented. In the Day 
lamp each carbon is split or divided vertically for a slight 
distance from the outer end, but so rigidly connected at 
the clamp extremity as to act solely as a pair of separate 
carbons, and not as "two or more independent pairs or sets 
of carbons." 

O.ving to th; constant and frequent shifting of the arc 
from one pair of carbons to the other in this lamp it pro- 
duced an irregular and unsatisfactory light. It was unlike 
the Brush lamp both in construction and mode of oper- 
ation. 

The answer also denies infringement, but that defense, 
like the last one, is based on the theory that the claims are 
not at all limited by their concluding language. It Is plain 
from the evidence that the defendants' lamp was design- 
edly constructei so as to insure the dissimultaneous sepa- 
ration of the two pairs of carbons for the purpose of form- 
ing the arc between one pair only of the tarbons, and that 
both lamps operate in identically the same way and for the 
same purpose. The patent describes a ring clamp and the 
defendants use a hinged clamp, but there is nnt ttie slight- 
est functional difference between them. Both operate by 
grasping and holding with varying pressure the smooth 
rod which carries the carbons, thus allo.ving the rod a slide 
so as to secure a continuous feed by Inappreciable degrees, 
while, under other conditions, the rod is allowed to slip 
suddenly by gravity. Trie ring clamp was old, and Brush 
simply employed it as suitable for his purpose in combina- 
tion with other elements with which It co-acts, and the 
substitution of the hinged clamp, without any change In the 
mode of opsrati in or function, did not change the combi- 
nation 

In the Brush lamp tSe clamps rest on a flat floor, and the 
arms of the lifter are of unequal length so that when the 
lifter is raised, one clamp is tilled In advance of the other, 
and the carbons are separatetl dissimullaneou ly. In the 
defendants' lamp the same result is accomplished by sup- 
porting the clamps in different planes, and employing a 
lifter with arms of the same length, so that in the operation 
of the lifter it will tilt one cUmp in advance of ihe other. 
Brush did not ilaim that there was invention In the lifter 
and clamps disconnected with other parts in the operation 
of the lamp, and the defendants cannot escape infringe- 
ment by showing that they use a lifter and clamps not 
identical In construction with the lifter and clamps de- 
tcribed in the patent. It is admitted ttiat. If the claims are 
construed as embracing the mechanism described in llie 



specification, the defendants use a lamp covered by the 
patent insult, and that renders a further description of de- 
fendants' lamp unnecessary. 

It is finally contended that, while the patent describes 
particular mechanism by which the functions stated in the 
claims can be performed, the patentee expressly declared 
in his specification that he did not limit himself to this 
mechanism, or Us equivalent, but claimed that his invention 
comprehended all means capable of accompl ishing the re- 
sults stated, and that having thus claimed more than he 
was entitled to, the complainant cannot recover until he 
disclaims everj'thing in the specification except the specific 
mechanism. 

An application for letters patent is accompanied by a 
specification giving a full general description of the al- 
leged invention, and this is followed by what is known and 
well understood in the courts, as well as the Patent Office, 
as a "claim." What the patentee invents and describes in 
his specification, but fails to embrace In his claim, he aban- 
dons to the public, unless by timely application he obtains 
a reissue for it, and if in the descriptive part of his Inven- 
tion he inadvertently, or otherwise, includes as a part of his 
invention that which Is old, but does not claim it, his claim 
is not theieby invalidated. Such part of the specification 
is surplusage. It is only when the claim following the 
specification is too broad, in the sense of embracing some- 
thing as new, which is not new, that the patentee is required 
by Section 4922 to disclaim. He is not required to dis- 
claim anything in the specification not covered by his claim. 
The word "specification" isobviously used in the first clause 
of Section 4922 as synonymous with "claim." I am aware 
of no decision holding that a patentee is re(|uired to dis- 
claim anything in the descriptive part of his invention 
which is not fairly eaabraced within his claim. 

In Railroad Company vs. Mellein, 104 U. S. iiS, the 
court said: "In view, therefore, of the statute, the 
practice of the Patent Office and the decisions of this court, 
we think that the scope of letters patent should be limited 
to the invention covered by the claim, and that though the 
claim may be illustrated, it cannot be enlarged by the 
language used in other parts of the specification. We are, 
therefore, justified in looking to the claim with which the 
specification of the appellee's invention concludes, to deter- 
mine what is covered by this letters patent." 

It is not material for the purpose of this suit whether 
Brush was a pioneer, or a mere improver. It is sufficient 
that he described and illustrated in the patent in suit a 
specific mechinism, or double carbon lamp, adapted to 
burn its carbons independently and successively; that he 
was the first to accomplish this result, and that the claims 
are for mechanism substantially as described in the patent 
in combination with two or more pairs of carbons or sets of 
carbons for producing the result specified. We have al- 
ready stated that what is claimed is not functions and 
results, but mechanism for producing functions and 
results. 

A decree will be entered in accordance with the prayer of 
the bill. 



Cause of Subway Explosions. 

E.xplosioiis of gaseous mi.\tures in the man- 
holes connected with underground conduits for 
electric wires in the streets of New York iiave 
shown the necessity of adopting precautionary 
measures of some kind. Just what form these 
measures should take has proved a somewhat 
inteiesting problem. 

As put down by the Consolidated Telegraph 
& Electric Construction company of New Vork, 
which is building the subways under contract 
with the Hoard of Electrical Control, the man- 
holes, into which the pipe conduits lead, are 
closed practically air and water tight. There is 
no escape into the open air of the gases which 
leak into the manholes through the brick walls. 
Ventilating the manholes by having the covers 
perforated, as in the case of sewer manholes, is 
clearly out of the question, since holes left in 
the covers would admit water and dirt to the 
great detriment of the electric cables and con- 
nections. The Consolidated company is ac- 
cordingly considering the plan of introducing 
compressed air into the manholes through a 
system of 6-inch air pipes, the air being under 
pressure — somewhere under five pounds per 
square inch — to prevent the entering of the 
manholes of gases at a lower pressure. The 
air is to be furnished either from one central 
compressor station or from a number of district 
stations. 

There has been much speculation as to the 
way in which the gaseous mi.xtures are ignited 
in the manholes when e.xplosions have come. 
Sparks from without could obviously not get in- 
to the holes owing to the form of covering used. 
Concussion due to heavily laden trucks passing 
over the covers, and sparks from the electric 
connections in the holes, have been considered 
as possible causes. One theory is that grains of 
sand, having become lodged under the covers 
near the inner edges of the manholes, have pro- 
duced sparks from heavy loads passing over, 
tut no definite conclusion has been arrived at. 
— Eiiginecriiig and BuiUiing Record. 



Januar}^ 4, 1890. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Electrical Engineering in America.' 

BY G. L. ADDENBROOKE. 

PART II. 

UNDERGROUND WORK. 

Turning now from this branch of the subject to under- 
ground work, I must confess that I had a good deal of 
difficulty in getting really accurate and reliable informa- 
tion on this subject — at any rate, of a comparative charac- 
ter. The Edison company have, of course, buried their 
wires all along, and their three conductors inclosed in an 
iron tube, run solid with insulating material inside, are 
well known. As far as I could ascertain, the various sys- 
tems of conduits have not proved very successful so far, 
and, since the proof of the pudding is in the eating, the fact 
that the Subway company in New York are, I believe, lay- 
ing down iron pipes entirely — at least, they were in every 
place I saw work going on -points to this conclusion. 

The system of construction for underground work at 
present being carried out in New York is as follows: 

Manholes at convenient distances are made in the road- 
way—not, as a rule, in the pavement, but just on the rise 
of the road, and clear of the gutter. These manholes are 
circular, and are covered by a heavy iron Hd. Eelow the 
manhole is a bell-shaped pit S or 9 feet deep, and bricked 
round, and of sufficient size at the bottom for a couple of 
men to stand fairly comfortably to work. Iron pipes such 
as are used for water or gas, are laid in the ground from 
one manhole to the next. I understand that each electric 
company will, as a rule, have a separate pipe, so that if 
there are several companies running along the street, they 
will each require a separate line of piping opening into the 
manhole. There will, therefore, often be several pipes 
entering at each side of the manhole. These pipes enter 
the manhole at such a height as, roughly, to come between 
the hips and breast of a man standing on ihe bottoai — at a 
height, in fact, to bring them in a fairly convenient posi- 
tion for working The cables are drawn through the iron 
pipes in the ordinary way. Branches are taken from the 
manholes under the roadway and pavement to any house 
between the manholes requiring current. 

As regards the class of cable tvhich is being largely laid 
down in these conduits, the conductor consists of seven 
strands of No. 16 copper. These are insulated by a layer 
of a hard but somewhat flexible material, containing, I be- 
lieve, some rubber in ccmjunction with other materials, but 
the complete material is cheaper than rubber used alone. 
The thickness of this material surrounding the conductors 
is one-twelfth of an inch. It somewhat resemble ebonite, 
and is of a consistency to stand rough usage and hard wear. 
It will be interesting to see how it lasts in practice. I 
must say it seems to me a very suitable material for the 
purpose for which it is intended; and as far as insulating 
qualities go, I was able to see the records of tests of a good 
deal that has been laid, and they were excellent, going up 
to several thousands of megohms per mile. The insulat- 
ing material is covered with a lead pipe about one-sixteenth 
of an inch thick, and containing, I believe, a percentage of 
tin. These lead-covered cables are usually jointed at each 
manhole, and a little slack left on them there. The joint- 
ing is done by a special system, and when it is complete 
_ electrically the two lead tubes are drawn together over a 
bit of brass tube, which protects the point of junction; they 
are then "wiped" together with a hot iron like an ordinary 
plumber's joint. No doubt this work is heavy and expen- 
sive, but it looks as if it should last when once put down. 

INTERNAL WORK. 

Coming now for a moment to the internal work in build- 
ings, most of what I saw had a rough, temporary look 
about it, evidently being put up as cheaply as possible. I 
do not say that no good, solid work is done, but the pro- 
portion of it to the remainder is, I fancy, a good deal 
smaller than in this country. 

Gas fittings are freely utilized, and I think I am correct in 
stating that in the arrangement of lights the gas-fitting way 
of managing things is adhered to much more closely than 
in this country, where we have rather tried to avoid imitat- 
ing the ordinary ways of arranging gas lights. 

Turning aside for a moment, it appears to me that one 
of the great wants all over the world now is. if I may so 
term it, a "science of illumination." Up to and as far as 
providing light, we are exceedingly scientific But in 
utilizing it when we have got it we proceed in an elemen- 
tary and haphazard manner. 

Mr. Preece has, I know, from the first paid a great deal 
of attention to this point, and appreciated its value. It 
seems to me that it would really be of great practical bene- 
fit if a committee of this Institution, or some other respon- 
sible body, would accumulate some accurate or authorita- 
tive data on the subject. When once started properly, these 
data would increase of themselves, and would soon form a 
guide which would be exceedingly useful in drawing up 
specifications and arranging to the best advantage the 
lighting of either open spaces, public buildings, or private 
houses. 

We all have our own indefinite notions on the subject as 
the result of experience, but if they could only be put into 
definite shape — and I think the subject does admit of being 
put into definite shape — it would, I feel sure, be a great 
advantage. 

Of course there are innumerable patterns of switches 
and cut-outs and fittings in America, as here, but none 
came to my notice showing any very brilliant conception in 
design. Lamp sockets and fittings are generally some- 
what larger and clumsier than with us. 

The chief difference I noticed was that a switch is almost 
invariably included in each lamp socket, Americans, as a 
rule, do not go to the same amount of trouble and expense 
that is general here to fix switches in handy places near 
doors. If you want to light on or off, you turn it on or 
off at the burner as you would do gas. 

iRead before the London Institution of Electrical Engineers. 



CENTRAL STATIONS. 

Coming now to central stations, those I went over were 
the new arc light station in San Francisco, the Edison 
station in Chicago, the Westinghouse station in Pittsburg, 
and the Thomson-Houston station in New York; and I 
may add that since my return to London I have had an 
opportunity of going carefully over the new Westinghouse 
station in Sardinia street, Lincoln's-in-fields, the plant in 
which is entirely of American manufacture and pattern, 
and arranged in the American manner. 

I might easily have seen many more stations, in some 
cases perhaps larger and better arranged than those I did 
see. But those I did see are, I think, all typical of the 
latest American work, and all were in the process of mak- 
ing large additions to their plant, so that they were quite 
up to date 

The station in San Francisco is near the railway station. 
It is a large brick building, erected entirely for its present 
purpose, about 250 feec long by 80 feet broad, with a ground 
and two upper ftoors, and has been finished about eight 
months. It is intended to provide accommodations for 
about 2,000 arc lights when filled up. At present it is 
furnishing current for about 600. It is arranged in the 
usual — I was going to say invariable — American plan of 
pb'.cing the engines and boilers on the ground floor, and 
arranging the dynamos, switch-boards, and electrical por- 
tion of the station on the first floor. In this instance the sec- 
ond floor is used as a storehouse, and for general purposes. 
The boiler house forms one end of the building, and 
there was nothing above it. It is arranged for two lines 
of boilers, one on each side, one side only being filled up 
at present They face toward the center of the building, 
with a large space between for coal and general working 
purposes. The boilers were of the well-known water tube 
pattern. This type, varied slightly in detail by each 
maker, seems to be in general use everywhere in the States. 
From the boilers the steam is led to a 650 horse power 
single cylinder Corliss engine, which, by rope gearing, 
drives a single line of counter-shafting. I must say I was 
surprised to find that, in a new station so large as this, and 
one in which expense evidently had not been spared, the 
engine was neither compound nor condensing, particularly 
as there was water within a moderate distance. There was 
only this one engine in the station driving all the dynamos, 
though space was provided for three more as the amount 
of lighting increased. The working of the station was 
therefore dependent on the single engine and line of shaft- 
ing keeping in good order. The engine drove this line of 
counter-shafting as I have said, the loose pulleys being on 
the shafting. At the stations I visited where counter- 
shafting was in use I was struck with the care and com- 
pleteness with which means were provided for adjusting 
the plummer blocks and bearings in any direction. The 
general idea was somewhat as follows: The plummer 
block, or upright, stood in a cast iron shoe with a flat 
planed bottom, through which the holding-down bolts pro- 
jected. The holes for the holding-down bolts in the plum- 
mer block were bored large so as to permit a certain move- 
ment in the block. The edges of the cast iron shoe were 
turned up all round, and through these edges projected 
screw bolts, the points of which touched the plummer 
block. By loosening, then, the holding down bolts at any 
time, and screwing or unscrewing the screw bolts as re- 
quired, the block could be slewed slightly or adjusted to 
Une with the greatest nicety and ease. Besides this, the 
under bearing worked in guides, being kept in its place by 
a strong screw projecting up from underneath. By work- 
ing on this screw, and on the cap of the upper bearing, 
the height of the bearing could, of course, be adjusted with 
great exactness. With these means the brasses are also 
quickly and easily replaced; while if they get warm when 
the shaft is running, the bottom bearing can be slacked 
down. The Thomson-Houston company in New York 
told me they did this, and their dynamos are on the 
same floor as the line of shafting. It is, of course, a still 
simpler and safer matter to do this when the dynamos are 
situated almost right above the shafting, as is the general 
practice in American stations. Leather belting of the or- 
dinary description was in use, except for driving, where 
ropes are used, as I have mentioned. I found leather belt- 
ing employed at each of the stations I visited. 

These long lines of counter-shafting must, of course, be 
wasleful of power; still, it is worth pointing out that such 
shafting runs under the best conditions when doing work 
right overhead, since both the dead strain and the running 
strain on the belts to the dynamos tend to lift the line of 
counter-shafting, which, therefore, if the weight is properly 
adjusted, must run very lightly in its bearings. 

The method of driving from underneath is also economi- 
cal in belting, since the weight of the belt hanging on the 
dynamo pulley causes it to have a good grip, and permits 
of a short length being used. The belts pass up to the 
dynamos through holes in the floor, the holes being elon- 
gated to permit the belt being tightened, if necessary, by 
screwing the dynamo along on its bed rails. 

In each of the stations I visited in America the upper 
floor carrying the dynamos was entirely of wood, strongly 
made, and supported from underneath at intervals by stout 
wooden uprights, but still of wood. 

The weight of the floor in the San Francisco station is 
entirely supported by the wooden uprights, being only 
steadied at the sides. I was informed that at the old 
station in San Francisco, worked by the same company, 
and which, I understood, was supplying about 1,200 arc 
lights, a good deal of trouble was experienced from the 
floor, w^hich was fi.xed to the walls, and which, vibrating 
with the motion of the machinery, shook the brickwork. 
I found the vibration on these wooden floors less than I 
anticipated, considering the amount of machinery on them; 
but, of course, the motion of a good dynamo is very even, 
and if the joints on the belt are neatly made there is no 
jerking. 

In this San Francisco station all the machines were 
Brush 60-lighters. From 50 to 60 lights in series on one 
circuit seems to be about the general rule for lighting in 



America when any number of lights is required. As all 
the machines are run from the same counter-shafting, and 
at the same speed, whatever work they may be doing, it is 
necessary to provide an automatic regulator to adjust the 
current through the field magnets for each machine when 
doing less than its normal output. On the other hand, if 
the circuit is a verj' long one — and I was told some of the 
circuits at San Francisco are as much as 13 or 14 miles — 
the number of lamps on the circuit must be reduced to 
compensate for the extra resistance. These Brush dyna- 
mos were all mounted on short iron columns about g inches 
high, so that they were lifted entirely from the floor. I 
was told that this arrangement was found very handy for 
keeping the machines clear and free from dirt, and for in- 
specting them. I did not notice much diff^erence between 
the machines and those turned out by our friends on this 
side of the water, and the style of the workmanship seemed 
to be about the same, A light overhead trolley, with lift- 
ing gear, ran overhead so that it could quickly be brought 
over any machine, and I was informed that should a ma- 
chine go wrong they could replace an armature in half an 
hour. In the older station in San Francisco a large num- 
ber of Thomson-Houston machines are used, but Brush 
machines only are employed in the new station, as they 
find the Brush armature is more easily replaced, and is so 
much the easier of the two to repair, if anything goes 
wrong. It is worthy of note in this connection that the 
latest advices from America inform us that the Thomson- 
Houston company has bought the Brush works at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and, therefore, presumably the Thomson- 
Houston company will in the future control this interest as 
well as their own. 

From the dynamos the mains are led to a long, narrow 
shelf, where are fixed the resistances and indicating instru- 
ments for each machine The mains next proceed to the 
switch-board, which is of the plug pattern — brass plugs, 
with boxwood handles, united by a flexible insulated cord. 
All the flooring being of wood, as it is in each of the 
stations I saw, and being kept clean and dry, the risk of 
getting a bad shock is not great, except by shunting the 
current through oneself, or getting in series with a main 
which are not ordinary accidents. 

At San Francisco the motor business is steadily increas- 
ing, and forms a welcome addition to the revenue of the 
station without a very great additional expenditure. 

I will now go on to the Edison station in Chicago. There 
is no necessity to describe it at length, as the plans on 
which Edison stations are constructed have been published 
over and over again. 

The boilers, which are situated on the ground floor, are 
of the water-tube pattern — Heine arrangement. In this 
pattern, which seems to be a good deal used, the tubes are 
much more nearly horizontal than in the well-known Bab- 
cock and Wilcox type. All the tubes come into a large flat 
box at each end. and there are small manholes in the boxes 
opposite the ends of the tubes for getting at them. These 
flat boxes are prevented from expanding with the pressure 
by tubular stays, which pass right through them and are 
expanded in their places. These small tubes ser\'e as blow- 
holes for directing a jet of steam on the upper side of the 
tubes to clear them of ashes. They are kept plugged up 
with a stopper under ordinary' circumstances to prevent the 
gases coming through. These boilers had a damper pro- 
jecting downward in the furnace opening for directing the 
draught over the surface of the coal when firing, to cause 
more complete combustion and prevent smoke. This damp- 
er may have been of some use for the purpose, but it cer- 
tainly made it a difficult operation to fire properly. 

The engines were also in the basement, in the next room 
to the boilers. They were of the ordinary Armington- 
Sims pattern, single cylinder, and neither compound nor 
condensing. There was one to each dynamo, the dynamos 
being situated overhead on the floor above. The dynamos 
were of the ordinary Edison pattern for, I think, 1,500 
lights each. Everything was very neatly arranged in the 
dynamo room, the current being conveyed about by large 
copper bars. The walls were simply lined with resistances 
and indicators for the different circuits. In fact, the place 
gave one rather the impression of a wholesale clock store, 
though the attendant informed me they did not have much 
difficulty in keeping their resistances properly adjusted. 
All the mains are underground, on the three-wire system. 
Indeed, there is a good deal of underground work in Chi- 
cago, the telephone company also having a large number 
of cables buried. 

The next station I visited was that of the Westinghouse 
company at Pittsburg. It is situated in a large building 
of the warehouse type, quite in the center of the town. 

The boilers here are of the water-tube type, but heated 
by natural gas instead of coal. This natural gas is brought 
in pipes to the town from a distance of thirty-five miles. 
The company who own the line of piping — of which, by 
the way, George Westinghouse is also president— sell this 
gas to manufactories, etc., at a rate which is nearly equiva- 
lent to the cost of coal, so that, although the convenience 
is great in using it, the economy is not so large as might 
at first be anticipated. 

Work at the Pittsburg station was in the first instance 
begun with two Corliss single cylinder engines of the ordin- 
ary type, driving onto a line of countershafting; but this 
method of working has not been extended, and one of 
these engines has since been removed. The next additions 
to the station consisted of Westinghouse standard engines 
of 2501. h. p., driving 2,500-light alternating dynamos. 
These engines stand on square blocks of concrete and ma- 
sonry; the blocks for this sized engine are about 7x5 feet. 
The last additions are of the ne v type of Westinghouse 
compound engine. From a power point of view, as well as 
from an electric lighting point of view, the station has there- 
fore something of historical interest. 

While in Pittsburg I had an opportunity of going care- 
fully through the Westinghouse engine factory with 
Ralph Bagley, the vice-president and manager, and of see- 
ing all the details of construction of each of the different 
types of engines. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



The Westinghouse Company make three styles of engine, 
each worked by a piston valve and single eccentric. 

The standard t>-pc is so well known that I will not say 
anything about it. In it as you are probably aware the 
steam valve is between the cylinders and set at a slight 
angle to them, while the cylinders are set rather over their 
work, and not directly in a vertical line above the crank- 
shaft. 

The junior and new compound engines are on somewhat 
different lines to the standard, while the main principles in- 
volved are nearly the same. In these two later types the 
piston valve ties horizontally along the top of the cylinder 
heads. It is operated bya single eccentric working outside 
the engine case in a vertical direction, the motion being 
changed to a horizontal one, by means of an L piece at- 
tached to the engine case bya hinge. The whole move- 
ment is of simple character and works exceedingly well. In 
fact, there are practically no more working parts in the 
compound engine than in the junior or the standard two- 
cylinder patterns, and the one is as simple as the other. 

The standard type has now stood the test of several years' 
work ver\' satisfactorily, and there is no room to doubt that 
the compound engine, constructed in the same shops md 
by the same method as the standard engine, will wear at 
least as well. The makers* tests show exceedingly good 
results for this compound engine— viz., from iS^ pounds 
to igi pounds of water per brake h. p. hour with con- 
denser, and from 24 pounds to 25 i pounds without condenser. 
I saw the testing apparatus in the makers' shops and en- 
gines undergoing their test prtparatory to deliver}', and 
feel perfectly confident that the figures given by the makers 
are thoroughly reliable. 

I will not describe this engine more fully, although to do so 
would probably elicit an interesting discussion, as it would 
be wandering from the subject of ray paper. On the other 
hand, the remarks I have made are not intended to com- 
pare the Westinghouse compound engine with any other 
engine of at all similar type, but rather to draw the attention 
of electrical engineers to the fact that there are now, at any 
rale, two large firms of the highest repute turning out this 
class of engine, and ready to guarantee economy and effi- 
ciency on a par with Corliss engines. 



January 4, 1S90 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
New York Notes. 

New York, December 2S. — Last Monday Mr. Edison 
testified before the grand jur>' on the subject of electric 
lighting in this city. He suggested that a law be enacted 
prohibiting the use of electric currents strong enough to 
destroy human life, as he asserted that electric lighting 
could be conducted without them. 

The United States Electric Illuminating company has 
sent a formal challenge to the Edison Electric Illuminating 
company, placing the "converter system" of the former 
against the "direct system" of the latter, as to economy 
and safety to the cDnsumers. The investigation which the 
the challenge calls for is "to be conducled by a board of 
seven experts, three to be chosen by each company and the 
seventh to ue chosen by the si.\ so chosen; one on each side 
to be familiar with insurance matters and the others practi- 
cal electricians." 

The grand jurj- handed down a presentment fome time 
ago stigmatizing the Hoard of Electrical Control as incom- 
petent, but still by reason of the decision of Judge Van 
Brunt, which dissolves the injunction obtained by the elec- 
tric illuminating companies, this body is allowed to carry on 
destruction of wires so far that not only are the electric 
illuminating companies suffering, but the whole city, which 
needs the light, especially at this holiday season of the year. 
Not only are the illuminating companies incensed against 
this destruction, but many of the prominent merchants and 
citizens are expressing their protests openly. 

On .Monday 2S miles of electric light wire were cut aid 54 
poles fell. and the work is progressing rapidly. The com- 
missioner of public works has experiencd dilTiculty in get- 
ting a sufficient number of experienced linemen, but since 
last week the electric companies have little use for their 
men and so the commissioner has taken advantage of this 
fact and engaged many of them. This will perhaps expe- 
dite matters. 

The electric companies are of one mind in their determi- 
nation to bring suit against the city and Commissioner 
Gilroy, and are only waiting until the destruction ceases 
in order to estimate the damage and bring suit for the 
proper amount. William II. Kelley, attorney for the East 
River Electric Light company, thinks the responsibiliy 
rests with Commissioner Gilroy, but that the Hoard of Elec- 
trical Control are imposing upon him. He says the East 
River company will sue for $250,000 or upward. 

The Hrown application for a mandamus to compel the 
Board of Health to take action against the high pressure 
current was heard in the Supreme court before Judge Law- 
rence. Col. Bliss appeared for the applicants and \V. P. 
Prentiss and Corporation Counsel I>ean for the Board of 
Health. Col. Bliss argued that the Hoard of Health had 
the power to interfere rather than the Board of Electrical 
Control. Mr. Prentiss said that the Board of Health was 
exercising its authority in the matter in directing the Board 
of Electrical Control by resolutions and orders to act in the 



premises, and there was no occasion to go further and pro- 
duce a clash in authority. Judge Lawrence reserved his 
decision. 

Gas is still leaking into the subways and explosions are 
imminent. A five-inch service pipe that carries a wire of 
the Manhattan company into the cellar of a store at the 
corner of Twenty-ninth street and Sixth avenue was so 
filled with gas as to blow out the wooden plug and an ex- 
plosion was obviated only through the prompt efforts of 
the owner of the store. He tore off the covers of the coal 
holes and let out the gas into the street. 

A benefit for Linemin Clausen's widow was given at 
Hardman Hall and over f 200 was realized. The novelty 
of the entertainment was a short address pertaining to in- 
terviews with Tnomas A Edison in regard to danger and 
safety of electric wires. 

Rapid tran it on Broadway is still under discussion and 
the latest scheme is an overhead cable system. Three other 
systems were taken under consideration by the Board of 
Aldermen, but no action has yet been taken. The revival 
of the cross-town road through Fulton street is contem- 
plated, but the electrical conduit system laid down in that 
thoroughfare some time ago will not be revived. 

So many persons have been calling on Mr. Edison that 
he was obliged to post up a sign at his laboratory to the 
effect that "Mr. Edison is co.npeIled to deny himself to 
visitors, as they have been so numerous lately he has been 
unable to give proper attention to his experiments." 

The electrical execution machines were tested at the 
Sing Sing prison yesterday by a committee for the state, 
composed of Dr. Carlos F. MacDonald. Dr. A. D. Rock- 
well, Dr. P. H. Landy. and electrical expeits. When the 
dynamos were run at less than their ordinary number of 
revo'utions per minute the electrical pressure was found to 
exceed 1,600 volts. At 300 revolutions a minute it was es- 
timated that the pressure would be more than 2,000 volts. 
Next week the committee will make tests of the dynamos 
at Auburn and Clinton prisons, and will probably experi- 
ment w!th a few animals. 

The terrible storm which prevailed throughout New 
York state on December 26th did an immense amount of 
damage to overhead wires of all kinds. 

Mrs. Olive E. Friend, Mrs. Emily Howard. George 
Halstead, and Orrin A. Halstead, defendants with William 
E. Hammond in the electric sugar fraud cases, have with- 
drawn their pleas of guilty before Recorder Smyth, and 
pleaded not guilty. 

The Jersey City aldermen have given the Bergen Electric 
Light, Power & Heat company a franchise under which it 
can erect poles in all the principal streets of the city and 
run electric wires on them. Another electric light ordi- 
nance was introduced which allows the Consumers' Gas 
company to put up poles and run electric wires on them. 
This was referred to the committee on streets of the board. 
W. H. T. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Kansas City, Mo., December 28. — E. R. Weeks of this 
city, the president of the National Electric Light associa- 
tion, said to the Western Electrician representative, 
that there would be between 400 and 500 electricians present 
at the convention February 11-14, many of whom had 
never been in the West. It will be the duty of the local 
committees to give them a good time. The general local 
reception committee consists of the following gentlemen: 
C. S. Rusling, chairman; Ira C. Hubbell, C. A. Ross, F. 
S. Caldwell, Edward La Salle. O. H. Schramme, J. W. 
Mason, M. E. Bates, W. W. Smith, M. D. Wood, H. C. 
Sprague and George M. Myers of Kansas City; Mr. Atter- 
bury. .'\. IL Reese, and D. R. Russell of St. Louis; A. W. 
Malborn, Ft. S:ott, and Thomas Officer, Council Bluffs. 
At a meeting of the local executive committee the follow- 
ing additional committees were appointed: On finance, C. 
A. Ross. Edward La Salle, George M. Myers of Kansas 
City; A. H. Reese, D. R. Russell, St, Louis. On print- 
ing and publications, H. C. Sprague, W. W. Smith, Ira 
C. Ilubbeli, Kansas City. 

"Through to Argentine" is the banner that hangs on the 
electric cars at Sixteenth and Bell streets. A trial trip was 
recently made. The track was in fine condition, and the 
run to the Twenty-fourth street bridge, over a mile, was 
made in five minutes, and Argentine reached in seven 
minutes more. When Argentine was reached the entire 
city turned out, and cheered the car when it appeared. 
After a stay of a few minutes the party on board the car 
returned, making the home run in eleven minutes. The 
entire line was in perfect running order. There are nine 
cars on the electric road, six running through to Argentine, 
and three to Armourdale. The run from Kansas City, Mo., 
to Argentine, is made in about thirty minutes. Through 
the push and energy of General Manager McCarly the Ar- 
gentine extension has been completed and cars are running 



ncariy nine weeks ahead of the time required in the fran- 
chise issued to his company. 

For eight months past Amos Mordis, a citizen of Hutch- 
inson, Kan., and a railroad contractorof great experience, 
has been working quietly in this city and in Kansas City, 
Kan , toward the construction of an electric belt railway 
system, second only to the Metropolitan in size and cost. 
Work upon the road will begin within a month; the consent 
of a majority of the property owners along the proposed 
line has been secured. T. B. Bullene, L. R. Moore, 
George Sheidley and several other prominent citizens are at 
the bottom of the enterprise, which is one of the most im- 
portant to the development of the two cities at the mouth 
of the Kaw, that could be presented. Franchises which 
were granted within the past few years to other companies 
and never used are in possession of the new company, and 
it is possible that an additional franchise, which will fill up 
the gap on certain streets of Kansas City. Kan., will be 
presented before the city council. It is understood that the 
new line is to act in conjunction with the Citizens' street 
railway, giving it the outlet on Wyandotte street which 
the Citizens' Railway has most needed to make it a paying 
investment. The road will cover twelve miles of double 
track and will require the construction of two bridges and a 
viaduct 3,000 feet long. The viaduct alone will cost 
$(00,000, and the engineers estimate that the entire system 
of twelve miles will cost §500,000. Boston capitalists 
have looked over the ground and reported a few days ago 
that they would take the entire bonds of the company at 
90 cents on the dollar. The line parallels the Metropoli 
tan at nearly every point, having one important advantage 
over the Metropolitan, from the fact that it connects Wyan- 
dotte and Armourdale. The Metropolitan made a hard 
fight before the city council at Argentine to prevent its 
rival from securing a franchise, but the electric line carried 
off the franchise. It is claimed that a majority of the Kan- 
sas City, Kan., council have pledged themselves for the 
new line, and that a second victory will be scored soon. 

The Kansas City Electrical society held its second meet- 
ing at the Midland hotel last week. The preliminary or- 
ganization was made permanent. Regular meetings will be 
held hereafter on the first and third Saturdays of each 
month. The proceedings were enlivened by a brief ad- 
dress from Mr. Weeks, manager of the Kansas City Elec- 
tric Light company, and also president of the National 
Electric Light association. Mr. Weeks assured the society 
of his hearty co-operation and assistance. Thomas F. 
Ciohesey followed in a short speech. He believed the or- 
ganization would prove of incalculable benefit to those 
engaged in electrical affairs, and promote the intellectual 
improvement of all concerned. Mr. Cutler of the Electro- 
Mechanic made a brief speech. 

The Postal Telegraph & Cable company has completed 
the work of erecting its poles and stringing its wires be- 
tween Kansas City and Topeka. The company has made 
application for a franchise in Emporia, Kan., which will 
be granted. P. 

Boston, Mass. 

Boston, December 27 — A heavy gale of wind, unac- 
compinied by rain or snow, swept over this city and all of 
southern New England last evening. The wind was blow- 
ing from the west and at seven o'clock in the evening had 
attained a velocity of fifty-four m'les an hour. Consider- 
able damage was done to telephone and telegraph wires in 
many New England cities. At 9 o'clock this morning 
Bostcn had no communication with any points in Maine. 
New Hampshire and X'erniDnt, and the Western Union had 
no wires to New York, either for commercial or general 
use. Communication was also cut off with Fall River. 
New B;;dford and Newport. The trunk lines of th^ Pos- 
tal Telegraph company to New \'ork, Canada and the West 
escaped with very slight damage. The Boston telephone 
service is as satisfactory to-day as if there had been no 
storm, a result due to the elVicient system of underground 
telephone conduits used by the company. In parts of 
Hrookline and Cambridge the electric lights were extin- 
guished, leavin ;the streets in darkness. Electric wires 
were blown down at .Salem, Lowell, Fall River and New- 
port, and the lUachmont station on the Boston & 
Revere electric railroad was blown down and demolished. 
It is worthy of note that, notwithstanding the unusual vio- 
lence of the gale, not a single wire of the West End Street 
Railway company's overhead construction was disturbed in 
the least, and no interruption to trafiic occurred. 

The long expected decision of the Lowell board of alder- 
men upon the petition of the two horse railroads in that city 
to use the overhead single trolley system was announced 
this morning. Tlie right to use the single trolley system 
on about four miles of line was granted, certain rigid con- 
ditions, however, being imposed upon the railroad com- 
pany The petition asked for the right to use the single 



January 4 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



trolley on all the horse railroad lines in the city, but per- 
mission to do this was not granted. 

Mayor Hart is making a determined effort to reduce the 
price now paid by the city for its arc lights. After taking 
the advice of several experts as to the cost of arc light- 
ing, he has held two conferences with representatives of 
the companies which have submitted bids for lighting the 
city with a view to securing a reduction in their bids. All 
bids so far made have been rejected, and the advertising 
for bids not to exceed 40 cents per light is due, the mayor 
says, in part at least to the result of his investigations on 
his recent western trip. The matter will be settled next 
Monday, the time when any new bids must be put in. It 
is expected that two companies will present bids for the 40 
cent limit. 

The open winter is most favorable to the plans of the 
West End Street Railway company to push forward the 
construction of their new power station and overhead lines. 
Hundreds of men are at work daily on the Central power 
station, though all of the work so far done has been below 
the surface of the ground. Excavation work, the driving 
of piles, and the laying of concrete foundations is going 
forward every day. It is expected that two of the 1,000- 
horse power engines will be on the ground and set up in 
the early spring. In the temporary plant near by the No. 
5 Mcintosh & Seymour 300-horse power compound con- 
densing engine is being put in place to-day. Four of these 
generators are belted to 12 Thomson-Houston compound 
wound generators of the usual type, while the No. 5 en- 
gine will drive three generators of a new type which have 
just been received from the Thomson-Houston factory. 
These are 4-pole compound wound machines with Gramme 
ring armatures. The commutators are of very large 
diameter, and there are four carbon brushes for each arma- 
ture. These machines are to a certain extent experimen- 
tal. 

It is reported that the purchaser of the Thomson Euro- 
pean Electric Welding company's patents is the City of 
London Contract corporation, the purchaser of the St. 
Louis breweries, and other industrial enterprises in this 
country. 

George W. Mansfield of the Thomson-Houston Electric 
company's railway department, gave a very interesting 
lecture last evening at Wells Memorial Hall, on "Electric 
Street Cars." 

F. C. Child read a paper before the Boston Electric club 
last Monday night, on the "Loss of Power by Radiation of 
Heat from Steam Pipes." 

Capt. Edward Brophy of the New England Insurance 
exchange, has been engaged by Mayor Jackson of Fall 
River to overhaul the electric wires in that city, to report 
defects, and suggest the best methods for stringing the 
wires. 

On Tuesday, tlie day before Christmas, the receipts of the 
West End Railway company for its passenger traffic were 
$ig,ooo as against ^iS.ooo for the corresponding day one 
year ago. Taking the average receipts per passenger at 
4.961 cents, as given in the company's last annual report, 
this gives as the total number of passengers carried last 
Tuesday, 383,000. This is almost exactly 100,000 more 
than the average daily traffic for the year ending Septem- 
ber 30th last. O. H. M. 



Indianapolis, Ind. 

Indianapolis, Dec. 28. — At a recent session of 
city council the chairman of the committee on street rail- 
roads read a letter from Superintendent Schaffer of the 
Citizens" Street Railway company, in which he asked that 
the ordinance as prepared, asking for an extension of the 
charter, be withdrawn. He assigned as a reason 
that the press of the city was opposed to granting an ex- 
tension on the terms named. The matter was called up 
and amended in such a way that little of the original ordi- 
nance remained. The amendments allow the street car 
company to use either animal or other power for the re- 
mainder of the life of the charter, the company to keep the 
streets in repair for sixteen feet of roadway when double 
track is used and for eight feet in the case of single track ; to 
be responsible for any damage resulting in case electricity is 
used; to put up wire in such a way as not to interfere with 
the telephone company's circuits; to put iron poles in the 
center of streets for holding conductors; to begin work in 
sixty days from the acceptance of the ordinance, in case 
electric motors are used, and to have five miles of road in 
operation in iSgo. The ordinance was passed as amended. 
The aldermen passed the ordinance, as amended by the 
council, without opposition. 

Mr. Schaffer declines to say at present what his company 
will do. The general opinion is that it will accept the or- 
dinance and go ahead preparing for the introduction of 
electric motors in the spring. 

A decision by one of the judges of the Superior Court, 



in the old Dudley cable road case, may have some bearing 
on the council's action. It reads: "The council has no 
authority to grant any company the right to operate a cable 
or electric line." The law under which the present com- 
pany's charter was granted says it shall use animal power. 
This case has gone to the Supreme Court. M. 



THE ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

The plant of the Fremont Gas Light company has been 
sold to the Fremont Electric Light company. The amount 
paid was $41,000. 

Belvidere, 111., is about to establish an electric light 
plant. The central station will be equipped with Westing- 
house alternating current apparatus for a capacity of 750 
lights. 

At a recent meeting of the Muscatine, la,, city council 
William Bowen was granted a franchise to operate an 
electric light plant in the city. 

The city council of Sheboygan, Mich., has awarded to 
the Thomson-Houston company a contract for city light- 
ing at I90 per lamp. A plant will be erected by local cap- 
italists. 

A company for electric lighting was formed in Lynch- 
burg, Va., some time ago, and the power house is now suf- 
ficiently advanced to receive one 750 light Westinghouse 
alternating machine. 

The carbon setters of the Allegheny County Electric 
Light company of Pittsburgh left their places on a strike a 
short time ago. The company and the men had a meet- 
ing, and the controversy was adjusted. 

The Electric Light company of Hays City, Kan., has 
concluded to enlarge its plant by adding a 500 light Thom- 
son-Houston incandescent dynamo, and a 50 horse power 
Westinghouse engine. The work will be completed with- 
in thirty days. 

The first dynamo of the new Westinghouse arc light 
system was sold to the East End Electric Light company 
of Pittsburg, Pa. G. P. Shane, the secretary of the latter 
company, stated a few days ago that the running of the 
machine has so far been exceptionally even and without a 
fault, whether operating a short circuit or its maximum ca- 
pacity of lamps. The machine is a 60 light dynamo. 

A dispatch from Jamestown, N. Y., says: Several weeks 
ago at a special election, a proposition to bond the city in 
the sum of $25,000 for a municipal electric light plant was 
voted down. The council, on petition of citizens, ordered 
another election, which was held to-day, and those favor- 
ing bonding won by 39 majority. If an attempt is made 
to issue bonds the matter will go into the courts, as the 
local electric light company contends that the second spe- 
cial election is illegal. 

The Light & Water company of Tacoma is moving its 
plant from its old to its new power house. The demand 
for lights has increased so great that recently the company 
had to build a larger power house in order to supply the 
demands. The company has two plants at present, and 
they will be located in the new quarters. These two 
plants are for arc lights and the incandescent lights. The 
company now have over 500 arc lights in the city, and 
there will soon be about 5,000 incandescent lights, varj'ing 
from ten to fifty candle power. 

The electric light has found a curious use in Russia, 
viz., for illuminating saintly images in cathedrals. Thus 
a magnificent figure of the Madonna, just placed in the 
Alexander Newsky monastery, loaded with precious metals 
and gems of immense value, stands glitteringly in the focus 
of an electric beam, which is also the cass with the "Kasan" 
Madonna in St. Petersburg. From near and afar thou- 
sands make pilgrimages to these shrines. It has been de- 
cided to so illuminate the ancient monastery of St. Ursula 
at Olmutz, the first instance on record cf its use exclusively 
in a monastery. - 

The Westinghouse Electric company has closed a con- 
tract with the Willamette Falls Electric company of Port- 
land, Ore. The Portland corporation intends to light the 
streets and houses of that city, and will establish a central 
station plant and equip it with Westinghouse alternating 
current machinery for a capacity of 6,000 incandescent and 
100 arc lamps. The central station it is proposed to erect 
at Willamette Falls, a distance of twelve miles from Port- 
land, as the company wishes to utilize water power in the 
generation of the electric current. From the station the 
current is to be carried to a branch station in the city, and 
from here it is to be distributed. Owing to the long dis- 
tance the current is to be carried previous to its distribu- 
tion, the Westinghouse company will make special appa- 
ratus capable of generating a current of 4,000 volts. The 
arc light machine chosen by the Portland company is that 
just brought out by the Westinghouse company, and the 
entire number of lights is to run from one machine. 

The Omaha Bee says of the electric light masts in Coun- 
cil Bluffs: "The two eighty-foot electric light masts, locat- 
ed in the southern part of the city a short time ago by the 
city council, were lighted last evening for the first time. 
The poles are set five feet in the ground, which brings. the 
lights seventy-six feet and eight inches above the level of 
the street. On each is placed two 2,000-candle power 
Sperry arc lights, and the result of last evening's experi- 
ment showed that the new systein will be a success. Two 
of these masts take the place of a 150 foot tower and four 
lights, and a larger territory is illuminated much more 
brilliantly. The light is thrown fully six blocks, and the 
space near the masts is more brightly lighted than the same 
distance from one of the towers. As the cost is much less 
than a tower, the new method bids fair to entirely supplant 
the tower lights. President Wright of the electric light 
company was immensely pleased with the result, and the 
citizens who reside in that part of the city are jubilant." 



THE ELECTRIC MOTOR. 

The Key City electric railway at Dubuque, la., operated 
by the Sprague system, was succesfully started on Decem- 
ber 24. 

The city council of Boone, la., has been asked to grant 
the local street railway company the right to run its cars by 
electric power. 

Articles of incorporation have been filed by the Merrill 
Electric Street Railway company. Nothing will be done 
this winter, except to contract for the material. The con- 
struction of the road next year is assured it is said. 

The directors of the Milwaukee City Railway company 
have decided to employ electricity on their entire line. 
The cost of the change will reach the sum of $400,000. 
The change will not be completed before next fall. The 
work will be commenced shortly. 

John Webber of Des Moines, la., has purchased the 
street railway line at Atchison, Kan. He will operate the 
line as it is until April, when he expects to have it ready 
for operation by electric motor. He will put men at work 
setting the poles and stretching the wires at once. 

It is stated that arrangements have been completed with 
a party of Eastern capitalists for the construction of a com- 
plete system of electric street railways in Lincoln, Neb. The 
particulars in the case have not yet been made public, but 
it is understood that the enterprise is backed by ample cap- 
ital, and that it is to be a go. Operations are to begin in 
the spring. 

A Springfield, Mass., paper says: "The proposed electric 
railroad between Athol Highlands and Orange has 
taken shape so far as to have begun the formation of a cor- 
poration. President W. G. Benedict of the Boston & Re- 
vere Electric railroad, and Mr. Ferguson of the Thomson- 
Houston company have been in town, and say that outside 
capital is available if a local corporation can be formed to 
secure a charter and the necessary franchises.' 

Among the charters recently filed with the secretary of 
state at Topeka, Kan., was one incorporating the Electric 
Railway, Light & Power company. The incorporators 
were D. C. Metsker, R. R. Moore, A. B. Wolverton, D. 
O. McCray and W. E. Sterne. The company was organ- 
ized by electing W. E. Sterne president, and D. C. Mets- 
ker secretary, treasurer and general manager. The capital 
stock is placed at $150,000, divided into 1,500 shares of 
$100 each. The company is organized for the purpose of 
constructing an electric railway at Sedalia, Mo. 

The electric railway at Rochester, N. Y., has proven so 
popular that other enterprises of the same character are 
now contemplated. A stock company with a capital of 
$So,ooo has just been formed to construct an electric road 
from Ontario Beach to Manitou Beach, a distance of seven 
miles. These points are summer resorts within easy reach 
of Rochesterians, and the projectors of the new enter- 
prise are confident of success. A double track will be 
constructed, and an overhead system introduced. The new 
company hopes to have the line in operation at the opening 
of the season. 

A resident of Spokane Falls, Wash., who was in Chicago 
last week, said: "That the town is growing so rapidly in 
spite of the present disadvantage is an indication that it is 
the place for a big city. The immense water power of the 
falls, which far surpasses the power at Minneapolis, is be- 
ing used to run dynamos. Electricity for power is beipg used 
all over the city. It is cheaper to have an electric motor 
than a steam engine. The >treet cars are run with elec- 
tricity and the whole town is lighted with arc and incan- 
descent lights. The power is practically unlimited, and 
electricity can be generated for almost nothing." 

A Minneapolis Sunday paper says: The electric motor 
cars on the Fourth avenue south line will begin running 
to-morrow, probably. The company has had its men em- 
ployed in running the cars for some little time, and the 
men are now well acquainted with their workings. Three 
cars took the members of the city council out on a trip yes- 
terday morning, leaving the postoffice at 11 o'clock and 
arriving at the Thirty-fourth street terminus in 16 minutes 
after the time of departure. All of the aldermen were 
highly delighted with the new style of locomotion, and 
have no doubts about its success if the obstacles of snow 
and ice can be overcome. 

A Kansas City paper says: "A trial trip has been made 
on the Argentine extension of the Metropolitan company's 
electric street railway. The trip proved a success in every 
sense of the word. At two o'clock car No. Su filled with 
street railway officials, started to make the first trip on the 
new line. The trip to and from Argentine, a distance of 
four miles, was made in twenty-three minutes and every- 
thing worked to perfection. Some trouble was anticipated 
at the several curves and grades, but when the train reached 
these points it sped along without any difficulty whatever. 
As the train rolled into Argentine it was welcomed by a 
large crowd of enthusiastic citizens who had collected on 
the streets awaiting its arrival. Regular trains will be 
placed in operation and will run ten minutes apart.'' 

It is expected that within a month work will began on a 
great electric belt railway system of this city and Kansas 
City, Kan., says a Kansas City paper. Amos Mardis of 
Hutchinson, Kan., has been interesting capitalists in this 
for some months, and among those who are in the syndi- 
cate are T. E. Bullene, L. R. Moore and Geo. Sheidley. 
The new line will start at Tenth and Wyandotte, with the 
Tenth street line extended from the Main street line to 
Wyandotte, extend thence north to Fourth and thence to 
the river, on land which has been reclaimed for that pur- 
pose. The river will be bridged so as to let the road into 
Kansas City, Kan., on Seventh street, and on that to the 
Quindar boulevard. The line will also take in Armour- 
dale, crossing the Kaw on the old county bridge, running 
on around to again cro.«s the Kaw south of Kingan's pack- 
ing house, and coming back over the bluff, entering Wyan- 
dotte street at the north. The line will cover twelve miles 
and will cost with the bridge, $600,000. The line will run 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, iSgo 



parallel wiih ihc Metropolitan, but will have the advantage 
of connecting Kansas City, Kan., and Armourdale. 

The following is from a Cleveland paper: The most in- 
spiring sight that has greeted the eyes of the street car 
patrons for some time was the recent exhibition of the 
Woodland \ West Side company's storage battery. It 
was the first trip from Wilson avenue to the lx)rain street 
terminus, and the trial bad been anticipated with lively in- 
terest. There was no lest of speed, but the object was to 
try the power in a trip of half a dozen miles, and to ascer- 
tain whether any defect would be developed in such a trial. 
The lest proved a most gratifyin-; success. The motor 
followed the horse car thai 'eft the barns at Woodland and 
Wilson avenues at 9:52 o'clock. Incandescent lights were 
displayed outside at the ends of the car. and the in- 
terior was also illuminated by electricity. The car reached 
Kank street al 11:19 o'clock, two minutes behind the sched- 
ule time, and the horse car was ahead by more than a 
block, but it was easily overtaken just west of the viaduct 
draw. The experimental car is an old one which has been 
fitted up for the trial. If this test was an ordinary per- 
formance, the system will probably be adopted by the West 
Side & Woodland Avenue company. It is said that if the 
company adopts the battery the road will be equipped with 
cars twenty feet in length, and that no tow cars will be 
used. 

The Rochester, N. V., Sunday Herald speaks to the 
point when it says: "Citizens of Rochester are manifesting 
considerable interest in the subject of more rapid surface 
transit in this city under the management of the new street 
car company. The only methods that have elsewhere 
proven to be superior to horses are the cable and the elec- 
tric systems. Taxpayers who have taken the trouble to 
make an independent investigation of these two methods 
are not slow in giving their preference to electricity as a 
motor. The laying of a cable means a bad tearing up of 
the streets, and it is claimed that East Main street bridge 
would be weakened by cutting into it sufficiently to put 
down a cable for street car propulsion. Especially diffi- 
cult would it be also to cross the canal by the cable system. 
With electric wires, however, it would be an easy matter to 
span the canal crossings and there would be very little 
tearing up of the streets, in fact not more than enough to 
set poles near the curb. The new company's committee is 
busily engaged on the subject of a motor that will give 
more speed to the cars and do away with horses. The men 
who have that matter in hand are charged to make their 
examination very thorough and complete. If they consult 
the wishes of a majority of the citizens they will not attempt 
to introduce the cable system here, because, as the feelings 
of taxpayers now stand, such a plan would meet with very 
determined opposition." 



THE TELEPHONE. 

It is stated that the Pittsburgh Telephone company pro- 
poses to institute suits against the Allegheny Electric 
Light company and against the company operating the 
electric railway in Allegheny. The allegations are that 
the electric light svires are insecurely fastened, and that 
they fall across the circi:its of the telephone company and 
burn out instruments. It is alleged also that a I'fge num- 
ber of telephones have been rendered useless by noises 
arising from the proximity of the railway wires. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 

The following was sent by a correspondent of a daily 
paper in the City of Mexico: "An English company recent- 
ly made an offer for the government telegraph lines, which 
was refused. The same company now asks for the conces- 
sion of a line to the Gautemalan frontier, with branches 
through the country east and west. It also proposes to es- 
tablish lines throughout Central America." 

The Western Union Telegraph company has been sued 
by T. R. Tobin, contractor and builder, of Seattle, Wash., 
for $6,483 damages for wrongly transmitting a message. 
A telegram addressed to Tobin slating that "Sallie (his 
wife) sailed Saturday" was given to the company for de- 
livery, and when Tobin received it the dispatch read "Sal- 
lie died Saturday." A few days later however, Tobin re- 
ceived information that his wife had sailed for Tacoma. 
Plaintiff had two contracts when he received the mislead- 
ing message, which he had to give up because of his in- 
ability to attend to them on account of the shocking news, 
and owing to his loss, tbgether with the mental anguish 
endured, he demands satisfaction in the above amount. 

The women of the Russian telegraph service are raising 
a great outcry in the press against the hardship of the law 
in force in Russ'a that they may only marry telegraphists, 
and that, too, only those who are engaged at the same 
station, the official idea being that they thereby, in case of 
need, would be able to take the places of their husbands. A 
young Russian woman writes to a Novgorod paper: "I 
have, therefore, if I do not choose to forfeit my situation, 
first to fall in love with an electrical swain, then to manage 
that he falls in love with me; next to arrange that he is 
transferred to my station. This is a hard task for a girl 
who is riveted fourteen hours every day to her apparatus 
and doei not wish to lose her p ttance of 720 roubles a 
year." ^_„_^_^^^^^^ 

Business Mention. 

The Easlon Electric company of 45 Hroadway, New 
York, has just issued a handsomely illustrated catalogue 
descriptive of its electric light system. 

The Pond Engineering company will furnish a complete 
steam plant of 75-horse poa-er for Murphysboro, 111. The 
company has shipped a 150-horse power Atmington ^\; Sims 
engine to the Edison Electric Illuminating company of 
New Orleans, making the sixth engine furnished the com- 
pany. The Pond Engineering company is furnishing a 



50-horse power boiler for the ice factory at Corpus Christi, 
Texas, an automatic feed pump and receiver in Kansas 
(.'ity, and leather link belt to the llolden, Mo., electric 
plant, and the St. Louis Smelting ^: Refining company. 

The Wainwright Manufacturing company of Roston, 
have furnished the following electrical plants with our cor- 
rugated copper tube feed water heaters recently: Canada 
Electric company. Nova Scotia; Edison Electric Light com- 
pany, Philadelphia; North Attleboro Steam & Electric 
company. Mass. ; Marr Construction company, Mass. ; 
Lewiston Electric Light \ Heat company, 111.; Bel'ast 
Electric Light company, Maine; 1 >enver Tramway com- 
pany, Colo. ; ( '.reensburg Electric Light company, Ind. 
The company reports ihat business is rushing in heaters, 
condensers, expansion joints and separators. 

John G. Royd of the (^ueen City Electric company of 
Cincinnati, O., has been booming the business of that 
company recently in St. Louis, Mo. In addition to the 
eleven motors previously placed there, Mr. Royd has re- 
cently consummated sales for incandescent lighting plants 
as follows: Mound Coffin company, 150 lights; Hall & 
Rrown Wood Working Machine Manufacturing company, 
150 lights; Logeman Chair Manufacturing company, 168 
lights; Campbell Manufacturing company, loi-^ lights. The 
construction work for these plants has been done all in ac- 
cordance with the recently perfected New England niles; 
nothing smaller than a No. i6 wire is used in any case, and 
all cleats dipped in P. i.\: B. paint. The Davis dynamo is 
rapidly forging its way to the front and the Queen City 
Electric company is compelled to run its factory all night to 
keep pace with the demands. 

The following letter has been received from A. F. Elun- 
dell, receiver of the Midland Electric company of Omaha, 
Neb.: ''The business of the Midland Electric company has 
this day been placed in my hands as receiver appointed by 
the United States court. By way of making a brief ex- 
planation as to what has led to this rtsult, I would say that 
since the business of this company was placed in my hands 
last April, when I was appointed general manager, our 
books show that we have been doing a very profitable busi- 
ness, but the burden of old indebtedness I finally found 
was more than we could longer carry. The company at 
present, aside from the old affairs, is in a prosperous con- 
dition, having a number of outstanding contracts which 
will none of them pay less than a net profit of 25 per cent., 
and in many cases exceed this amount. They have made a 
reputation for good and reliable work, the principal em- 
ployes are thoroughly practical and experienced men and 
hard workers. With a little time the business can be 
cleared up in a manner satisfactory to all concerned. All 
bills for goods hereafter ordered by me as receiver will be 
paid when due. payment being secured by the LInited 
States court through my bondsmen." 

The Ball Engine company of Erie, Pa., made the fol- 
lowing shipments during the month of December: The 
Brooklyn Street Railway company. Cleveland, O., three 
1 2 5-horse power engines; Redonda Hotel company, Los 
Angeles, Cal., one roo-horse power engine; Tatum 
& Bowen, San Francisco, Cal., one 25-hor£e power engine; 
Townsend Electric Light company, Port Townsend, Wash., 
one lOO-horse power engine; United States Improvements 
on the Mississippi River, one So-horse power engine; Atch- 
ison Gas & Electric Light company. Atchison, Kan., one 
125-horse power engine; Buffalo Street Railway company. 
Buffalo, N. v., one 125-horse power engine; Haverhill 
Electric Light company, Haverhill, Mass., one 125-horse 
power engine; The New Castle Steel company, New Cas- 
tle, Pa., one 50-horse power engine; The New Castle Steel 
company. New Castle, Pa., one 35-horse power engine; 
Trinidad Electric Light company, Trinidad, Colo., one 
loo-horse power engine; Edison Electric Illuminating 
company. Paterson, N. L, one 150-horse power engine; 
The Boulder Electric Ligtit company, Boulder, Colo., one 
loo-borse power engine; Garden City Packing iS: Preserv- 
ing company, Chicago, III., one 80-horse power engine; 
Paterson Electric Light company, Paterson, N. J., one 100- 
horse power engine; Gottfreid-Kreuger Brewing company, 
Newark, \. J., one 80-horse power engine; Ellensburg 
Electric Light company, Ellensburg, Wash., one loo-horse 
power engine; Jas. Ilearn & Son, New York, N. V., one 
60-horse power engine; Bellingham Bay Improvement com- 
pany, Sehome, Wash., one So-horse power engine; Leba- 
non Electric Light company, Lebanon, Pa., one lOo-horse 
power engine; Citi:^ens' Electric Light company, Coving- 
ton, Ky., one loc-horse power engine; Republican Pub- 
lishing company, Denver, Colo., one Oo-horse power en- 
gine; D. C. Spruance, Ballston Spa, N. V., one Go-horse 
power engine; Athens Gas Light company, Athens, Ga., 
one 60-horse power engine; Buffalo Brewing company, 
Sacramento, Cal., one 35-horsc power engine; Richardson 
Smith, Moore iS: Company, Snow Hill, ^Id., one 50-horse 
power engine; Edison Electric Illuminating company, Pat- 
erson, N. J., one So horse power engine; Poughkeepsie 
ICIectric Light company, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., one 100- 
horse power engine; Schuyler Electric Light company, 
Hudson, Mich., one fio-horse power engine; 11. II, Brown, 
Denver. Colo., one So-horse power engine; H. il. Brown. 
Canon City, Colo., one f»o-horse power engine; Crook, 
Horner i\: Company. Baltimore, Md., one 35-horse power 
engine; Edison Electric Illuminating company, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., one 250-horse power engine; Ueidsville Cotton Mill 
company, Reidsville, N. C, one 200-horse power engine; 
R. Mugge, Tampa, Fla., one loo-horse power engine; 
Norwalk iV L. S., Norwalk l-'.lectric Light company, 
Norwalk, Ct., one So-horse power engine. 



Electrical Patents. 



Personal Mention. 



John Hooper, a director in the Anglo-American Electric 
company, died at his home in New \'ork city last week. 

Robert T. Lozier of the Leonard i\: I/ard company's 
s'afT of engineers, is in New \"ork on a business and pleas- 
ure trip. 



Issued Dec. 24, 1889. 

417.7^2. Electric Cam. Henry S. Prentiss, New York. 
N. Y. 

By this invention a device fi.xed upon a shaft is 
caused to close the electric circuit but once during two 
revolutions of the shaft. 

417.747- Device for Suspending Electric Conductors. 
Sidney 1 1. Short, Cleveland, Ohio. 

4'7.753. Time-Distributer for Electric Clocks. Louis 
II. Spellier, Philadelphia, Pa. 

417,75s. Automatic Circuit Closer, fohn von dcr Ram- 
mer, New York, N. Y. 

417,763. Device for Demagnetizing Watches. Francis 
J. Whillon, Boston, Mass. 

417.787. Incandescent-Lamp Socket. James W. Pack- 
ard, New York, N. Y. 

417.788. Incandescent-Lamo Socket, fames W. Pack- 
ard, New York, N. Y. 

417. 7Sg. Incandescent Electric Lamp. James W. Pack- 
ard. New York. N. Y. 

This lamp is designed for high resistance circuits. 
The second claim reads: 

"In an incandescent electric lamp, the combination 
of the main bulb, together with the tubular portion or 
lip inserted and sealed in the end of the bulb, the in- 
ner end of said tubular portion being open, and one 
or more hooks on the inner end of said tubular por- 
tion." 

417,794. Armature for Electric Machines. Albert Schmid, 
Allegheny, and Nikola Tesla, Pittsburg. 

The core is composed of plates of magnetizable ma- 
terial separated by insulation; these plates are pro- 
vided with diverging slots for receiving the armature 
conductors, and an opening to the exterior of the 
plate at the origin of the diverging slots. 

417,814. Galvanic Battery. Patrick B. Delany, New 
York, N. Y. 

417,842. Device for an Electric Car-Signal. John P. 
Runkel, Milwaukee. Wis. 

417,920. Electric Heating Apparatus for I-Ileclric Rail- 
ways. Rudolph M. Hunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Claim I reads: 

"The combination of a suspended conductor, an 
electrically propelled vehicle, a current-collector ex- 
tending from the vehicle to the suspended conductor, 
a secondary battery on said vehicle, an electric healer 
or stove to heat said vehicle, and a circuit including 
said battery and stove, and receiving current from the 
current collector." 

417,923. Electro-Therapeutic Apparatus. Frederick J 
Kneuper, New York, N. Y. 

417.926. Electric-Circuit Controller. Frederic A. Lane, 
New Haven, Conn. 

This is an improvement on devices for limiting or 
controlling the time for which an electric circuit may 
be held broken or closed, 

417.927. Automatic Electric Clock- Winding Device. 
Frederic A. Lane, New Haven, Conn. 

417.928. Electric-Winding Clock. Frederic A. Lane, 
New Haven, Conn. 

417,931. Magnetic Toy. George W. Miatt, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

417,938. Vehicle Motor-Gear. Edgar Peckham, New 
York, N. Y. 

417,974. Electric Railway Contact. Francis O. Black- 
well, New York, N. Y. 

The invention consists in providing a rod or arm 
extending upwardly from the car with a transverse 
slide at its lower end, permitting it to move from side 
to side of the car, as the irregularities in the supply 
wire may necessitate. 

417,992. Underground Electric Conduit. John Dell, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

The conduit has a central passage polygonal in 
transverse section, with radial partitions extending 
from the angles of the central passages to the outer 
wall of the conduit, forming an annular series of pas- 
sages surrounding the central passage. 

417,998. Trolley. William L. Emmet, Wichita, Kan. 
Claim I reads: 

"The combination, with the fixed plates, of a tube 
held between said plates, and a contact roller on said 
tube independent of the plates, and free to revolve on 
the tube." 

418,041. Magnetic Rubber-Stock Cleaner. Nathaniel 

C. Mitchell, Philadelphia, Pa. 
The second claim follows: 

■■The combination, with a series of magnetic sepa- 
rators arranged for successive action upon the stock, 
said separators being inclosed in a casing, of a pipe 
having its mouth overhanging the separators, and an 
air-exhausting device in said pipe." 

418.069. Electrical Toy. Henry G. Rogers, Washington, 

D. C. 

418.070. Electrical Toy. Henry G. Rogers and Andrew 
M. Coyle, Washington, D. C. 

418.071. Automatic Vending Machine. Henry G. 
Rogers, Washington, D. C. 

418,120. Magneto-Electric Machine. Webster Gillett, 
New York, N. Y. 

418,125. Electric Synchronizing Device for Clock-Pendu- 
lums. James Hamblet, Brooklyn, N. V. 

418,140. Electrode for Secondary Batteries. Harry G. 
(Jsburn, Chicago, III. 

A plate or grid is so constructed that, after the 
plastic active material is forced into the peiforaiions of 
said plate or grid, and the latter completed and dried, 
the material is held securely therein. 



January 4 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Eugene E. Fhtt.t.tps, President. 



W. H. Sawyee. seo'y and Electrician. 



AHEHICAIT ELECTRICAL WOUKS, 

J I / PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Maoufacturers of Patent Finished 

ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, Office and Annunciator Wire, Rubber Covered 

Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Telephone and 

Incandes(?ent Cords, 

FARADAY CABLES. 

New York Office, 18 Cortlandt Street, 

F. C. ACKEBJIAN, Agent. 




EuGESE F. Phillips, President. 



J.uiES Cooper, Seo'y and Treasurer. 



Eugene F. Phillips Electrical Works, 




(UMITKD.) 



omee, aoi St. Jaii><>8 St. I 
ITactory, »t. CrubrielliOcks. ) 



Montreal, Canada. 



- JIANTTFACTrREKS OF - 



ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, Office and Annunciator Wire, Rubber 

Covered Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Telephone 

and Incande£cent Cords. 



HAZAZER <&. STANLEY, 

£lectrical House Furnisliiiigs, 

DUST-PROOF BELLS, 

33-34 ^raxilcfort St., MEW YORK. 

STANDARD ELECTRICAL TEST 




^f* 



Ayrton & Perry, Ammeters and Voltmeters. 

Carpentier Ammeters and Voltmeters. 

Siemens' Electro-Dynamo Meters, 

Cardew Voltmeters. 
Queen s New Laboratory Standard Resistance Boxes. 
Queen's New Portable Combination Test Sets. 

Complete Outfits for Insulation Testing. 



JAMES 1. QUEEN & CO., 



924 Cliestnat Street, Pliiiidelpliii. 



FARADAY CABLES. 



THE "cil ark :" ixriRE. 

Insulation Guaranteed Wherever Used, Aerial, Underground or Submarine. 





In a letter from the Inspector of the Boston Fire Underwriters' Union, nnder date of March 
29, I8S6, be says : *' A Thoroughly Ileliable and Desirable Wire in Every Respect." 

The rubber used In Insulating our wires aud cables Is specially chemically prepared, and is guaranteed 
to he waterproof, and icill not deteriorate^ oxidize or crack, and will remain flexible In extreme cold weather 
and not affected by heat. The insulation Is protected from mechanical Injury by oue or more braids and the 
whole slicked with Clark's Patent Compound, which Is water, oil, acid and, to a very great extent, fire proof. 
Our insulation will prove durable when ail- others fail. We are prepared to furnish Single Wires of all 
gauges and diameter of insalalion for Telegraph, Telephone and Electric Lights from atocK. Cables mad? 
to order. 

EASTERN ELECTRIC CABLE COMPANY, 

■^ 61 and 63 Hampshire Street, Boston, Mass. 



BENHV A. CLARK. Oeneral ManatrPr. 



HERBERT H. EUSTIS. Electrician. 




Illustrated Circular 
of Lamps and 
Lamp 




THE E. S. CREELEY ^ CO., 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES, 

5 and 7 DB¥ ST., \'EW 1'ORK. 

ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT 

Instruments and Batteries of 
ths Very Highest Grade, 

iPrecialon and Constancy. Quality and Fin ah. the Novelties 

Best in the World. „ 

Catalogne of Standard Test iDPtrnmenle , 

famished upon *ipplicatlon. ji Application 

MINIATURE INCANDESCENT LAMPS. 



FRICTION CLUTCH PULLEYS 

AN© CUT-OFF COCPIilXGS. 

Vise-like grip of clutches optionally grcdoal cr suiSdin. 
Large friction suifcces pieaer.t undue ueor. 

Disengaaement of clutches is poiitwc. 
Pulley shaft automatically oiled. 
They haue a g^od tecotd running through five years. 

Experts are invited to examine peculiarities. 
send for 1Ȥ0 Catalosne. 

ECMPSE WJ XD EXGI]NE CO., Beloif . Mi s 




LEONARD <fe IZARD COMPANY, 

aOHSULTIHG AHD COHTMCTIKG ILECTRICAL MGIHEERS, 

For anj' or all Systems of Electric Street Railways, Electric Motors of all Kinds, Incandescent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Electric Light 

Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Electric Transmission of Power, Train Lighting Plants. 
A full line of Commercial Supplies carried at all times for Plants described above. Plans and Specifications for all Kinds of Electrical Construction Work. 

Sherman and Van Buren Sts.-RIALTO BUILDING, CHICAGO. ILL. 

Branch Offices: Tlie Ijninhpr Fsolianee. Eooma 5 and 6, 9liniicppn]is.-31liin. : lVoTtli-west<>ni Manual T-if** Intinrance Block. Eorm 115, Telpphone 1-2't). llilnaiik'>p. y^in 



>lO hi/^ 



TRADE MARK. 



INSULATED WIRES AND CABLES, 

Electric Light, Telephone, and Telegraph, 

CANDEE AERIAL WIRES, OKONITE WATER-PROOF TAPE, MANSON PROTECTING TAPE. 
ATKTARDED A GOLD MEDAL AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION. 

THE OKONITE COMPANY, - - - 1 3 Park Row, NEW YORK. 

BRANCHES: Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia. Omaha, Minneapolis, Cincinnati Louisville. St. Louis. Kansas City, and San Francisco. 

4. MJLIIX7FJLCrXJH:EH.S OF * 

Automatic Electric Motors 

In all Sizes from One-half H. P. Upward. 

High Efficiency, Perfect Regulation, Superior Workmanship, Ease of 
Management, Remarkable Simplicity, Etc., Etc. 




For Electroplating, Electrotyping, Copper Eefining, Etc, 

KCimPn nBPirrC' new YORK, 33 church St.; BOSTON, m Arch St.; PHILADELPHIA, 506 Commerce St.; CHICAGO, 42 La Salle St 
DiUUIljn UriillllO, KANSAS CITY, Rialto Building: NEW ORLEANS, 106 Carondelet St. 

THE EDDY ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO., WINDSOR, CONN. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4 1S90 








ESTABLISHBD IN 1861. 

E. BAGGOT, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 



/ ELECTROLIERS, 



COMBINATION 

GAS AKD ILSCTEIC 

FIXTURES. 

ELECTRIC AND GAS GLOBES, 
SHADES, Etc., Etc., 

Madison Street and Fifth AYenne, 

CHICAGO. 



-BRANCH STone- 



2134 Michigan AvenuOy 



THE SPERRY ELECTRIC CO., 

D. P. PERRY, Vice-President and General Manager, 

IIASDFACTURERS OF THE 

SPERRT IJVIPROVED STSTEM 

OF 

HIGH OR LOW TENSION. 



Stilwell's Patent Live Steam-Feed Water Purifier. 




Removes all Impurities. 

Entirely prevents SCALE '" Steam 
Boilers. Cutaloi^ue on appliciilion, 

STILWELL&BIERGBMFG.CO., 

DAYTON, OHIO. 



GEORGE CUTTER, 

CONSULTING ELECTRICIAN, 
80 Adams Street^ - GHICACrO. 



BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO., 

Orford Rosette Pendant "i!"? 



Send for Circulars. 



THE LUNKENHEIMER BRASS MFG. GO., - Cincinnati, Oliio. 




1. The new Sperry apparatus free from repairs for twelve months. 

2. That the new ^pe^^y Improved Dynamos can tie coupled in serlee with perfect safety. 

3. That any number of lamps from one to capacity of dvnamo can be cut In or out of circuit, 
singly or in gronps, with perfect safety, and without aparkiog at the brushes. 

4.. To absorb power Id exact proportion to number of lights bnrning. 



vsrE: 13e:i_ie:\ze:: 

1. The new Automatic Sperry Dynamos and Lamps surpass in eniclency those of any other 
mahc. 

'I. That there is greater economy iu operating the new Sperry System than any other, 

3. That our aatomatic regnlatlon has no equal; no rheostat, no wall boxes, no solenoid or 
dash-pot. 

4, That if you will visit our factory we can show yon the best arcllghting apparatus in existence. 

We invite correspondence with electrical engineers. Intending buyerSjand Interested 
people everywhere. 

THE WWW ElECTRIE Cfl„ \X 195, 198 Soutli flinton 5t„ CHICAGO, ILL 

VXV*^ Office and Factory ^»f/ 

2134 to 2140 DeKalb St., - Sr. LOUIS, MO, 

MaDEfactnrers of ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS anil CARBON SPECIALTIES, 

OUR 

■BLiCKDI&MOND" 

POINTS 

(llTSflI.\E 

THE.M ALL. 

AA^RITE FOR SAMPLES AND PRIOE8 




Lone Life, 
Uniform Size, 

AND 

SL'PEBIOR QUALITY, 

Guaranteed Second 
to None. 



Write for June, 1889, Cataloene of (S) Globe Valves, Pop Safety Valves 

r,abrlcators, Oil and Grease Gaps. Engine Builders' Brass Goods, 

and Glass Oil Cups for Dynamos. 



I 2 Pearl Street, Room 6, 



BOiSTOlV, MASS. 




IfflBFOvefl Patenteil Material for 
Railway Roail-lieils. 



Street 



EUREKA CONSTRUCTION. 



BEST MATERIAL. LOWEST PRICES. CORRES- 
PONDENCE SOLICITED. 

THOMAS ASHBCRNER, Western Agent, Kansas Cilj, Mo. 

Rolled any weigtit deelred. Patent allowed . Sample 
Chair and Section of Rat! Sent, Express Prepaid, to 
Prospective Pnrchasere. 



Sioux City Corliss Engine. 




so to boo: 



LARGEST "eNCINE .WORKS 

\V<'st of tlie Mississipiii. 



JJUILT ))V THE 

Sioux; oiT^v 

ENGINE WORKS 

Sionx City, Iowa. 

BOILERS 



Steiiin roMfi* Oiitlll* 

for I.iglU iig Sliitloiis 

auil KifvatoFM 

AS7ECIALTY. 

Soiid for Circular F. 

jCtg^Stiito BiiBineHB. 



GENl mgMTSll^^^^^^lli^^ 'r^ 



J. F. PORTER, Pres. & Genl. Manager. 



E. RUEBEL, Superintendent. 



CENTRAL ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, 



919 LOCUST STREET, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

BRANCH: NASHVILLE, TENN. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

For any system of Incandescent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Street Bail'vray Plants, Electric Po'wep 
Plants, Electric Light Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Train Lighting Plants, Pole Line Construction. A full line of supplies 
carried at all times for plants described above. Plans and specifications for all kinds of Electrical Construction. 

THE STANDARD CARBOrCOMPMrCLEVErAND, OHIO, 



ZLX^zi.ixfa,ct't;iX'erai of 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS AND BATTERY MATERIAL. 



January 4, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



VICTOR TURBINE WATER WHEEL 




The attention of ELECTRIC COMPANIES is called to this CEI^E- 
BRAXED 1VATER IVHEEI^ as particularly adapted to their use. 
on account of its remark: a,bly steady motion, bisrii Speed 
and pjreat Efficiency, and larg^e Capacity, for its diameter, 
being double the Po^wer of most wheels of same diameter. It is used by a 
number of the leading electric companies with great satisfaction. In the econom- 
ical use of water it is without an an equal, producmg the highest per cent, of use- 
ful effect c;uaranteed, 

Sfearo FOB CATALOtJlTE AXD PARTICriiARS. 

Our Horizontal "Victor" is highly recommended, as no geai:: are required, 
and it can be belted directly to dynamo. 

The accompanying engraving represents a pair of 12-inch VICXOR 
XIIRBII^'ES arranged on a horizontal shaft, with Cast-Iron Flume, Draft 
Tubes, End Bearings for Shaft, and Driving Pulleys complete, all mounted upon 
a substantial cast-iron bed plate. The entire arrangement is very complete and 
strictly first-class in every particular. We are now prepared to furnish Victor 
Turbines, eitlier single or in pairs on horizontal shafts, and where the situation 
admits of their use. we recommend them, 

STILWELL & BIERCE MFG. CO., - DAYTON, OHIO. 



FACTORIES: 



WATERBURY, CONN. 



9IANVFAGT1TREBS Of 





BARXS AND INSUX«ATX:D IKTIRXS. 

Underwriters' Copper Electric Ligrht Line wire, handsomely finished, highest conductivity. Copper, Maernet Wire, Flexible Silk, Cotton and 
Worsted Cords for, Incandescent LIghtinff. Round and Flat Copper Bars for Station Work. Insulated Iron Pressure Wire. 

PATENT K^ K," LINE WIRE 

For Electric Light, Electric Railways, Motors, Telegraph and Telephone Use. 

AGENTS FOR THE WASHINGTON CARBON CO., CARBONS FOR ARC LIGHTING. 

J. L. BARCLAY, Selling Agent, THOS. L. SCOVILL, New York Agent, 

THE ROOKERY, CHICAGO, ILL. 25 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK. 



GLOBE CARBON CO.,^AKERS^»:^^^^^^^^^^ 
Vj^yj^LEVELAND, OHIO. ^^V*^ 1^ llGHTING 



BELDING MOTOR & MFG. COMPANY, 




OFFICE 144 Adams Street, The Rookery, [ 
FACTORY 128-130 So. Clinton Street, ) 



CHICAGO JLL, U.S.A. 



MAITOFAOTUREKS OF THE 



BELDING ELECTRIC MOTORS 



P 






Perfect Automatic Regulation, 

Highest XafBciency CS-uaranteed. 

THE STRON&EST ARMATURE MADE, PERFECTLY BALANCED, ABSOLUTELY NO HEATING. 

All Parts Interchangeable Even to Commutator. 

Correspondence Solicited. - Agents Wanted in all the Principal Cities. 




Telepiiones and Electrical Sup- 
plies of Every Description. 

Elgin Telephone and Electrical Supply Co 
ELGIN, ILL., U.S. A. 










tlGH/lNC, ^cecTRO -PLATING., ANJ) 

fOR-EXpeRIMeNrALUSE. AU50 K10TOR5. 



THE STANDARD OPEN CIRCUIT 



BATTERIES OF THE WORLD. 




llpF^ATip 
■'d!iiJ'NV,i -'84. ^mi 



PARIS 
HIGHEST AWARD! 

THE ONLY 

GQLDJEDAL 

ELECTRIC BATTERIES 

EXPOSITION 

1889 



60KDA. 

THE LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 




149 West 18th Street NEW YORK. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1S90 



BUTLER HARD RUBBER CO 



THE 



33 Mercer Street, NEW YORK, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Of every description, including the celebrated HARD RUBBER BATTERY CELLS, manufactured under 
KieVs Patents for Primary and Storage Batteries. The cheapest and best Cells in the market. Also 
Sheet, Rod and Tubing (Kiel's Patent) for electrical purposes, at reduced prices. Standard quality Sheet, Rod, 
Tubing, Insulator Hooks, Key Knobs, Switch Handles, Telephone Receivers and Battery Syringes, constantly on hand. 

HARD RUBBER SPECIALTIES OF ALL KINDS MADE TO ORDER. SEND FOR PRICES AND ESTIMATES. 

For Sale by CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., CMcago, 111. 




DETROIT 

Electrical Works 

MANUFACTURERS. 



P 



Stuii<lni-<l llntol fertile AiiiiiiiK-iatoi*, 

Wilh OUe J CALL and FIHC ALtRM ATTACHMENTS. 



In our Annunciators our aim has been that 
nothing should he wanting in style, workman- 
ship or material to make them the BEST ever 
put on the market. 

Dealers who wish to identify themselves with 
the best goods and the safest policy, should 
handle the products of the DETROIT ELEC- 
TRICAL WORKS, which have the highest in- 
dorsement of both dealers and consumers through- 
out the country. 

Write us for Illustrated Annunciator Chart. 

RESPECTFULLY, 

Detroit Electrical Works, 










( 









fjl^^ 




ii^^ 


» 


/ t^M^ 


\ 250. 


A '^^'i^ 


-r-^^. 


'', ^^^^i^M^^^^S 








TiTtl^iP^^M 


' V^ 


— ^ '^'IQB^B 


R#li ^& 


.^^■^^^■^^r<«fl 


OF^ 






!^IU^MVTnfl 


aV nL.^ ' 


•f i-KJd^^^RV 


V^fffH 


9777X^ft&2 



\o\l- 




600A_- 



Januar)' 4, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



XVI 1 



THE HEISLER PATENT LONB DISTANCE 

INCANDESCEtlT ELECTBIC LIGHT SYSTEM. 




UNEQUALED FOR. DISTRIBUTION OVER WIDE AREAS. 

"Awarded the Highest Distinction, a Gold Medal, by the International 
Jury at the Universal Exposition, Paris, 1889." 

Specially adapted for Street, Commercial, and Domestic Illumination from Central Sta- 
tions. Plant may be located where Power can be secured Clieapest, even if miles distant from 
the Lighting. Safety, Reliability, and Financial Success fully demonstrated. Plan of Wiring 
the Simplest, Cheapest, and most Efficient. Strictly Series. Noted for the Brilliancy and 
Beauty of the Light. Lamps, 10 to 100 Candle Power; Long Life without Blackening. 
Greatest Produciion of Candle Power per Horse Power. Dynamo Self-Contained and Per- 
fectly Automatic. 

SEKD VOR CIBCriiAR. COBRESPONDEKCE 80I>ICITEI>. 

HEISLER ELECTRIC LIGHT CO., 




StreelPoleaM Fixture 

-FOR- 

Helsler Loig DislaDce 

INCANDESCENT 

I<IGUTll«e 



809-817 South 7th Sti eet. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 




POND 



ENGINEERING CO. 



707 and 709 Market St., St. Louis. 
427 '-The Roakery," Chicago. 
31 Waterworks Building, Kansas C'ty. 
319 Ramge Building, Omaha. 
ENGINES, BOILERS, ETC., FOR DRIVING DYNAMOS. 

COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS CONTRACTED FOR. 

Erected Ready for Service. 

BFECIAIiTlJSS :-Th6 AnnlDgton & Sims Engine, Steel BoUere, Ireson Link Belt, Stand- 
ard Socklflgand SheiBeld Grates, Lowe Heater, Hyatt Filter, Blake Pomp, Korting Injector, etc. 

BEKD FOB I1A.TB8T CATAIiOeUES. 






GEORGE P. BARTON 

LAW OFFICE, 

226 BEABBOBN STREET, 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

Patent and Trademark Cases. 




LOGKWOOD AMMETER 
»° POLARITY INDICATOR 

For Arc an d Incandesce nt Circuits. 
Lockwood Instrument Co., 

91 Griswold Street, 
Everybody Should Have One ! 

umm OP EiiCTRiciTy, 

With Glossary of Electiical Terms and Tables for Incandescent Wiring. 

50 Illustrations. 120 Pages. 

Postpaid. Paper Cover, 25 cents. Cloth, |1.00. 



BUBIER PUBLISHING CO., 



LYNN, MASS. 





THE JULIE N ELECTRIC CO., '''''%tJ^t:S po^l'^"'"" 
THE JULIEN ELECTRIC TRACTION CO., ^KJSii;' 

0.fe--.t=--IOES: ISO Bro£id.-<:?ya,37', ^TeT;v "STorHs, 

J.B.YOUNG, President and Treas. B. K.JAMISON, Vice-President. 

SOLAR CARBON tt MFG. COMPANY, 

Office, No. 69 Schmidt & Friday Building, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Well Selected and Good CARBONS made from Natural Gas. Process Patented. 

BATTERY CARBONS OF ALL SHAPES AND SIZES A SPECIALTY. 

Western Office, 1 75 Randolph Street, Chicago. Special Discounts on Large Orders. 

I W. ELECTRIC CONSTRDCTlOll & SDPFLT CO., 

SOLE N. W. AGENTS FOR 

THE THOMSON - HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 

CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS of complete Electric Light and Steam Plants, and 

Electric Street Railways. 

NORTHWESTERN HEADQUARTERS FOR ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 

SUPPLIES FOB ALL SYSTEMS KEPT CONSTANTLY IN STOCK, 



ESTIMATES SENT UPON APPLICATION. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



THE N. W. ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION & SUPPLY CO., 

403 AND 405 SIBLEY ST.^ ST. PAUL, MINN. 



xviii 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1SS9 




THE MATHER ELECTRIC CO., 

Chicago Office, I I Metropolitan Block. 

N. Y. Office, 35 Broadway. Boston, 105 Summer St. Cincinnati, Carlisle BIdg. 

THE MATHER INCANDESCENT SYSTEM. 

Superior to all others in efficiency and reliability of Lamps and Dynamos. 



\ , 



From one-half horse-power upward, for oonBtant potential circuits, perfectly selt- 
regiilating without special mechanism. Motors also for constant current circuits. Motors 
wound for any desired potential. 

EDISON MANUFACTURING CO., 

EDISON-LALANDE 




Under authority of Thomas A. Edison. 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

Primary Batteries for Telegraph ''Mains" and 'locals;' 

Electric Motors, Telephone TransmitterSi 

Electro-Plating;, Electro-Medical Instruments, 

Annunciators and BurglarAlarms 

And all classes of Closed and Open Circuit Work. 



JAMES F. KELLY, °™";r" 

FACTORY, GRANGE, N. J. 



1 9 Dey St., NEW YORK. 



Patent Needle Annnnciatort*, Burglar Alarms, Klectric Bells, Bronze, Nickel and Wood Pasties, 
and Window Kprings, Electric Slatting, Aatomatic, Ratchet and Hand flight Burners, 
Spark Coils, Keys (Wood and Nickel), Componnd Poshes, etc., etc. 




Door 



FRANKLIN S.CARTER. 



CHARLES M. WILKINS. 

TRADING AS 



E. WARD WILKINS. 



PARTRICK St CARTER, 

MANUFACrUKERS AND DEAXEKS IN 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES. 

SOLE PROPBIETOBS PATENT NEEUL.E ANNVNOlATOBiil. 

1 1 4 South Second Street, 
Established 1867. PHILADELPHIA. 



Uoor Palls and Attachments, Aatomatic Drops, Magneto Bells, Baiexers, Bat 
terie8(all kinds). Foot Pa><hes, Pear Poshes, Desk Pushes, and all (Supplies fur Electric Bell Work 

^^^ Send lor our new 1889 Catalogue, and if in the trade inclose business card for discount sheet. 




January 4, iSgb 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



JOHN W. MASON, Manager. 
SPECIAIi AGENTS 



.>lO IV/> 



TRAQC MAriK. 
IVIRES AND CABIiES. 



GATE CITY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Have a FUI,Ii STOCK of 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES! 

And will make liOW Prices and PROMPT Shipments. 

522 DELAWARE STREET, - - KANSAS CITY, MO. 



WHEN YOU BUY A MOTOR 

From AJSX Manufacturer or Dealer, 

State that you WANT IT SUPPLIED 
WITH the 

Whittingham 

Automatic 

Switch. 

Send for Catalogue. 

Automatic Switch Co., 

No. 8 Kejser Buildhig, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

B. D. BRAIDED WIRE. 

THE POPULAR WtR<: FOR INCANDESCENT WORK. 

Safe and Reliable. 

NEW YORK INSULATED WIRE CO,, 

1 1 Central St., Boston, Mats. 649 & 651 Broa Iway. 

W. B. OnwSE, R. E. GALLAHER, Secy. 

Gen'l Supt. J. W. GODFREY, Gen'l Mgr. 






ELECTRIC LIGHT CO, 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

STREET OR TRUNK LINES. 

ELEVATED OR UNDERGROUND. 



Central Stations for Power Distribution. 



NEBRASKA ELECTRIC CO. 

A. H. ZENNER, Manager. 
CONTRACTORS AND JOBBERS. 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL CONSTRDCTION AND SUPPLIES. 

1521 FARNAM ST., OMAHA, NEB. 

Pumpelly Storage Batteries, Standard Underground Cable Co.'s Wires, Celebrated 
Waring Cables and Conduit's, Paiste Switches, Stoddard Cut-Oats, Thomson- Houston 
Motors and Dynamos, Sawyer-Man Lamps and Specialties, Combination Fixtures 
and Electroliers, Gleason & Bailey Mfg. Co.'s Supplies, Wing's Disc Pans and Ex- 
hausts. Electric Lighting and Supplies, Electric House Furnishings, Bell Hangers, 
Sundrifci, Complete Steam Plants. 



ELECTRIC HEAT REGULATOR 

Saves Coal, Saves Doctor's Bills, Saves Labor; 

Automatic, Simple and Durable ; insures uniform temperature 
throughout the house; no heater complete without it; can be 
applied to any kind of heating apparatus. Try one, and be con- 
vinced. 
If not Bold In your town write us for lUuetrated circular and prices. 

CONSOLIDATED TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING CO., 

SIIIiXEAPOLIS, 3IIN1V. 



O. F. AX>t;tT, Prest. 



S. F. PENTON, Vlce-Prest. and Treat 



Hotel and House Annunciators. 
Electric Gas Lighting. 
Tire and Burglar Alarms. 
Electro-Medical Apparatus, 
Electric Lighting. 
Telegraph InstrumentB, 
Wire and Batteries. 



CHAS. SIDTirET SMITH, S«tfy 



Tiie United Electric Co. 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies, 
SALT LAKE CITY, ■ UTAH. 



QUEEN CITY ELECTRIC CO.. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

DYNAMOS AND MOTORS. 



TWO FIRST PRIZE COLD MEDALS 1888. 

MOST EFFICIENT. MOST EFFICIENT. 



STATIONARY MOTORS. 

STORAGE BATTERIES. 



Executive Offices: 115 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

AGENCIES, 13 South Fourth St., Philadelphia; 113 La Salle St. , Chicags. 

Factory: JERSEY CITY, N. J. 





DYNAMO 

] 26 to 500 

LIGHTS' 

CAPACITY. 

—AND — 

ECONOMICAL. 



MOTOR 

1-8 to 50 

Horse Power. 

EVER 

READY. 



ISOLATED PLANTS and C ENTRAL STA TIONS FOLLY ERECTED. 

Motors for Running 

ELEVATORS, lANS, PUMPS AND GENERAL MACHINERY. 

We give an Absolute Guarantee regarding Materials, Workmanship 
and EfEoiency. 

OFFICE, FACTORY AJSD SALFSROOitI, 

58&60Longwortli St., CINCINNATI, 0. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1890 



"C. & V ELECTRIC MOTOR COMPANY, 

402 $c 404 GREENWICH STREET, NEW YORK. 



ALL STANDARD SIZES 

OF— 

ELECTRIC MOTORS 

1-8 H. P. TO 40 H. P. 



Chicago Office. Plicenix Building. 
Cincinnati Office. 99 West Fourth Street. 




OYsr 6,000 How in Use 



UNITED STATES, 

Running Sewing Machines, Elevators, 
Printing Presses, Ventilating Fans, Blow- 
ers, Coffee Mills, Polishing and Grinding 
Tools, Etc. 



New England Office, 32 Oliver Street, Boston. 
Philadelphia Office, 301 Arch Street. 



JOHN STEPHENSON CO., 



L-iis^i-r^rD, 

NE-W YORK. 



STREET CARS 



-FOR- 



ELECTRIC MOTORS 



CARS ADAPTED TO ALL SYSTEMS. 




BERaHIJLITIT <St CO., 

ELECTRIC LIGHT, COMBINATION 





ADAPTED TO ANY SYSTEM OP INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 



ALL APPLIAHCES FOR THE EDISOI ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



Illustrated Catalogues. Designs and Estimates Furnished on Application. Correspondence Solicited. 



Office and Works, ) ivTX'i¥r "xrrkTyTT i Show Rooms, 

292-298 Avenue B, j ■W-t'W JCUK,Ji. | 65 Fifth Avenue. 



T. W. WILMARTH & CO., 227 State Street, CHICAGO, ILL, 

AGENTS FOR OUR FIXTURES IN THE NORTHWEST. 



January 4, iS 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



SOUTHERN ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO. 



Of Every Description at Bottom Prices. Prompt S^Iiipments and Intelligent Execution of Orders, Onr Specialties. 




310 North Third Street, 



TRADE MARK. 
AGENTS. 





F0REE(4a)BAIN, 

84 MARKET ST., CHICAGO, 

Xalectvical Expert^ 

DESIGN ER AND MANUFAC TURER. 

Special and Experimental 

I WACHINERY . 

Large Dyoamos and Motors for Special Work 

boiit to Order. Coal Mining Hanlage 

a Specialty. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT REPAIRING. 



The EMPIRE CITY ELECTRIC CO, 



15 DEY STREET, 




Electrical 



Supplies, 



SEND FOR QUOTATIONS. 



PROF. H. AROIM'S 

Electric Current Counter 

Gold Medal Awarded at Melbourne Exhibition, 1888-89. 

The most rt liable and simplifled Electric Meter ever invented. 
Guaranteed correct f--r email and large cmrentB. 

Built for Direct Two-Wire, IhneWire, Fiue-Wire io 
Nine-Wire, and all Alternating Systems 

in sizes from 15 up to any Dumber of amperes. Every 
counter measures correctly the amf unt of current con- 
sumed from a fraction of an ampere up to its full 
capacity. 

Adopted by Siemens & Halske, Berlin, Germany; 
Edison Company. Berlin, Germany; Municipal Electric 
Lighting Worl<s, Berlin, Gel-many, and others. Exclus- 
ively used in Paris, Vienna, Constanlincple and other 
European cities. 

OPINIONS O? AMERICAN ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANIES. 
Thomson- Houston Co., Lynn, Maxs —"Counters work very satisfactorily." 
Edifon nium Co.. Broiklyn.. N. y.— "We have four Aron Counters in use since some 
months, durinr which time no trouble has been experienced in regard to care of 
same, and satisfactory readings have been obtained." 
Mather Electiic Lioht Co.. Maochesfer.Conn—'-^e find that the Aron Counters register 
as accuratelv as is necessary for the purposes to which such meters would be ap- 
plied; we have perfectly satisfied ourselves of their adaptability." 
B<,i:er(N.E.) Electric Linht Co.—^^e have tested the Aron Counter and have no rea- 
son to doubt its reliability. We beg to inclose order for a few counters of 7o to 
100 amperes." 
i'are Francisco Electric Light Co.— "The Aron Counter is the best instrument we have 
seen. We have thoroughly tested a Counter of alternating current, and are sat- 
isfied it will work correctly." 

In u'e by European Central Stations measuring over 60 million watts. Unques- 
tioned superiority. Indispensable for Central station work. Amount of current consumed 
may be ascertained at a glance, the dials being constructed on the same principle as 
the gas meter dials. 

FOE PKICE3 AUD PAE TICTJL AKS, AD3KEES: 

W. HACKENTHAL 

Sole Manniaotnrer and Importer, 

21 BEEKMAN STREET, • - NEW YORK. 





PATENT 
DOUBLE 
LIFT-OVER 

PENDANT BURNER 

Igni ing Gas or Gasoline by Electricity. 



This PEN9ANT BURNER has the Double Lirt- 
Over Electrode, which saves two-thirds of Battery Power and 
av,;ids Short Circuiting, wh'chis liable to occur in many others. 

The Double Life- Ovfr Electrode is a very imprrtait feat- 
ture no other Pendant h£s. 

Electric fpark or Connection only when Cas is Ignited. 



Electric Cas Lighting Apparatus. 
Electric Bells and Annunciators. 
General Electrical Supplies. 

Electrical Specialties to Contract. 




]D3maxTio and. Cylincier Oils. 

Second to none. Free from gum or acids. Especially adapted for all fast runnning 

machinery. By refiltering can be used continually. Adopted by the largest 

Electric Plants of the West. 

8. TAUSSIG, Agent, - 43 River St., CHICAGO. 

WRITE FOR PRICES AND SAMPLES. 

THE PERKINS 
ELECTRIC LAMP 
COMPANY, 

Chicago Ofl&ce, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN ST. 



A NEW BOOK 

Will be issued as soon as the Revisionary work is completed. 

ELECTRIC LAW, 

Edited by Fked H. Whipple. Price, handsomely printed aid bound, IIO.CO. 



The Electric Railway. Municipal Lighting. 

In paper, $1.00, Leather, |2.00. 

Whipple's National Electrical Directory. 

• - Price, 11000. 



Whipple's Electrical Reports. 

Published Monthly. |3 00 per year. 



Address 



The FRED H. WHIPPLE CO., 

I>etx*olt, ACloli. 

Or any Bleotrioal Journal or leading Book Store. 

New York Office, 18 Cortlandt Street. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, iSqo 



THE BEST OF ALL 



THE WHLTER K. FREEMHN 

TRANSFORMER SYSTEM 

OF INCANDESCENT I.IGHTING. 




ALTERNATING CURRENT DYNAMO— CAPACITY, 500 16-CANDLE-POWER LAMPS. 

We Guarantee 12 16-C. P. Lamps for each Mechanical H. P. applied to Dynamo. We Guarantee our TranS' 
formers and Dynamos for two years, and sell our Apparatus upon its Satisfactory Performance. 

Our Apparatus is of the Highest Efficiency, Mechanicallv and Electrically. 

Wi: GUARANTEi: ITS OPERATION, AND 



CORRESFOITDEIICE SOI^ICITEE. 



M 



NATIONAL ELECTRIC MFG. CO 

RAU QIaAIRE, wis. 

GEO« B. SHAW, - General Manag^er. 

EASTERN ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION CO.. Gen'l Eastern Agents. 

33 GOLD STREET, NEW YORK. 

BAKER, BALCH & CO.. General Agents. THOMAS WOLFE, Southwestern Agent, 

UNION DEPOT HOTEL, 

SEATTLE, WASH, KANSAS CITY, MO. 



January 4, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



A PRACTICAL A ND CGMHE BCIAL SUCCESS. 

Tlie Tliflniion-Eo Bstflii Elec tric R'y Sysiea 

ECONOMICAL, DURULE, RELUBLE, 



M» .. i# ^ ^ ' ll 


ri^^PH^^ ~^^ — ^^^ 


Ea|sr"T^*=^===.~^ 


1 V-^s* ^^S^li^lfij 




^ 


— =xi;..v----i— -'- ~- i^= — ^ 




-- -.:::^-i: r--^:^^^- ';:--:-„. : ., 



NEW TYPE THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC RAILWAY TRUCK. 



RESULT OF ONE YEAR'S WORK. 

RAILWAY CONTRACTS OF THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC RAILWAY CO.: 



Alliance Street Railway Co., Alliance, O. 

Atlanta & Edgewood Street Railway Co., Atlanta, Ga. 

Attleboro, Wo. Attleboro & Wrentham Street Railway Co., 

Attleboro, Mass. 
Atnericus Street Railway Co., Americus, Ga. 

'uburn Electric Railway Co., Auburn, y. Y. 

^.anffor Street Railway Co., Bangor, Me. 
. elt Line Railway Co., Lynn, Mass. 
' rooMyn Street Railway Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 
central Passenger Railway, Louisville, Ky. 
Central Railway Co., Peoria, HI. 
Citisens' Electric Street Railway, Decatur, III. 

lolerain Avenue Railway Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Danville Street Car Co., Danville, Va. 
Derby Sorse Railroad Co., Ansonia, Conn, 
Des Moines Electric Ry. Co., Des Moines, Iowa. 
Eckington & Soldiers Home Ry. Co., Washington, D. C. 
East Sarrisburg Passenger Railway, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Fulton Co, Street Ry. Co., Atlanta, Ga. 
Hillside Coal Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Hoosac Valley Street Ry., North Adams, Mass. 
Joliet Street Ry. Co., JoHet, III. 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Myrtle Street Line) Lynn, 

Mass. 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Nahant Line) Lynn, Mass, 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Crescent Beach Line) Lynn, 

Mass. 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Highland Line) Lynn, Mass. 
McGavock & Mt. Vernon Horse Ry-, Nashville, Tenn. 
Metropolitan Street Ry. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 



IXT 



ISI 



Brooklyn Street Eailway Co. 

Des Moines Electric Railway Co. 

Eckington & Soldiers' Home Railway Oo. 

Jiilien Electric Traction Oo. 

Seattle Electric Railway & Power Co. 



Naumkeag Street Ry,, Salem, Mass. 
Newburyport & Amesbury Horse Ry. Co., Newbury- 

port, Mass. 
Newport Street Ry. Co., Newport, R. I, 
Newton Street Ry, Co., Newton, Mass. 
Nay- Aug Cross Town Ry. Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Omaha & C. B. Ry. and Bridge Co., Omaha, Neb. 
Omaha Motor Ry. Co., Omaha, Neb. 
Ottawa Electric St. Ry. Co., Ottawa, III. 
Ottumwa Street Ry. Co., Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Plymouth & Kingston Ry. Co., Plymouth, Mass. 
Quincy St. Ry. Co., Quincy, Mass, 
Redbank & Seabright Ry-, Redbank, N. J. 
Richmond St. Ry. Co., Richmond, Ind. 
Rochester Electric Ry. Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
Revere Street Ry. Co., Revere, Mass. 
Ross Park Street Ry. Co., Spokane Falls, W. T, 
Riverside and Suburban Ry. Co. Wichita, Kan. 
Scranton Passenger Ry. Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Scranton Suburban St. Ry. Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Seattle Electric Ry. & Power Co., Seattle, W, T. 
Southington & Plantsville Ry. Co., Southington, Conn. 
Third Ward St. Ry. Co,, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Topeka Rapid Transit Co., Topeka, Kan. 
Toledo Electric Ry. Co., Toledo, Ohio. 
University Park Ry. and Electric Co. Denver, Col. 
Vine St. Ry., Kansas City, Mo. 
Watervliet Turnpike & R. R. Co., Albany, N. Y. 
Wheeling Ry. Co., Wheeling, W. Va. 
West End St. Ry. Co., Boston, Mass. 

Lynn & Boston Street Railway Co. 

Omaha & Council Bluffa Railway & Bridge Co. 

Revere Street Railway Co. 

Wheeling Railway Co. 

West End Street Railway Oo. 



THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 



620 Atlantic Ave., BOSTON, MASS. 



148 Michigan Ave., CHICAGO, ILL. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1890 



THE ELEGTRIG&L SUPPLY CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



FUSE WIREY 




























All conditions have been carefully studied in the manufacture of this Fuse Wire, 
and we have successfully devised a system of alloys for each different carrying capacity, 
or size of wire. This, together with accurate determinations by careful tests, has given 
us an article unparalleled for accuracy and reliability. In the table given below will 
be found the fusing current under all conditions: 





OS m 






Numbe 


r of lamps which can be 








1 

a 





p. 


a 




operated. 






d 


bo S. 

3 B 


tic 

a 


m 

11 


SO,' 

'is. 







S 

i 




















H 


•n 0. 


i. 

1.8 


2.2 








1 


"i 


cu 


1300 





$1.90 


1301 


1 


2 


2.5 


1 


1 


s 


1 


1.90 


ISOi 


2 


4 


4.4 




2 


4 


2 


2.10 


130214 


'S^ 


6 


6.5 


2 


3 


5 


3 


2.05 


1303 


3 


6.4 


6.2 


3 


4 


6 


4 


a.vi 


1301 


4 


7 


8 


4 


5 


S 


6 


2.26 


1305 


5 


8.3 


10 


5 


6 


10 


6 


2.60 


1306 


» 


10 


12 


6 


7 


IS 


8 


3 00 


130r 


7 


11 


14 




9 


14 


« 


3.60 


1308 


8 


12 


16 


H 


1(1 


16 


10 


4.00 


1309 


9 


i3.r 


17 


!l 


11 


18 


12 


4.50 


1310 


10 


16 


18 6 


10 


12 


IC 


18 


B.OO 


1312 


12 


18 


21 


12 


16 


24 


16 


6.00 


1314 


14 


21 


24 


14 


17 


2- 


IS 


7.00 


1315 


15 


22.6 


27 


If 


18 


3(1 


20 


7. BO 


131(1 


16 


24 


29 


16 


20 


32 


3« 


8 00 


1818 


IB 


26 6 


30 


18 


22 


36 


24 


9.00 


1310 


20 


J!9 


S2 


20 


25 


40 


37 


10.00 


13i5 


26 


3'i 


40 


25 


31 


50 


33 


12.00 


1330 


30 


42 


48 


30 


3T 


60 


40 


14.00 


1335 


86 


49 


56 


35 


43 


70 


46 


16.00 


1340 


40 


56 


64 


40 


49 


8P 


53 


IS.OI 
19.00 


1350 


50 


6S 


76 


50 


62 


100 


67 


1360 


GO 


80 


»0 


60 


74 


120 


SO 


30 00 


1370 


70 


■ 88 


105 


70 


86 


140 


93 


21.00 


1375 


75 


100 


112 


75 


103 


150 


100 


21.50 


1100 


100 


130 


140 


100 


122 


200 


133 


24.60 


1425 


125 


165 


ll<6 


125 


1F6 


260 


165 


28.00 


1450 


160 


185 


195 


150 


185 


300 


200 


32 00 


1476 


175 


218 


230 


175 


215 


350 


230 


38.00 


150O 


300 


246 


3«0 


200 


2:0 


400 


265 


40 00 



The above prices are sobjact to dlscoaat to the trade. 



Our Illustrated Catalogue of Electric Light and Power Supplies, No. 560, 
is the Most Complete Book of its kind ever issued. 



171 Randolpli Street, 

CHIC^^OO 



FACTORIES, 



ANSONIA, CONN. 



January 4, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



IM PORTA WT 

IBISl FITENT SnSTlffllB. 



The broad right to the use of Double Carbon Electric Arc 
Lamps declared to belong to the Brush Electric Company, under 
U. S. Letters Patent to Charles F. Brush, No. 219,208. 

In the suit of The Brush Electric Company vs. The Fort Wayne 
Electric Light Company, decided at Indianapolis, Dec. 24th, 1889. 



JUDGE CRESHAM HOLDS 



1 That Brush was the Pioneer Inventor in Commercial Arc 

Lighting. 

2 That the Brush Patent in suit is the Pioneeer Patent for 

Double Carbon Arc Lamps. 

3 That the Patent is Broad and Fundamental. 
4: That all its Claims (six -in number) are valid. 

5 That the claims of the Patent are all infringed by the Defendant. 

The Coiirt says: "The separation of the two pair of Carbons, so that the Arc is established between one 
pair and maintained between the Carbons of that pair until they have been consumed and then automatically es- 
tablished between the Carbons oi the other pair and maintained between them iintil they have been consumed is 
a dissimultaneous and successive arc-forming separation, and it is this feature which distinguishes the Lamp in suit 
firom all prior lamps." 

The Brush. Electric Light Company is assured by the most competent legal ad- 
visers that under this Brush Patent, as interpreted by the U. S. Circuit Court, practically 
all Double Carbon Electric Arc Lamps now offered for sale are 




and notice is hereby given that Infringers, whether manufacturers or users, will be 
prosecuted and held for damages to the full extent of the Law. 

THE BRUSH ELECTRIC CO. 

CLEVELAND, - - OHIO. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 4, 1890 



FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC 




f^ox>t 'SAJ'a.-yxxe, Xudletzxa. 



Manufacturers ol the 

SLATTERY INDUCTION SYS] EM 

OF 

INCANDESCBNT LIGH IKG, 

AND THE 

WOOD SYSTEM 

ARC LIGHTING. 





CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 

I 15 BROADWAY, 

Boreel BIdg. 



MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS, 

FORT WAYNE, IND. 

CHICAGO OFFICE, 185 Dearborn St., First Floor, 

W. J.' BUCKLEY, Manager. 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE, 21 7 Sansome St. 



The Most Careftilly Worked- 
out and Complete Altematliif 
System of Electric Idghtinv la 
Existence. 

Armatures and Oonverten 
Guaranteed. 12—16 Oandle Fowar 
Lamps to the SXechanical Hon* 
Power Guaranteed. 




PHILADELiPHIA OFFICi:, 

907 Filbert Street, 

G. A. WILBUR, Managrer. 

City of Mexico Office, F. ADAMS, Successor. 




CO 



mim 



CO 


CD 


o 


cr> 


CO 


X4 









^M 




^S 




^a^ 


^ 


3 


^3 


o» 


-^ 


m^m* 


5' 





OQ 




m 


CD 


X 


OQ 


T3 


'— 


CD 


aa 


CD 


— ■ 


CO 


i0 



THE SCHUYLER ELECTRIC CO.. "'"H'*"- 



$8 per Annum. 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



1 cents per Copy. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY ii, 1890. 



No. 2. 



Ireson's Self-Adjusting Leather-Link Belting. 



Patd. Nov. 16» '88. 

Ssqeclally sdapted for 
all Electric pnrposee and 
other Mgh-BpeBdintichia- 
ery. 




Send for Ireson's lUns- 
trated Treaties on Self- 
Adjnatlng Leather Link 
Belting, farnlslied gra- 
tuttonely. 



Manfd by CHARLES L IRESON, 97 High St., Boston. Mass- 

AHEAD OF ALL OTHERS. 

The Waring Electric Light Wires and Cables. 

STANDARD MD ER&ROUND CABLE CO., Mfrs. 

OFFICES: 708 Penn Ave., - Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BRANCH OFFICES: 
CHICAGO, 543 The Rookery. F. E. DEGENHART, Marasfer. 

■NEW YORK, 18 Cortlandt St. G. A. WILEY, Manager. 

SUPPLIES DEPOTS. 

A. H. GOODE, Kamm Boilding, Portland. Oregon. 

THE PAUL SEILEK ELECTKIGAL WOHi^-S. 42! Market St.. San Francisro, Cal. 

THE TWIN CirTELECPKICAL SUPPLY CO., Bopton Bloclr. Minneapolis, Minn . 

THE NEBKASEA ELECTRIC CO., 1531 Furnam St.. Omaha, Ne*. 

THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT TEL. AND ELECT. CO., Birmingham, Ala. 

C. A. SCOTT, 81 Lancaster St., Boston, Mass. 



TlcHoltzer-Caliil Electric Co. 



MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS IN 



EVERYTHING ELECTRICAL. 

SJBITD FOB SS6 FAeE CATAI/OeUE, 

1 11 Arch Street, BOSTOM, MASS, 
ROOrS WATER-TUBE BOILER.^"Kcono^sa. 

AN EXCELLENT 

ELECTRIC - PLANT - BOILER. 

Adopted by the Edison Electric Idgrlit Com* 

panies at Philadelphia, Detroit, St. Faul, Colombns 
and Cincinnati ; aleo the Brash Electric Light Co., •{ 
LotiisviUe, and others. 

ABENDROTH & ROOT MFG. CO., 

28 OliS Street, ITew Tork. 

ROOT SECTIONAL SAFETY BOILER. 
BRANCHES: CHICAGO, BOSTON, PHILADELPHIA & NEW ORLEANS- 




(as.) 



ELECTRIC 
LIGHT, 

HIGH OR LOW 
VOLTAGE. 



The 



India-Mlier anil Gmta-Ferctia Insulating Co 



Vulcanized India-Rubber Cables, to any 
specification up to 8,ooo Megohms per mite. 

Absolutely Pure Rubber Cables, 

Concentric Cables, any millage, Flexible 
Cords, Silk, Hemp, Cotton, Dynamo 
Wires and Cables, very pliable. Every 
variety o( INCANDESCENT Cores. 



UNDER WATER 

AND 

UNDERGROUND. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Three and Two-wire Ca- 
bles, to any specification 
up to 8,ooo Megohms per 
knot. 

Cables of High insulation 
and Long Life, all niil!age» 



WM. M. HABIRSHAW, F.C. S. 

General Manager. 



Offices: 159 Front Street, 

NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



MARINE 
ELECTRIC 

LIGHT 

Installations 



STANDARD MARINE 
Cores to any Millage 
or Specification up to 
9,000 iSIegdhms per knot 

Two- Circuit Concen- 
tric Cables, both cir- 
cuits, 9,000 Megohms per 
knot. 

Navy Portables, Silk, 
Cotton and Hemp. 

Bell Wire, rubber cov- 
ered, for Marine Work. 

Pliable Cables, for 
Search Lights. 




DAY'S KERITE INSULATION. 

The acknowledged Standard for durable and high 
Insulation. Its merits proved by a record of over 
quarter of a century. Adapted to all electrical purposes. 



Btetrie Light and Power. 
Telegraph and Telephone, 

^'''Z:^:t^Z^..,. Lead Encased W,re. 



Aerial Use. 
All Sizes Subterranean Use. 
Submarine Use 

Concealed Wiring in all Locations. 



E. D. McCLEES, General Manager, I6 Dey St., NEW YORK. 

■Western Electric Co., Chicago, III., Sole Agents for the West. 



ANSONIA BRASS & COPPER COMPANY, 

Sola iWanufacturers of COWLES' PATENTED 

Fire - Proof and Weather - Proof 

ELECTRIC LIGHT LINE WIRE. 

C B B A 



uM'iwMA^^/^///'W/yyyy/W/ 



CUT SHOWING STVLB OP INSWI^TIOM. « , . . « .. 

A— Copper Wire. B. S.— Two Braids, saturated with Fire-Proof Insulation. C— Boidad CoM^ 

■itnrated with a B\w^^ Weather-Proof Composition. . , . , , « - » «■ 

Approved by New York Board of Fire Underwriters. Samples furnished upon ftppbcaOoa. Fvt wmm 
trie Copper Wire, bare and covered, of every description. 

„.„„nnii«j. i 19 »'"' 21 Cliff St.. New Yoj-Io FACTORIES: 

WAHCKUuiRs. ^^gg g^^ ^gg wsbash Ave.. Chicago, III. ANSQMIA. CONN- 



THE EDISON MACHINE WORKS, 

MAjarVFACTURERS OF 

Weatherproof Wire. Insulated Iron Wire. Magnet Wire. Rubber Covered House Wire. 
Annunciator Wire. German Silver Wire. Office Wire. Flexible Brush Holder Cable. 
Gas Fixture Wire. Arc Lamp Cords. Tinsel Cords. Flexible Cords. 

Telephone, Telegraph and Electric Light Cables. 
PARAGON TAPE. 

JAMES F. KELLY, General Sales Airent, - 19 Dey Street, NEW YORK. 

WORKS: SCHENECTADY, N. T. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 1 1, iSgo 



THE THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO. 



Arc and Incandescent 

Electric 
Liighting Apparatus. 



G20 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

148 Michigan Ave , Chicago, Tli,. 

115 Broadway, Xkw York, N. Y. 
315 W. -Ith St., Ci.NX'iNXATt, Ohio. 

IIG Gravier St., New Orleans, La. 

50:j Delaware St., Kansas Cnv, Mo. 
310 N. 3a St., St. Louis, Mo. 
2'M Montgomery St., San Fkancisco, Cai,. 



P 

Electric Railway 

Equipment. 
Electric Motors. 




Direct Curi*4'iit IiivaiKlcMoent Dynamo. 



No better proof of the superiority of our arc apparatus 
can be offered than the fact that of the 21,000 arc lamps 
operated by Gas Companies in this country, over 11,000, or 
52 per cent., are Thomson-Houston. The dynamo is entirely 
automatic in its regulation, perfect in mechanical construc- 
tion, and economical in operation. The lamps burn steadily 
and uniformly, and hold their adjustment better than any 
other lamps on the market. 



Our direct current incandescent dynamo is rapidly gain- 
ing favor with practical electric lighting men, as its many 
features of excellence are- recognized. Like the arc dynamo 
its regulation is automatic, permitting any number of lamps 
to be thrown on or off without in the least affecting the 
others in service. Our incandescent lamps have an un- 
equaled record for long life. 




The problem of long distance incandescent lighting is 
practically solved by the alternating current dynamo, and to 
meet the demand for a machine of this character we have 
constructed what is unquestionably the most perfect alterna- 
tor offered the public to-day, embracing as it does, all the 
features that combine to make a perfect dynamo — automatic 
regulation, perfect mechanical construction, highest effici- 
ency, and economy of operation. 



.Vltc-riintini; Current Dynamo. 




.Motor. 



The employment of electric motors for driving small ma- 
chinery is becoming so common, and its advantages so well 
known, that it is unnecessary to elaborate in this direction. 
In the construction of our motors we feel that we have reached 
a point where their superiority cannot but be admitted. 



LIGHTNING ABBESTER. —All of our installations are 
protected from destruction and injury by our lightning arrester, which 
we will fully guarantee to operate successfully in every instance. The 
Company guarantees to repair or replace apparatus injui'ed by light- 
ning where these arresters fail to operate. 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



CHAS. D. JENNEY & CO., 




IHE HAWKEYE 

ELECTRIC MFG. CO., 



DAVENPORT, - 



IO"WA. 



Complete Central Station 



,.3>az3 



ISOLATED PLANTS, 
ARC AND INCANDESCENT APPARATUS. 



One H. P. Constant Potentfal afotor. 

— ^BC An xLf «,otx«rors ^T — 

AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC MOTORS 



-^x* "rjBm- 



HIGHEST EFFICIENCY 

For both Arc and Incandescent Oircuits, from 1-2 to 100 
H. P. All of our Motors have Self-Oiling Boxes. 

224 S. ILLINOIS ST., - INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



STORED ELECTRICITY. 



Electrical Accumulators or 
Storage Batteries, 

ESPECIALLY ADAPTED TO 

STREET CAR PROPULSION 

Central Station LlEitini, 
Isolatei LiglitinE, 
Railroai Car 
Long Bistance 

TBS nu SKTSM WHICH mnmu mnmi ui 




THE ELECTRICAL ACCUMULATOR COMP'Y, 

44 Broadway, New York. 

CHICAGO OFFICE, DETROIT OFFICE, 

502 Phenix Building. 30 Atwater St., East. 

San Francisco Office, 220 Sutter 8t. 



OUR DYITASIOS are UDSurpassed by any made for efBcienoy, 
automatic regulation, and general workmanship. 



Licensee of the Renowned PerTeins Incandescent Lamps, 

Famous for long life without discoloration. 



ELECTRIC MOTORS for Railway Circuits and Central 
Stations; any voltage, highest efficiency, all sizes. 



Prices Reasonable. - Write us for Catalogue and Price List. 





OOMPANY, 



DYNAMOS. 



NEW YORK. 



MOTORS. 



C. SCHUMACHER, Pres't. 

Office: 42 Exchange Place. 



VICTOR SCHALLER, Treas. 



P. CLAUS, Supf. 

Factory: 162 and 164 W. 27tli St. 




Our Dynamo is cast in one piece, and combines inde- 
structible solidity -with the greatest simplicity of design and 
compactness; the highest eflSciency with a total absence of 
the many objectionable features of the machines heretofore 
in use. No outside magnetism. Current generated without 
sparking, therefore steady light, and small wear of biushee 
and commutator. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ii, 1890 



TTHE rcAm:o]:v.A.i:u cakboi^ co 



Cle-vela^nd., Ol^io. 



-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS and BAT TERY MATERIAL. 

CONTRACTING ENCINEERS FOR ERECTING 
COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS FOR 



JARVIS 



ENBINEERINB CO. 

61 OLIVER STREET, 



EiosTFoz«r. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER STATIONS. 

NATIONAL FEED WATER HEATER. 

JARVIS BOILER SETTING, to Burn Anthracite Coal and Coka 

Screenings. 
NATIONAL ROCKING AND SHEFFIELD GRATE BARS 

SEND FOR NEW CATALOGUE. 



ECONOMICAL ABC LAMPS 

FOR INCANDESCENT CIRCUITS 

These lamps, burning in series, require about SO volts and 8 amperes of current. 

Electrical contractors can make money by acting as our agents. When writing please state voltage and system used. For 
prices and information regarding our new and improved Multiple Arc, Multiple Series and Search Lamps, address 

THE ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION & SUPPLY CO.. - 18 Cortlandt Street, New York City. 





KINt^MAK LAMP. 



LDynamo Belts Carried in Stock. 



[ 



ynillEO °<""-'^^ ^^ ***^** SPEED WITH boiler: 

NulNtu For Driving Dynamos. 

Complete Steam Plants Furnished 

NGLISH, MORSE & GO. 



Complete Steam Plants Furnished end Erected. 

1221-1223 Union Ave. 
KANSAS CITY, MO. 



SEND FOR SPECIAL CIRCULARS. 



WM S. TURNER. 



■ J. LESTEn WOODBRlDGfi. 



ITirOODBRIDGE & TURNER, 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 

COMPIiETE E<tUIP9IENT OF KI^ECTRIC BAIliWATlS. 

Steam Plants tor Electric Light and Power. Arc and Incandescent LIgtits Installed. 

Designs and EHtlmates Submitted. 

•74 Oortl«-xi.ca.t Stx*eo-t, T^g-^^ "ITorl*- 



lEONARD P.&QET. 



CUA1U.es J. KINTNER. 



PAGET & KINTNER^ 

Gbemical and Electrical Experts and Electrical Engineers. 

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENTS. 



EDISON MANOFACTORING CO. 

EDISON-LALANDE 




Under authority of Thomas A. Edison. 
MANUFACTURERS OF 

Primary Batteries for Telegraph ''Mains" and 'locals;' 

Electric Motors, Telephone Transmitters, 

Electro-Plating;, Electro-Medical Instrume/its, 

Annunciators and BurglarAlarms 

And all classes of Closed and Open Circuit Work. 



JAMES F. KELLY 



General Sales 
I Ajs^ent, 



19 Dey St., NEW YORK. 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



THE REYNOLDS 

Improve d Corliss Engine 

Is especially adapted for electric plants 

of all kinds, and has made a record in 

this field which cannot be excelled. 

re IS XT3ISQX7AliSD FOB ECONOU*? OF FTIEIi, BEGUIiABITY OF 
UOTION, AKD BTTRflBTTrTTY IN UBS. 




SOI-B BVJ^ILOBRS 



rite for onr CataloeneR. 



EDW. P. ALUS & CO., 

RELIANCE WORKS. MILWAOKEE, WIS. 

MsQufactarerB of and Dealers In 

Pulleys, Gears, Shafting, Hangers, Leather, Rubber 
^^ and Cotton Belting, Lubricants, and Mill and 

-^^ Engine Supplies of Every Description. 

CHICAGO BRANCH, 41 ani 43 SODTH JEFFERSON ST, 



BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO. 

INCANDESCENT LAMPS 

FOR 

ARC-LIGHT CIRGDITS. 

SIMPLE. BELIABLE. DXTRABLiE. 



The only safe socket for series lamps, and the only 
socket having insulating material for the outside 
parts. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

620 ATLANTIC AVENUE, 



CHICAGO OFFICE. 80 Adams Street, GEORGE CUTTER, Agent 




EXCELSIOR ELECTRIC CO. 

MOTORS 

FOR 

Arc I Incandescent Circuits 

nrODND FOB ASY CCKKEST. 

PERFECT AUTOMATIC REGULATION. 




Highly Efficient and Economical. 



CONSTANT SPEED UNDER ALL LOADS. 

F. ^W^. HORNE, Manager 

WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES. 

1 1 EAST ADAMS STREET, - - CHICAGO. 



COMPOUND. 



CONDENSING OR 
NON-CONDENSING. 

16 Sizes, 6 to BOO H. E. Hot yet equaled by any form of Eoeiie lot 
HICH FUEL DUTY AND SII«PLICITY. 



STANDARD. "sISI^^'" 

3,000 in nse in all parts of the Civilized World. 
JUNIOR. 6 Sizes in stock, 5 to 50 H. p. 



AH AniOHATIC EHaiHE OHEAEEB THAH A SLIDE VAIVE. 
Well Built. Economical, Reliable. Over 300 sold the first year. 



All the above bnilt stnctlyto Gangs with Interchaneeahle Parts. 
fiepaiTs Oamed in Stock. Send for Illnstrated cfatalognes. 



ESTINGHD 


M : 



SELLING DEPARTMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. 

NEW YORK, 17 Cortlandt Street, 1 w„rf:„„i,„„„ 

Hathaway BuUding, !T?^S?''S^ 

156, 158 Lake Street, J * ^°- 

608 Chestnut St., M. R. Muckl§, Jr. & Co. 
302, :»» Waishington Ave. ) ^„.,.„„t„ 
312 Union Avenue. I FaarbaniB 

1330 Seventeenth Street, ( * ""■ 
1619 Capitol Avenue, F. C. Aver. 

Geo. M. DiUey & Sons. 



BOSTON, 

PITTSBURGH, 

CHICAGO, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

ST. LOUIS. 

KANSAS CITY, 

DENVER, 

OMAHA, 

PINE BLUFFS, Ark. 



PITTSBURGH, PA.U.S.A. 



SALT LAKE CITY, 2S9 S. Main St. I Utah & Montana 
BUTTE, MONT. E.Granite St. f Machinery Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO, 21 and 28 Fremont St., Parke & Lacy Co. 
PORTLAND, OR. 33, 35 N. Front St., Parke & Lacy Meh. Co. 
CHARLOTTE, N. 0.36 College St., (.TT,„r. j t„™„k„= n„ 
ATLANTA, G A. 45S.PrrorSt. } The D. A. Tompkins Co. 
DALLAS, TEX. Keating Imp. & Mch. Co. 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN. C. E.James & Co. 



W. D. SARGENT, Pres. JOHN A. BARRETT, Vicc-Pres. and Cons E!e3. E. H. CUILER, Treas. and Mgr. FRANK A. FERRET, Elic. 

THE ELEKTRON MANUFACTURING CO., 

78-81 W eteliliastoxi St., :Bx'oo3s.l:srxi, ST. 'X'., 

MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PERRET ELECTRIC MOTORS AND DYAMOS. 

AUTOMATICALLY REQITLATBD, UNEXCELLED IN SIMPLICITY 

AND DURABILITY. 



The Only Machines Having Laminated Field Magnets of Softest Charcoal Iron 

By Means of Which Higher Efficiency, Closer Regulation and Slower Speed 

ARE OBTAINED THAN IS POSSIBLE OTHERWISE. It^CAREFUL INVESTIGATION INVITED. 





^^^"-^^^^^^^r^^^^^^^i r-^SQ^^MM}\!^W^^f^ 



Fo/i El EJ2i^ 



J.''J TUBING ALL-SfZfi^ OOOOoo. 



Pure Sheet Tfubber Etc 



L Purposes 






L" U Sarqple-s and prices upon application. M 

v^.. '^i^'^^-'' JHE B.r.GooDRicH Co. ' {i\ 



AKRON RUBBER WORKS 
AKRON, OHIO. 








Hlii^ar^gW>^iar^gjKg^Ii^Jii»ag]iiimjiigagim 



Specialties of all kinds to order 

"~^ ^-ND FOR C&T/1LOSUE. ^^ 




WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 1 1, 1890 



THE BEGINNING OF THE END. 




WESTINGHOU SE COMPAN Y DEFEATED. 

8awyer-Maii Patent Decided by the Court to be a Fraud and Absolutely Valueless. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE DECISION OF JUSTICE BRADLEY, OCTOBER 5, 1889. 



Circuit Court of the United States, \ 

For the Western District of Pennsylvania, j 

TBE CONSOLIDATED ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY ("SnD. 

"VS. 

McKEESPORT LIGHT COMPANY ("to.pa„,) 

No. S May Term, 1888. 

ON BILL AND FINAL HEARING. 



o^in^zonsr o^ TiaiE: cottist. 



BRADLEY, Circuit Justice: 

"The great question in this suit is, whether the patent 

sued on is valid, so far as involves a general claim for the use in electric 
laoaps of incandescing carbon conductors, made of fibrous or textile sub- 
stances. If it is, the complainant must prevail. If it is not, the bill 'must 
be dismissed.' " 

"Is the patent valid for such a bread claim ? The de- 
fendants contend that it is not. First, because no such invention was set 
forth in the original application, but was introduced more than four years 
after it was filed, and after the same material had been used by Edison 
and claimed by him in application for a patent. Secondly, because Edison, 
and not Sawyer-Man, was really the original and first inventor of an in- 
candescent conductor made of fibrous or textile material for an electric 
lamp." 

"It is very clear to us that in the original application for 

the patent sued on, the applicants had no such objpct in view as that of 
claiming all carbon made from fibrous and textile substances as a conductor 
for an incandescing electric lamp. Nothing on which to base any such claim 
is disclosed in the original application; we have carefully compared it with 
the amended application on which the patent was issued, and are fully 
satisfied that after Edison's inventions on this subject had been published 
to the world there was an entire change of base on the part of Sawyer & 
Man, and that the application was amended to give it an entirely different 
direction and purpose from what it had in its original form." 

"By an adroit amendment made in 1885, they say, 'Our 

improvement relates more especially to the incandescing conductor, its 
BUbstaace, its form, and its combination with the other elements com- 
posing the lamp.' The purpose of this amendment is obvious and needs 
no comment." 

"The fact is that Sawyer & Man were unconscious that 

the arc was not new, and supposed that they could get a patent for it; but 
as their eyes were opened, they changed about and amended their appli- 
cation, and made the material of the conductor the greit object — • carbon 
made from fibrous and te.vtile material. Compare the original with the 
amended application, as first stated in this opinion, and this purpose most 
obviously appears." 

"The fact that the whole object of the applica'ion was 

changed, is evinced by the correspondence of the parties." 

"This testimony of Mr. Broadnax, which is undiubtedly 

to be relied on, in connection with the letter just quoted, shows that the 
idea of claiming carbons made from fibrous and tex'.ile materials was an 
after-thought, and was no part of the purpose of the original application. 



The amendments relating to this new and broad claim were made after- 
wards, in February and March, 1885. 

"We are of the opinion that the changes made in the application in 
this regard were not justifiable, and that the claim in question cannot be 
sustained." 

"We are not at all satisfied that Sawyer & Man ever 

made and reduced to practical operation any such invention as is set forth 
and claimed in the patent in suit. Their principal experiments were made 
in 1878, and perhaps the beginning of 1879. The evidence as to what they 
accomplished in the construction of electric lamps is so contradictory and 
suspicious that we can with difficulty give credence to the conclusions 
sought to be drawn from it. We are not satisfied that they ever 
produced an electric lamp with a burner of carbon made 
from fibrous material or any other material which was a 
success." 

"The application for the patent in suit was not 

made until January, 1880, nearly or quite a year after all 
their experiments had ceased, and after the inventions of 
Edison had been published to the world." 

"The explanations made by the complainants 

for the delay in applying for the patent in suit, fail to satisfy 
our minds that Sawyer & Man, or their assignees for them, 
have not sought to obtain a patent to which they were r ot 
legitimately entitled. 

"But suppose it to be true, as the supposed inventors and some of the 
other witnesses testify, that they did in 1878, construct some lamps with 
burners of carbon made of fibrous material and of an arched shape, which 
continued to give light for days or weeks, or months; still, were they a 
successful invention? Would any one purchase or touch them now? Did 
they not lack an essential ingredient which was necessary to their adoption 
and use? Did they go any further in principle, if they did in degree, than 
did other lamps which had been constructed before? It seems to us that 
they were following a wrong principle — the principle of small resistance 
in an incandescing conductor, and a strong current of electricity; and that 
the great discovery in the art was that of adopting high re- 
sistance in the conductor with a small illuminating surface 
and a corresponding diminution in the strength of the cur- 
rent. This was accomplished by Edison in his fllamental 
thread like conductors, rendered practicable by the perfection 
of the vacuum in the globe of the lamp. He abandoned the old 
method of making the globe in separate pieces, cemented together, and 
adopted a globe of one entire piece of glass, into which he introduced 
small platinum conductors, fastened by fusion of the glass around them 
thus being able to procure and maintain perhaps the most perfect vacuum 
known in the arts. In such a vacuum the slender filaments of carbon at- 
tenuated to the last degree of fineness, may be maintained in a state of 
incandescence without deterioration, for an indefinite time, and with a small 
expenditure of electric force. This was really the grand discov- 
ery in the art of electric lighting, without which it could 
not have become a practical art for the purposes of general 
use in houses and cities." 

"The principal and great thing described is the 

attenuated filament, and its inclosure in a perfect vacuum." 

"We think we are not mistaken in saying that 

but for this discovery electric lighting would never have 
become a fact. We have supposed it to be the discovery of 
Edison, because he has a patent for it. This may not be the 
case; it may be the discovery of some other person. But 
whoever discovered it, it is undoubtedly the great discovery 
in the art of practical lighting by electricity." 



'The bill must be dismiesed.' 



PRICE OF LAMPS MUCH REDUCED. SEND FOR OUR NEW PRICE LIST OF LAMPS. 

UNITED EDISON MFG. CO. 



} 



65 FIFTH AVENUE. 



I^E3T7V 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 




42 La Salle St. 



KET AND KEYLESS 




-AND- 




LAMPS 



FOR ALL SYSTEMS. 




A FULL STOCK OF 

LATEST 

IinpFoved 
Specialties 

CHICAGO. 






TBADE MASK- 



42 La Salle St, 







42 La Salle St. 




EV^ 



TRADE /.TARK, 




LINE EQUIPMENT 



-FOB THE- 



TELEGRAPB 



-AMD- 



TELEPHONE, 




FOR 



flpc Mghting, 
HeetFie H^iloiay, 



And the Use of Electricity 
in all Branches. 

CHICAGO. 



42 La Salle St. 




TRADE MARK. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 1 1, 1S90 




LOCKWOOD AMMETER 
"' POLARITY INDICATOR 

For Arc andlncandescent Circuits. 
Lockwood Instrument Co., 

m Griswold Street, 



Dr. Gassner's Dry Battery. 

Acknowledged by experts to lie tlie Be-t Oiii-n (_"ircuit ISiittery in tlie Market, 
tile tiui!-t (tiiralile mid euiiveiiieiil for 

Electric Bells, Q&b Lighting, Telephones, 

Signals, Electric Clocks, 
Stationary Batteries for Physicians 

and many Other Uses. 

Ho Liquid.. Ko Glass. 




For Sale li\ The Western Eleilrie t_o 

Chicago, 111. 

And l-'iilifiirnm Electrical Work.-, 

San Francisco, Cal 



Highest Tettitinioiiials. W>ite for Circular, 

A. SCHOYERLING, 

8OIK AOEHT AND MANBFACTUKEK, 

1 1 1 Chambfrs Street, Naw York. 



POND 



ENGINEERING CO. 

707 and 709 Market St., St. Louis. 
427 'The Rookery," Chicago. 
31 Waterworks Building, Kansas City. 
319 Ramge Building, Omaha. 
ENGINES, BOILERS, ETC., FOR DRIVING DYNAMOS. 

COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS CONTRACTED FOR. 

Erected Ready for Service. 

BPKCIAI.TIEB :-The ArtnlDgton & Slma EnRine, Steel Boilers, Ireson Link Belt, Stand- 
aril Bockingand Sheffield Urates, Lowe Heater, Hyatt Filter, Blake Pamp,Kortlng Injector, etc. 

MRND FOB I.4.T1;HT CATAIiOeiTEa. 



WESIERN ELECTRIC CO.. 



DISP LeCUME BATTERY. 




We are continually 
increasing the efficien- 
cy of our 

OISQUE LeCLANCHE 

BATTERY, 



And Guarantee it 



Til© ilBest 

IN THE MARKET. 



AMES, CKEHAR & CO,, 

N. W. Agents, 

ST, PAUL, - MINN. 

Write for Revised Prices. 



KNAPP ELECTRICAL WORKS 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



GENERAL ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES. 

And Western Agents 

Perkins Incandescent Lamp Company, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



Western Agent, 

I. IV. COLBURN & CO. 

Dynamos, Motors, Etc. 



Western 'gent, 

A. F. MOURE S 

Wires and Cables. 




G. A. HARMOUNT 

3I5--32I Wabash Ave., CHICAGO, ILL. 



f 



WIIOL.ESAI.X: DEAI^ER II\ 



Also Rawhide: Lace Leath 



— IAGEHT5 IN ALL CITIESh 




COPyRIBHTED BY H. W. HILL. 



HILL 

Clutch Works, 

CLEVELAND, O. 

EASTERN OFFICE: 

18 Cortlandt Street, - NEW YORK. 

Engineering Olllce: 146 Franklin St., 

BOSTON. 

CHICAGO: MINNEAPOLIS: 
28 So. Canal St. 305 Kasota BiUldlng. 

KANSAS CITY: 
1221 and l'»3 Union Avennc. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANTS 

lloiigoed, Eroctod and PomiBhod. 
Send for new . Catalogue Power 
TransmlBBlon Machinery. 



General * * Electrical ^ * Supplies^ 

Manufacturer and Owner of the NEW PATENT 

PUSH BUTTON, 
DISTRICT TELEGRAPH BOXES 

AND FIR E ALARM AP PARATUS. 

Bells, Batteries, Buzzers, Buttons, Breakwheels, Burners, 
Brackets, Burglar Alarms. 



Write 



Electroliers, Eccentric Clamps, Electricians' 
Tools, Extension Bells, Elevator Cables, 

For 



^^pring Jacks, Signal Boxes, 



Cord, Single Relays, Spark 
Silk Coils, Switche s, Splicing Tools. 

I Catalopue \ T^^^^s^Siies. 

Thermostats, Ticket Cases, Telephone Tools, Tin roil. 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



LIGHTING SYSTEM 



-0]E^- 



The Westlnghouse Electric Co. 

BY ALTERNATE CURRENTS 

ASSURES EQUITY, SAFETY, ECONOMY. 





A PERFECT MEASURING APPARATUS, 

THE SHALLENBERGE R ALTERNA TE CURRENT METER 

Over 1 1 ,000 of These Meters in Actual Use. 

COMPLETE CENTRAL STATION MACHINERY. 



Dynamos for 500 to 5^000 Sixtsgn Oandk-Fower Lamps. 



THE WESTINGHODSE ELECTRIC COMPm 



? 



PIXXSBXTRCS^, PA., XT. S. .A.. 



BOSTON. 



NEW YORK. CHICAGO. 

SAN FRANCISCO. PORTLAND. 



ST. LOUIS. 
CHARLOTTE. 



CiNCINNATI. 



DALLAS. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ii, 1890 




N 



510 West 23d Street, 



January II, iSgo WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



WESTINGHODSE ELECTRIC 



Arc and Incandescent Lighting 

ON THE TRANSFORMER SYSTEM. 



An experience of over two hundred sixty-five Central Stations has demonstrated 
the Converter System of Electric Lighting to be the only safe system. 

The Converter of The Westinghouse Electric Company is so constructed as to ab- 
solutely prevent by any possibility a connection between the current of the street wires 
and the wires connected with the lamps on the premises. 

The converter of this company reduces the potential of the primary wires and 
limits the quantity of current to the exact requirements. 

It is the only system which admits of reliable meters. 

There is not a single recorded instance of a connection between the primary and 
secondary circuits of this company's system. 

Two hundred sixty-five central stations in operation with a total dynamo capacity 
in sixteen candle power lamps of 458,250. 



OVER 12,000 METERS IN USE. 

Write for Particulars. 



THE WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CO., 

PITTSBURGH, PENN., U. S. A. 

BOSTON, NEW YORK, CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS, CINCINNATI. SAN FRANCISCO, 
1 PORTLAND, CHARLOTTE, DALLAS. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ii, 1S90 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM. 

The Pioneer of Successful Electric Railways. 

The only Award given for Electric Railways at the Paris Exposition of 1889 was a 
GOLD MEDAL presented to the Sprague Eleciric Railway and Motor Company, for the 
most perfect system of Electric Railway Equipment. 



What are the Essential Features in any Comprehensive 
Electric Railway System? 

Main Feeders from Power Station. 

Main Conductor Feeding in Trolley Wire. 

Uniform Size of Trolley Wire, Independent of Length of 
Line, or Number of Cars Operated. 

AND WHY? 

BECAUSE, Thereby only can be secured Uniform Electrical Pres- 
sure. 

Absolute Reliability of Service. 

Non-interference with one section by interruptions upon any 
other. 



The Sprague Company will guarantee to operate a ten mile 
Thirty Car, Double Track System with 

Less Engine Power; 

Less Dynamo Capacity ; 

Less Weight of Conductors; 

Less Loss in Distribution ; 

Less Loss in Motors; 

OR IN WORDS THAT ARE UNDERSTOOD BY ALL, WITH 

More Car Miles per Ton of Coal Consumed; 

More Miles of Line with a Given Loss; 

More Territory Covered by a Given Outlay; 

More Reserve Capacity in a Given Plant; 

THAN CAN BE DONE WITH ANY OTHER SYSTEM. 

FEATURES OF A CORRECT MECHANICAL DESIGN OWNED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE SPRAGUE CO: 



Centering the Motor on the Driven Axle; 

Flexible Yielding Support for Relief of Strains; 
Universal Movement of the Trolley Pole; 

Single Lever Movement for Motor Control; 



NO COMPETITOR OF THE SPRAGUE 
COMPANY CAN MAKE A SIMILAR 
GUARANTEE, AND ACCOMPLISH 
IT TO THE LETTER. 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY & MOTOR COMPANY, 

Nos. 16 and 18 Broad St.. New York. ; ; llialto Building, Chicago. 

The Interior E lectrica l Conduit Co. 

A Jiew and Improved aiettaod of KcinippiDic Bnlldlngs with an Insulated Tube Conduit for any System of Electric Wlrlne. 

SAFETY — Abeolute iinmnnity from electric fires. 

ACCESSIBILITY— Perfect accefs to concealed wires. 

ECONOMY— ^mii'l cost ot installation, and freedom from futnre expense. 

QURABILITY— Absolntely raoistnre-proof tube and appliances, inenring lonfjevity of wiree. 

CONVEN lENCE— ^y^tenis of electric wiring may be laid out on original plane In a manner similar to that employed for gas, water and steam piping; the conductors may be drawn in at jileayure. 

FOR C1RCIJI.ARS, PRICK I.1ST AND INSTRUCTIONS, ADDRKSS, 



THE INTERIOR ELECTRICAL CONDUIT CO., 



154 AND 156 WEST 27TH ST., NEW YORK CITY. 




-T^E- 



nm EUDvm co., 

PUSH-BUTTON 



TORRINGTON, CONN., 

AND 

95 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK. 




FOH THE 



Western ElectriciaD 

SI.OO. 



FRANK T. BROWN, Lalo 

PRIKCIPAL EXAMINER ELECTRICITY, 
D. S. PATENT OFFICE, -- o.- 

Bntterwortli, Hall, Brown & Mli, 

I'utetit Atloriit-yM, 

25-26 HONORE building. - • CHICAGO. 

Twn comp](!to sots of V. S. Electrical ratenta 



MICA 



ALL SIZES 

AND 
QUALITIES 



For Klectrlcal PnrpoHes. 

EUGENE MUNSELL & CO,, 

818 Water St., New York, 



C.,S.i£ Q.B..R. 

lliiH hi'nn selected 

Aa ibe Oni:lal Route for paeaengera 

to the 

National Electric Light Association 

To be h.'ld In KanesB City, Feb. II, 12, 13 
iind 14, berauee it is the 

Best Appointed Line ! 

TTITANTKD, 

About Feb. iBt, 

ElectPic UgYit Outfit, 

Capacity equivalent to 30 :VJ-candle power 
lamps. Second-hand will iinewer. 

Addrese J. S. CASEMENT & CO., Whitings, fnd. 

FRANCIS W. PARKER, 

SOLICITOR of ELECTRICAL PATENTS 

THE ONLY COMPLETE BET OP U. S. 
ELECTKICAI. PATENTS IN CHIOAQO. 

1001-3-6-7 Opera House Block, CHICAGO. 



CHARLES MUNSON.Prest. 

FRflNKGMOSSfSECY &TREAS. 



?— -CP 




WIUFACTURERS OF 

[k 'EA.GLE and 

j^Namob eltiH^- 

,^\V=U'^~^li 1 I H I I II II » I Ml I t UjVl I I i '_ 

PlTTSBUF^GH . 

N^WYORK. 




SanFf^angisgo. 
New Orleans. 



28,30,32.34 & 36. S. CANAL Si. 



WANTED. 



Engineer to take charge of the engines 
and machinery In an electric light station 
lo the West, running about 1200 H. P. 
Corliss and High Speed Compound Con- 
densing Engines. State experience, age, 
and give references. A flrstclass man 
can secure steady employment and good 
salary. Address 

D. v., Care Western Electrician. 



F0REE(4a)BAIN, 

84 MARKET ST., CHICAGO, 

Elect rical Expert^ 

DESIGN ER AND MANUFAC TURER. 

Special and Experimental 

MACHINERY . 

Large Dynamos and Motors for Special Work 

bollt to Order. Coal MIdIdk Uatilage 

a Specialty. 

ELECTRIC UICHT REPAIRING. 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY ii, 1890. 



No. 2 



The Brush Station at Rochester, N. Y. 

The accompanying cut illustrates the new dy- 
namo room of the Brush Electric Light com- 
pany at Rochester, N. Y. It is situated at the 
lower falls of the Genesee River and is operated 
by water power. Fifteen Lessner turbines un- 
der 88^2 feet head, operate the dynamos. There 
is also in the station a 650-horse power Cooper- 
Corliss engine but this is intended for use in case 
of the failure of the water supply. 

The company at present is operating twenty- 



the remarkable development of electrical inter- 
ests there is due to the excellent service and rea- 
sonable rates of the local companies. The Brush 
company, which was established in 1881, was a 
pioneer in the field. It started in with 16 lights 
in 18 M. At that time a 50-horse power engine 
was used, but this was only a temporary arrange- 
ment, and soon the excellent water power of the 
Genesee was utilized. Numerous extensions 
have been made and the present station of the 
company has a capacity of 3,000-horse power. 



Fire in an Edison Station, New York. 

The Pearl street station of the Edison Illumi- 
nating company in New York city was destroyed 
by fire on January 2d. The fire started at about 
6 o'clock in the morning in the dynamo room. 
Nobody knows how the fire originated, for when 
it was discovered the oil-soaked floors of the 
old building were ablaze. 

The station contained 8 "Jumbo" dynamos 
with engines and boilers necessar)' to operate 
them. It furnished current for 18,000 incandes- 




nine dynamos, supplying current for 1,300 arc, 
104 Bernstein, 200 Brush-Swan lamps, and 400 
motors. It has 330 miles of wire, all overhead. 
The motor ser^Mce has assumed considerable im- 
portance in Rochester. The Brush company 
supplies current to 89 tailor shops that are oper- 
ated entirely by motors, 9 printing offices, 2 ma- 
chine si" 5ps, 3 shoe shops, 2 laundries, 2 necktie 
factories, 2 horse collar factories. Seven dental 
establishments utilize electricity, and coffee 
and spice mills, elevators and ventilating 
fans without number are operated by electric 
motors. 

The general favor with which electric light 
and power has been received in Rochester and 



BRUSH STATION AT ROCHESTER. N. V. 

This is one of the largest stations in the country 
operated by water. 

George A. Redman, superintendent of the 
company, states that the construction work of 
the Brush company in Rochester, cannot be ex- 
celled. In support of this claim it may be said 
that during a recent wind storm in that city a 
huge flag pole was blown down and in falling 
struck the company's wires, but did not damage 
them. The force of the blow, however, was so 
great that the pole was broken where it struck 
the wires. 



The electric and gas companies of Fremont, Ohio, have 
been consolidated and are now under the management of 
the Electric Light company of that place. 



cent lamps in many of the most important com- 
mercial builaings in the city. The station was 
entirely destroyed, the loss being estimated at 
$200, 00c. 

The Pearl street station was the first in the 
country from which current was distributed 
through underground service. The building 
was an old rickety warehouse, and was not built 
for a central station. As the demand for light 
increased, additional room was secured by an- 
nexing smaller buildings of the satrse character 
as the original structure. 

Temporary arrangements were made to supply 
lights to consumers until the company can build 
a new station. 



Western electrician. 



January ii, i8go 



A New Toy Motor. 
At this time, when so much is being written 
and said about the electric railway and the sta- 
tionarj- motor, there are many who naturally feel 
some curiosity to learn of the manner in which 
the current is applied to produce the various 
effects. The little motor shown in the accom- 
panying cut was designed to illustrate the con- 
version of electricity into power. An idea of its 
size may be obtained by a comparison with the 
tumbler which constitutes the battery jar. The 
motor is very compact; it isonly about 4 inches 
high. The lly-wheel is 2 inches in diameter and 



tion is on the line, B li. At first sight it would 
appear as though the plate was composed of two 
grids so placed in relation to each other that the 
openings in one coincide with the points of in- 
tersection of the ribs in the other — as is shown 
in the upper figure. Instead, however, of two 
plates arranged as described, the grid is cast in 
one piece. I'y this peculiar construction, when 
the active material has been jiressed into the 
plate on both sides, each little block or square of 
paste is, as it were, locked in place by being 
united \vith the corners of four of the blocks on 
the opposite side of the grid. In order to pro- 




NEW TOY 

makes about 500 revolutions per minute. The 
elements of the battery are held in any ordinary 
tumbler. 

As shown in the cut, the little engine is belted 
to a music bo.\. It may be mentioned in this 
connection that the Keckwith Manufacturing 
company, Chicago, which is introducing this 
novelty, has received a number of amusing let- 
ters in regard to the "engine." One inquiry was 
as follows: "Please has the small motor power 
enough for to keep a Small windmill or pump 
a-going, pumpmg water away from a well which 
overflows ?" 



New Plate for Secondary Batteries. 

One of the greatest difficulties met with in the 
construction and use of secondary batteries is 
the retention of the active material in the grids 







j Cud turhrtrtc tint 

3 pn pr: irr rrn ct: ex (Tt: rrn gn c 
3 r n Br hr tin &o Br- Br- be Be t 

J En Ed E£ Ed Eg Bd be tc Eiri t 




vide additional precautions against the active 
material becoming dislodged from the plate, the 
outer surfaces or crest of the ribs in the grid are 
formed with V-shaped gutters in them. This 
construction, which is shown more clearly to the 
left in the lower cut, makes what might be de- 
scribed as "marginal fins" for each square in- 
closure. After the grid has been filled with the 
plastic material it is then subjected to such treat- 
ment, either by hand or machinery, that the fins 
formed by guttering the ribs are upset, as indi- 
cated in the sectional cut, over the walls of the 
square inclosures. The blocks of paste are thus 
made doubly secure. This grid is the invention of 
H. G. Osburn,of the Purapelly Storage Battery iV 
Electric Motor company, Chicago. 



ciSiasazssacQESaQCi 



ZSZSSI 



NEW I'LATE FOR SECONDARY IIATTERIES. 

or plates. This active material while in a plas- 
tic state, is pressed into the spaces in the grids. 
These, after the paste has dried, arc placed in the 
solution. Now when the charging and discharg- 
ing takes place, or when the batteries are sub- 
jected to any considerable jolting or jarring as 
would be the case in street car work, the mater- 
ial in the plates is liable to wash out, or fall out, 
of the perforations of the plates, thus very ma- 
terially affecting the efficiency of the battery. 

The grid illustrated in the accompanying cut 
was designed to overcome this difiiculty. In 
order to understand the construction of the plate 
it will be necessary to refer to the sectional view, 
together with the view just above it. This sec- 



New Arc Lamp. 

The accompanying cut represents diagrani- 
matically the general arrangement of parts and 
the connections in a novel and simple arc lamp, 
which has recently been invented by j. H. Bun- 
nell of New York. 

In the cut, in order to simplify the description, 
the essential parts of the lamp are shown with- 
out all the necessary framing and supports for 
the several portions. It will be readily seen that 
the lamp is of the type in which the positive or 
upper carbon is fed downwardly by gravity. The 
lamp was designed with the view of making the 
arc-forming mechanism practically independent 
of the feeding mechanism — that is to say, the 
feeding mechanism will operate to allow the 
downward movement of the positive carbon 
without affecting the mechanism which has been 
used for constructing the arc. 

Referring to the cut the parts may be des- 
cribed as follows: M is an electro-magnet of the 
ordinary form which acts upon a bar armature 
attached to the lever /,. The lever X is pivoted 
as shown and adapted, upon attraction, to lift 
the free end of the frame, /'', for the purpose of 
drawing the arc. The magnet M carries the 
main current. The frame /•', which rests on the 
end of lever L and is pivoted at /', carries a 
train of gearing. The slow speed member of 
the train meshes with the rack on the carbon 
rod, while the high-speed member, //, engages 
as shown with a detent, D. This detent, or 
brake, is attached to the end of the pivoted lever, 
K, which also carries two armatures. The mag- 
nets //'and 7' are set as shown in relation to 
the armatures on the pivoted lever. 

The electrical connections which may be 
readily traced out are as follows: A' and /' rep- 
resent the binding post of the lamp. The mag- 
net 7' is connected in the main circuit; magnet 



ICis in shunt to the arc, and the magnet 7V 
magnet M is in the main circuit outside the 
other connections. 

On the admission of current to the lamp the 
actions are as follows: The carbons being in 
contact, practically no current Hows through the 
shunt-magnet //'. C^urrent through magnet T 
attracts the lower armature and locks the train 
of gearing. Current passing through magnet M 
powerfully draws lever X, lifts the frame /-'and 
its train of gearing, and thus lifts the carbon- 
rod and the positive carbon to the full extent to 
which the lamp is adjusted — say one-eighth of 
an inch. This attractive movement of the arma- 
ture attached to L is once for all, as it remains 
in an attracted position so long as current flows 
through the lamp. The frame F, therefore, is 
rigidly held in a stationary position. On the 
establishment of the arc its resistance causes the 
flow of a proportionate amount of currei.t 
through the shunt-magnet 11^ and the latter 
will begin to attract the upper armature, not, 
however, with sufficient power to overcome the 
attraction of magnet T for its armature. The 
adjustment, however, is such that the slightest 
increase of current through the magnet IK to- 
gether with the slight reduction of current 
through magnet 7', will cause the attraction of 
magnet IT to preponderate to a sufficient ex- 
tent to release the brake 1> from the wheel, and 
permit the latter to rotate under the propelling 
force of the weight of the rod and its carbon. 
The latter at once feeds downwardly, but is im- 
mediately checked by the weakening of magnet 
71' due to this shortening of the arc. The 
wheel 7/ is again immediately locked and re- 
mains so until a further feed is necessary. While 
the operation of feeding has been described as 
being, so to speak, intermittent, or step by step, 
it is obvious that the action of the mechanism 
can be made remarkably delicate. 

A noticeable feature in the lamp is the ab- 
sence of dash-pots or other retarding mechan- 
ism. In a lamp constructed on these principles, 




^l<^ 




MKW ARC LAMl'. 

it is claimed, there is no tendency to "pump- 
ing," and no possibility of the variations of 
current in tlie main line causing a chattering 
of the feed or oscillation of the arc-forming 
mechanism. 

Electric lighting in Indianapolis, Ind., is growing in 
popular favor. Last year loo lamps were introduced for 
street lighting, and this number will be largely increased 
this year, 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



IS 



The First Central Station in Paris. 

In a previous issue of tlie \\'k>ti;rx Eli.c- 
TRiciAN a plan of the central station at the 
Halles Centrales in Paris was presented. The 
accompanying cut shows a view of the interior 
of this same plant, which is the first central sta- 
tion in Paris. 

All the machinery is located in the basement 
of the Halles Centrales. The engine and dyna- 
mo room occupies 2,000 square yards, and the 



altogether or to which he returned evasive re- 
plies. Mr. Tubbs was represented b\" counsel, 
who argued that the questions to which Randall 
desired answers were questions of privilege, and 
being between two officials in confidence could 
not be construed as a public denunciation of 
Randall. Randall's lawyer contended that the 
effect was the same, since Swift's circular was a 
constructive charge of unfitness, and prevented 
Randall from getting work. 




FIRST CENTRAL ST 

boilers 350. There is also a large coke yard, 
stores, workshops and offices. Six Belleville 
boilers are used. There are three triple-e.\pan- 
sion vertical engines by Weyher & Richemond, 
giving 140 horse power at 160 revolutions, and 
three single cylinder engines by Lecouteu.x and 
Garnier, of 170 horse power with Corliss valve 
gear. Each of the last works a Ferranti ma- 
chine, giving 2,400 volts and 50 amperes, at 500 
revolutions. Each of the Weyher & Riche- 
mond engines drives two Edison machines of 
the latest type, which are connected on the 
three wire system. Fifteen volts total drop ir. 
the feeders is allowed, and two volts on the most 
remote lamps, so that the pressure is practically 
constant. The farthest lamps are 1,000 yards 
from the station. The largest feeder is only a 
quarter of a square inch in section. Provision 
is made for from 1,500 to 2,000 60 watt lamps. 
The cables are carried in cement culverts built 
in the street. Every five feet there is a wooden 
frame built in, which carries a number of enam- 
eled iron hooks. Each hook carries one cable. 
The alternate current plant is intended to supply 
the private consumers in the Petits Champs, the 
Avenue de I'Opera, and the Boulevard de la 
Madeleine. 



ATION IN I'ARIS. 

Judge Tuthill thought that inasmuch as 
Randall was not an employe of the Western 
Union Telegraph company, it was stretching it 
a great deal to apply the rule of privileged com- 
munication because he might at some time be- 
come an employe. The court ruled that Mr. 
Tubbs must answer the question, or be attached 
and punished. 



Electric Sweeper. 

The cut presented herewith shows the general 

construction of the new electric sweepers which 



the platform of the car. The sweepers are pro- 
pelled precisely the same as an electric car. 

In Boston there has been a good deal of inter- 
est to know how the electric street cars would 
behave in a genuine snowstorm. On the night 
of Saturday, December 14th, was the first op- 
portunity for a practical demonstration, and the 
result was that it appeared to make little differ- 
ence whether the weather was fair or foul. 
Through all the falling snow the cars are said 
to have moved as steadily and as uninterrupt- 
edly as usual, and such brief delays as were 
met with were entirely on account of the inabil- 
ity of the four-horse cars to keep out of their 
way. That such was the case was largely due 
to the successful working of the sweepers. 
These were kept running as long as there was 
need. They worked even more effectively than 
had been anticipated, removing the snow so 
completely that the rails glistened brightly under 
the street lights. So far as the trolley wires 
were concerned, the storm offered no impedi- 
ment to the running of cars. Even on up grades 
with a second car in tow, both heavily loaded, 
they could move along, stop and start again, 
which four horses could scarcely do with one 
half-filled car. When the sweepers were started 
another generator was put in operation, although 
its use was not absolutely neeessarj'. This gave 
the power to run thirty-five cars and the three 
sweepers, each of which was equal to about a 
car and a half. On the whole, it is stated that 
the experience of Saturda}- night demonstrated 
satisfactorily that the electric lines will be able 
to cope successfulh' with any snowstorm that 
may come along. For the cut we are indebted 
to the Street Jiailway Journal. 



Railroad Arrangements for the Conven- 
tion of the Electric Light Association. 

The Chicago transportation committee of the 
National Electric Light association, has selected 
the Chicago, Burlington S: Quincy railroad as 
the official route for delegates starting from Chi- 
cago. The railroad company will take particu- 
lar pains to furnish the very best of accommoda- 



Telegraph Superintendent Compelled to 
Testify. 

Frederick H. Tubbs, superintendent of the 
Western Union Telegraph company, Chicago, 
appeared before Judge Tuthill last week, in 
answer to a citation to show cause why he did 
not reply to certain questions before the Chicago 
commissioners appomted by a Kansas City 
court to take evidence in a suit by Edward L. 
Randall, against the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific railway company. 

Randall sued the railway for §25,000 damages 
in Kansas City for alleged malicious persecution. 
He was a telegraph operator for the road at 
Davenport. la., but was discharged July 21, 
1886, as he asserts, for participating actively in 
the organization of a branch of the Order of 
Railway Telegraph Operators. Superintendent 
Swift, of the Rock Island, it is charged, sent a 
secret circular to all telegraph offices in the 
country blacklisting him, and when Randall 
came to Chicago and applied to Tubbs for work, 
it was refused him. 

Mr. Tubbs was cited before the commission- 
ers to testify as to whether he received the cir- 
cular of Swift, and if so, whether it determined 
him in his refusal to employ Randall. Mr. 
Tubbs answered some of the questions frankly, 
but there were others as to matters of which he 
exhibited dense ignorance. Randall's attorney 
reported to Judge Tuthill that there was a list 
of questions which he either declined to answer 




were recently for the first time put to a practical 
test on the West End road in Boston. They 
were designed by Louis Pfingst, the master me- 
chanic of the West End road. Three of them 
have been furnished, and four more are being 
built. They consist of a platform car mounted 
on a four-wheel truck, two Thomson-Houston 
motors being connected with the axles. L'nder- 
neath each end of the car is a large cylindrical 
brush mad= of rattan, set horizontally at an angle 
of about 45 degrees, and reaching across the 
track. The brushes are revolved very rapidly 
by a 15 horse power electric motor which is on 



-■WLLl LI,. 

tions and no pains will be spared to administer 
to the comfort and pleasure of the electric light 
men. It is worthy of note also that the Eastern 
special train which comes to Chicago over the 
Pennsylvania road will go from Chicago to Kan- 
sas City over the Chicago,Burlington cSc Quincy, 
and it is probable that the Chicago cars will be 
attached to this train. The Burlington has a 
first-rate road bed and a thorough equipment 
throughout, and the committees have done well 
to select this road as the official route between 
Chicago and Kansas City. 

Delegates should remember that a special rate 



i6 



Western electrician. 



Januarj' ii, 1890 



of a fare and a third has been arranged for, not- 
withstanding the fac. that the service and time 
will equal that of the limited trains. Full infor- 
mation and bookings for berths can be secured 
by addressing \V. W. Ring, city passenger agent, 
Chicago, Burlington & Qulncy Railroad, Clark 
and Adams streets, Chicago. 

Electric Phenomena Produced by Solar 
Radiations. 
The following abstract of an article by A. 
N'odon. in /.</ .Viitnre, contains an account of 
several interesting experiments performed with 
a vifw i>f cstalilishin'' the fact that solar radia- 




KI.E' TKIi' CHKNOMENA I'ROUUCF.I) liV StiLAR KAIIIA TKINS. 

tions are the cause of certain electrical phenom- 
ena: 

As a consequence of numerous observations 
made between May, 1SS5, and July, 1SS9, I have 
been enabled, writes Mr. Nodon, to establish 
the fact that solar radiations are the cause of 
certain electric phenomena, the study of which 
is summed up in the following laws: 

1. Solar radiations, upon meetnig with an in- 
sulated conductor (metal or carbon), communi- 
cate thereto a positive electric charge. 

2. The e.vtent of such charge increases with 
the intensity of the radiations and decreases 
with the hygrometric state of the air. At Paris, 
its value reaches maximum in summer at about 
one o'clock in the afternoon, when the atmos- 
phere is pure and dry. 

3. The passage of clouds near the sun causes 
the phenomena to cease. 

The experimental arrangement adopted was 
as follows: \ large metallic cylinder, C (see 
figure), turned toward the sun, was put in com- 
munication with the earth and formed a B'ara- 
day's cage. .\n aperture in the cover permitted 
the solar rays to enter the cylinder and strike a 
metallic plate, 5. arranged in the center. This 
plate was of copper and had been carefully in- 
sulated upon Mascart's support. A conducting 
wire, wound with silk insulated with parafifine, 
was fixed to the plate, .S', and ran to a room 
below, in which were arranged the observation 
apparatus. These latter were as follows: A 
Mascart electrometer, F., a. \oo element battery, 
/", a standard Daniell element, Z*, a graduated 
scale, G, and a sulphuric acid insulating support, 
M. 

The box, C, the box of the electrometer, K, 
the center of the battery, /■", and the negative 
plate of the battery D, were connected at the 
same point of the earth, whose potential was 
taken as zero. The electrometer needle was 
connected with the insulated metallic plate. 

1 used in succession the I.ippmann electro- 
meter, which had to be abandoned on account 
of its too great capacity for this kind of experi- 
ments, the Hankel electrometer, and the Curie 
and the Mascart. The following is in what the 
experiment consisted: 

The insulating support, M, to which were 
fixed the wires communicating respectively with 



the plate, 5, and the electrometer needle, jT, 
were so connected with the ground that the 
potential of the plate and needle became equal 
to that of the ground, which was taken as zero. 
The support was then insulated from the ground, 
and there was immediately observed upon the 
scale, G, a deflection of the needle indicating a 
positive charge of the plate, variable with the in- 
tensity of the solar radiations and the hygro- 
metric state of the atmosphere. 

This deflection was compared with that pro- 
duced by the Daniell element, />,of which the posi- 
tive pole was connected with the electrometer 
needle and the negative with the earth. Moreover, 
I had carefully studied, in some preliminary ex- 
periments, the inlluence of the complex phenom- 
ena that might vitiate the observations by produc- 
ing an electric charge independent of that due to 
solar radiations. In this way I ascertained that 
by suppressing the Faraday cage, the metallic 
plate, being exposed to the free air and shade, 
became charged under the influence of the wind 
alone. 

In the observations, this disturbing cause was 
carefully eliminated by the use of the metallic 
box, C, the presence of which prevented the 
wind from reaching the plate, 5. 

I'he other secondary phenomena, such as the 
heating of the plate, the thermo-electric actions, 
etc., were found to be of no consequence in the 
presence of the phenomenon studied. After this 
study of the phenomenon, let us endeavor to draw 
some practical consequences from it relative to 
the electrification of clouds. AVe must in the 
first place admit that these results may be ex- 
tended to non-metallic bodies, such as the 
clouds. This is a simple though very probable 
hypothesis, but one that it will be necessary to 
verify the accuracy of. 

When solar radiations traverse a pure and 
dry atmosphere, they charge the earth that they 
strike with positive electricity. B)' analogy with 
actino-electric phenomena we may admit that 
the stratum of air immediately in contact with 
the earth becomes charged with negative elec- 
tricity. This air, heated by the sun, rises and 
carries with it its negative charge. This current 
of ascending air follows an oblique direction 
under the influence of the wind, and it often 
happens that, in its ascent, it meets clouds of 
more or less thickness, to which it abandons its 
negative charge. 

This negative charge continuously increases 
under the influence of these masses of electrified 
and incessantly renewed air. This hypothesis 
would seem to give the explanation of a certain 
number of storm phenomena. It would appear 
to explain the negative charge of the majority 
of clouds. The positive charges that are some- 
times observed in clouds may be explained by 
the supposition of two strata of clouds between 
which the electric manifestation may take place. 
Such charge of the clouds should be so much 
the greater in proportion as the solar rays are 
intenser, and the hygrometric state of the at- 
mosphere feebler. And this is what should 
especially take place in summer and principally 
in equatorial regions. This would be explained 
by the frequency of storms during the hot sea- 
son and during the summer days in which the 
solar rays are intense. Herein, too, should be 
found an explanation of the fierce storms which 
chiefly prevail in the equatorial regions. 

Nocturnal storms would be due to clouds 
charged with electricity during the day under 
solar influence, and which would become dis- 
charged at night in consequence of the descent 
of the clouds toward the earth, the explosive 
distance then becoming sufficiently small to 
allow the discharge to take place between the 
cloud and the earth. Such descent of the 
clouds toward the earth at night is due to the 
cooling of the ascending currents of air which 
sustain the clouds in the atmosphere. 

We might, in analogous manner, explain the 
frequency of storms over forests, rivers, lakes, 
etc., as a con.sequence of the lowering of the 
temperature of the air above such regions — a 
lowering that carries with it the descent of the 
storm cloud toward the earth. 



on the line caused by induction: "The only ab- 
solute remedy for us is to supply each subscriber 
with a metallic circuit. This we expect to when 
we put our wires underground. The existing 
plant has neither the capacity nor the conditions 
requisite for such a system. We are now, as a 
temporary expedient, running a number of com- 
mon return wires to afford a metallic circuit, one 
side of which is common to a number of sub- 
scribers. We expect some relief from this, prob- 
ably enough to enable us to operate the wires at 
night. Our ordinance, which is in the form of 
a consent by the city to our placing our wires 
underground, is in the hands of the Committee 
on Public Improvements of the Council, with 
some amendments suggested by the Board of 
Public Improvements, to whom it was referred 
by the committee." 



Electrical Engineering in the Western 
University. 

A chair of electrical engineering has been es- 
tablished in the Western University at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Prof. C. V, Kerr will be the instruct- 
or. He is a graduate of the Western University 
and of Stevens Institute, and recently has had 
charge of the electrical department in Pratt In- 
stitute, New York. Work will be commenced in 
the new department at once. 



Hotel Annunciator. 



The accompanying cut illustrates an improved 
form of hotel annunciator manufactured by the 




ANN! MIAIOR. 



Telephone Service in St. Louis. 
George F. Uurant of the Bell Telephone com- 
pany, St. Louis, said recently of the disturbances 



Knapp Electrical Works of Chicago. It com- 
bines the office annunciator and drop, the return 
room call and fire alarm. Many excellent feat- 
ures in wiring, superior workmanship and the 
material used, make it highly desirable. Al- 
ready a large number of these annunciators 
have been disposed of and in every case they 
have given satisfaction. 



OUltown, Maine, i.s to have an electric lighting plant in 
operation very soon. A representative of the Westing- 
house Klectric company closed an order at that place for a 
750-light alternating current dynamo recently, and this ma- 
chine will be shipped from Pittsburg immediately. 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



17 



West End Railway Power Station at Bos- 
ton. 
The cuts presented herewith show the location 
and general arrangement of the new permanent 
power station for the Wes.t End street railway in 
Boston. This plant is being erected on the site 
of the old Hinckley Locomotive company's 
works. The idea is to have this power station 
as regards size, e.xcellence and adaptability for 
its work, e.xcel any yet constructed. The ag- 
gregate capacity of the engines will be 13,000- 
horse power. These, which are being built by 
E. P. Allis &: Co. of Milwaukee, Wis., will be 
thirteen in number of 1,000-horse power each. 



the machines. Meanwhile these poor girls, earning from 
ij:S to $lS a week, lost their tiine. and we were put to the 
inconvenience of the change. There was nothing else for 
us to do but to stand the e.xpense on our part, and let the 
poor girls stand their loss. If we had not been pretty 
quick about it our hands might have been idle yet. If we 
could get electric power again we would take it." 

.Small store keepers who could not afford a private instal- 
lation, were left in gloom and darkness and their loss dur- 
ing the holiday sea.'on was indeed very heavy. This class 
complains bitterly of the action of the Board of Electrical 
Control upon which the blame is placed for the unfortunate 
state of affairs "It is a remarkable thing," said a Broad- 
way merchant, ' that while New York has had this terrible 
scene and loss of life, and its Board of Electrical Control, 
and its subway company charging a thousand dollars a mile 
for the use of the subway, they have had nothing of the 



whether the interlocutory decree was properly 
entered or not it cannot be made a subject of 
inquiry by this sort of proceeding. 

The other case decided was that of W, H. 
Bush, who sought to escape payment of his stock 
liability when sued by the receiver on the ground 
that he had bought the stock after it had all 
been taken. In other words, he was not an 
original subscriber, and hence was not liable. 
The Appellate Court holds that the Supreme 
Court passed on that point in the Gray case and 
decided that this made no difference. More- 
over, Bush had waived the right to make this 
objection by paying on assessments "40 per cent 




lo'o 



POWER' HOUSE 



BOIL En HouiE 






Cap rtr'o STonc House 



CnPEMTCn 
100 X 60 




of the Reynolds-Corliss triple expansion type 
with condenser. The three cylinders measure 
respectively 21, 363/j and 52 inches in diameter, 
with a 42 inch stroke. The fly-wheel which is 
28 feet in diameter with a lOyV feet face, and 
weighs sixty tons, will make sixty-eight revolu- 
tions per minute. Each engine will drive by 
means of two belts, each five feet wide, four 
specially designed Thomson-Houston generators 
compound wound, four-pole with Gramme ring 
armatures. These armatures are nearly five feet 
in diameter, with six inch shafts and will make 
400 revolutions per minute. The boilers, en- 
gines and smoke stack will rest on granite foun- 
dations supported by about 700 piles forty-five 
feet long. The stack will be 250 feet high, cir- 
cular in form, double brick shell twenty-six feet 
diameter at base, and seventeen at top, with a 
flue of a uniform diameter of thirteen feet. The 



WEST END RAILWAY POWER STATION AT liOSTON, 

kind in Brooklyn — no loss of life, no Board of Electrical 
Control, and no subway company. The reason is simple. 
The companies have been permitted to manage their own 
business. If they wanted to make repairs they made them. 
The main trouble in New York has been that Ihe Board of 
Electrical Control has prevented repairs, and has actually 
created most of the dangers. They seemed to be anxious 
to make prete.xts for cutting off the wires of certain com- 
panies. They have refused to grant permits to repair 
poles and wires in places where there were no subways and 
where there will not be any subways for years to come," 

The New York Stin commenting on the present state of 
affairs says: "The sudden cutting of the wires has shown 
in a striking way how intimately applied electricity has be- 
come connected with the business of the city. Electric 
light and power are inseparately interwoven with the neces- 
sities of the people. Electricity has become one of the fac- 
tors of life. The problem of the hour is to make it safe as 
well as convenient," 



Two Important Decisions. 

Judge Gary of the Appellate Court of Illinois, 



of the stock and not repudiating his liabilities 
when he might safely and profitably have done 
so. Judge Gary also held that the rosy hues 
with which the agent of the telegraph company 
tinted the future of the corporation could not 
be made the basis of the charge of fraud. There 
are 3,000 stockholders in this company who will 
be affected by these decisions which will mater- 
ially diminish the loophole of escape from lia- 
bility. Senator Farwell, representing himself 
and rhany other stockholders, has a suit pending 
to get out of paying stock subscriptions in the 
Great Western Telegraph company. He charges 
fraud and claims that money enough was raised 
to pay the debts of the company without resort 
to the stockholders, but that it was misappro- 
priated by certain parties. The amount due 
from the stockholders is several hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and the suits of the receiver grow- 




illustrations are reproduced from the Street Rail- 
way Journal, New York, 



Result of Wire Cutting in New York. 

The revulsion of feeling in the question of cutting elec- 
tric wires in New York city has already become manifest 
and each day the newspapers of the metropolis be?r evi- 
dence of the resentment of merchants, A manufacturer is 
quoted as saying: "\Vhy, when the wires were cut without 
notice to us. every one of those sixty machines stopped, 
and the girls were thrown out of work. We bad put in an 
electric motor and got a wire from the Brush company, 
and all the machines were driven without noise or dirt or 
the annoyance of escaping steam, all the power being sup- 
plied by one wire. The first we knew, the wire was cut. 
There was no subway in the street, no way to have electric 
power supplied, and we had to stop our business until we 
could buy a steam engine and put it up and connect it with 



WEST END RAILWAY TOWER STATION AT BOSTON. 

handed down two interesting decisions at Chica- 
go last week, in the Great Western Telegraph 
litigation. This institution is in the hands of 
Elias R, Bowen, receiver of the Circuit Court 
who has sued the stockholders all over the coun- 
try for unpaid subscriptions of stock on an in- 
terlocutory order which decrees their stock lia 
bility. The stockholders have been making a 
fight all along the line, and have started all man- 
ner of suits to set it aside, 

Eugene C, Bates and thirty-three other own- 
ers of stock filed a bill in chancery to review the 
interlocutory decree, and the Circuit Court sus- 
tained a demurrer interposed by the receiver, 
for want of equity. The Appellate Court has 
affirmed this decision, and its ruling is that 



ing out of this old litigation have long been a 
bugbear to many prominent men. 



A short time ago the newspapers of the Westetn cities 
were calling upon the authorities to cut electric wires, but 
they have changed their tune of late. The Cleveland. O,, 
Plaindealej'Xzsx week said: "No betterproof that street 
lamps are the most effective police agents could be asked 
than the great increase of crime in New York City since 
the electric light wires were cut. The surprising numbr r 
of highway robberies and kindred offenses of late has at- 
tracted attention, and there is no doubt that it is directly 
due to the sudden darkness which has settled down upon 
those districts until lately illuminaled by electricity. The 
money a city puts into street lighting is a profitable invest- 
ment, A street lamp is better protection against robbers 
than a policeman. If our streets and alleys were better 
lighted at 'night, there would be fewer women assaulted, 
fewer footpads and burglars abroad," 



i8 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN . 



January ii, 1890 




EVERY SATURDAY. 



^TjELrcA-TioH offices: 
6 Lakeside Building, - - CHICAGO 

T<>l««ptaonf> I740. 



W. A. KREIDLER,- - 
J. W. niCKEKSON, - 
.1. li. (IHAKA, • • - 
P. L. TEItKY. - . - 
A. O. DL'RBOHOW.JR.. 



- Editor and Publieiher. 



-Aerociate Editors. 
\ 
Basinei!i< Manager. 



K ASTERN Office: 125 Temple Court,NkwYork. 

W. II. Texfle, Manager. 
Trade Supplied by Western News Co. 

COPYRIGHT. — Not onlv tlie title, but the entire CQrttftitff of 
pucli niunber of the Westers Electrician are copyrighted. 
Thin impcr is enu<redat the Chicago PostofHce as mail matter of 
the second claM. 

aiTBSCRtPTION, In advance, postage prepaid, $3.00 for a full 
yt-ar of M numhere; in cluhH of four or more. 82.50, with free 
extra copy for eight sul)«tcriptioDB; forelt^ count rfee, $5.00 a year; 
plngle copies, 10 cents. When chance of address i» reqiieet«u, the 
old address as well as the new shonld be given. 

CORRESPONDENCE rflwlinu to electricity, or any of Its jirac- 
ticHl jtpjili.-ationf', i^ cordially invit.-d. and the co-oppralion of all 
eli-ilriial ftiink-Ts and workfrs earnestly desired. Clear, con- 
cise, well written articles are especially welcome; and coinmnni- 
cation", views, news item!', local news'jiaper clippings, or anv in- 
formation likely to interest electricians, will be thankiuUy 
received and cheerfully acknowledged. 

ADVERTISING.— The Wk^terx Electrician— f/ie o»/j/ fjfn- 
rrtil etectriral paper vHhtixhed in th^ FTea^— thoroughly 
covers a territia-v ejcclu/tireh, im oii'n. Tins is a claim wiiicu can- 
be MADE BY NO OTHER ElKCTKICAL Jol'RNAL IN THE UNITED 

States. Electrical merchanty and mannfacturers dfsirivn Wfs'- 
err, trails will appreciate the l-tjequaleii value of this journal 
as an advertlsinir medinm in its special field. Advertising rates 
are moderate, and will be promptly furnished on application. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

PACE 

llriish Station at Rochester, N. Y. I!tu5tratcd.. 13 

Kirc in an Edison Station, Nctv York 13 

A New Toy Mot«>r. Illustrated 14 

New Plate for Storage Batteries. lUuslr-'ted 4 

New Arc I-arap. Illustrated 14 

The First Central Station in Fans. Illustrated 15 

Telegraph Superintendent Compelled to Testify 15 

Klectric Sweeper. Illustrated 15 

Kailr^iad Arrangements for the Convention of the Electric Light 

,\«sociation iSi '^ 

Electric Phenomena Produced by Solar Radiations. Illustrated. 16 

Telephone Ser\'lce in St I.ouis 16 

Hotel Annunciator. Illustrated 16 

West End Railway Power Station at Boston. I lustrated 17 

Result of Wire Cutting in New York 17 

Two Important DectHion-s 17 

Editorial 18 

Sundard WiriuK Table 10 

Operating Small Machines by Electric Motor. Illustrated 19 

Tests of the Forbes-Timm's Rrakc 19 

Theory of Cotnpounding for Constant Potential, by Dr. Louis 

liell. (Chicago Electric Club) 19, 20 

Klectrical Engineering in America, by fi. I.. Addenbrooke, Part 

III 20 21, 22 

DRPARTnENrt*. 

Correspondence 22. 23 

The Electric Light 23 

The Electric Motor 23 

The Telephone 34 

Electrical Patents 24 



A DISPATCH States that all electrical com- 
panies in Pittsburg, Pa., have agreed to put 
their wires underground within a year. 



A VIEW of the dynamo room of the IJrush 
station in Rochester, N. Y., is presented in this 
number. The machines are operated by water 
power and the station is one of the most inter- 
esting in the country. 



At the meeting of the Chicago Electric club 
last Monday evening. Dr. I.ouis Bell ad- 
dressed the club on the "Theory of Compound- 
ing for Constant Potential." An abstract of his 
remarks is presented in another place in this 
issue. The club voted to entertain at a 
lunch the delegates to the National Electric 
Light convention at Kansas City, if their train 
remained long enough in the city. 



Till-. Cleveland J.i-ailcr in an article on the 
tariff comes out strongly with this statement: "It 
was never intended that the protective tariff 
should be used to aid a foreign syndicate in 
keeping up exorbitant prices, and whenever it 



is found that it is perverted from its original and 
just purposes to such unjust uses it should be 
repealed. In the revision of the tariff to be 
made this winter the duties on copper should be 
removed." 



.\ I ASK. which came before Judge Tuthill in 
Chicago, last week, is of special interest to tele- 
graph operators. The question involved was 
whether the superintendent of the Western 
Union Telegraph company could be compelled 
to testify in regard to an alleged "black-list," 
which had been sent to him. The court found 
that the superintendent could not fall back upon 
a plea of privileged communication, but must 
answer the (juestion in regard to the "black- 
list." In an article on another page is given a 
sketch of the case. 



The price of rubber is to be materially in- 
creased if reports are to be believed. It has al- 
ready been stated that the Brazil authorities 
have imposed an e.Nport tax on rubber in favor 
of a local company, and this tariff, according to 
the latest advices from Para, may be increased. 
.\s if this were not enough, a rubber trust has 
been organized in Trenton, N. f. The dispatches 
say: "British capitalists are to take an interest 
amounting to about §3,000,000, and to push the 
stock in England and Scotland. While the iden- 
tity of the capitalists has not yet been disclosed, 
they are believed to be the same ones who 
bought up a number of American breweries re- 
cently. The trust will not take the active man- 
agement of the local concerns, which will con- 
tinue under the present operation, but will, of 
course, dictate a policy of unity of action in all 
business dealings. The negotiations for the es- 
tablishment of the trust began about two months 
ago." The reports seem to tell a pretty straight 
story, but the reference to the English capital- 
ists rather makes one distrustful. It is hard to 
believe that these capitalists should be credited 
with as many schemes as the newspapers would 
have us understand. 



In the autobiograpy of Joseph Jefferson which 
is now being published, appears a paragraph de- 
scribing the introduction of the telegraph at 
Cumberland, Md. Jefferson was in the city at 
the time and received a dispatch in response to 
a letter he had sent to Baltimore on the previ- 
ous day. The rapidity with which the reply had 
come seemed incredible to Jefferson, and he 
hastened to the telegraph office to ascertain the 
truth. He continues this story in his inimitable 
way: "A small group of people had collected 
about the operator, some having received mes- 
sages of congratulations at the establishment of 
the line, others sending them away to the same 
effect and all wearing a look of surprise and in- 
credulity. We began showing one another our 
dispatches and looking with respectful awe at 
the mysterious little machine that was ticking 
away as if worked by some invisible spirit of the 
other world, wondering what they would do 
ne.xt. The whole town was up in arms about it. 
People were running to and fro with little mes- 
sages in their hands and stopping one another in 
the street to talk and wonder over the new event. 
If I were now to receive a message from the 
planet Mars offering me a star engagement, I 
could not be more astonished than I was on that 
day. It is said that the man who invented spec- 
tacles was imprisoned for daring to improve on 
the eyesight that God hatl given us, and that 
these comforts of old age were called 'Devil's 
eyes.' So in the height of this telegraphic nov- 
elty did many wise old solons shake their solemn 
heads declaring that the wrath of Cod would 
fall on those who dared to take a liberty with 
lightning. The people with universal consent 
made the occasion a holiday." 



The crusade against the electric light compa- 
nies in New York city was carried too far. and of 
course a reaction has set in. In the last issue of 
the Western Ei.ec irkiax was presented a 
timely and temperate article from a New York 
paper in which the subject was discussed. It 
was admitted that the loss of the electric light 
as a result of the destruction of overhead 



wires was proving a far greater evil than that 
which was incident upon aerial circuits, .^n 
equally sensible article a|)peais in the Boston 
J/era/U, which relates to this subject. It says: 
As we predicted at the time, this sudden 
outburst of unreason has been followed by 
a recovery of sense. Not only do the people 
of New York city find that gas is but a poor 
substitute for the street illumination formerly 
given by electric lights, but the proprietor's 
of stores, in a great number of cases, are com- 
plaining that in consequence of the absence 
of brilliant illumination, their business cannot 
be carried on in a .satisfactory manner. Nor 
is this all. Electric motors were used in 
a large number of instances, where other 
power was unobtainable, in working sewing 
machines and other pieces of light machin- 
ery. Necessarily, these methods have been 
abandoned, and many men and women have 
been thrown out of work, involving, in individ- 
ual instance;;, great personal loss and suffering. 
Some of our New XoxV. contemporaries who 
became panic-stricken are beginning to perceive 
the folly of their action. This return to reason 
has not taken place with all of them, but it is 
evident that a reaction has set in which will 
soon place the municipal authorities of New 
York in an exceedingly peculiar position, for, 
having destroyed the poles, structures and wires 
of the electric companies, and having no other 
satisfactory method of obtaining the neeiled 
light and power, they may soon be compelled, 
in obedience to another aroused public demand, 
to ask the electric companies to in some way 
re-establish themselves. 



In the last number of the Foriiin Prof. R. N. 
Thurston, director of the schools of mechanical 
engineering of Cornell University, discusses in 
an entertaining way the "Problem of Air Navi- 
gation." After reviewing many interesting ex- 
periments in aeronautics, Prof, Thurston thus 
speaks of the probability of the ultimate solution 
of the problem: "The researches of Langley 
have shown the power demanded for flight to 
be about 2 per cent, of the amount once sup- 
posed a minimum. We know that nature's en- 
ergy can be directly converted into useful power 
through the production of electricity as in the 
gymnotus, and possibly in all animal mechan- 
isms. We know that modern storage batteries 
are ten times the weight that science indicates 
to be the limit of perfect efficiency; both steam 
engines and electric accumulators have been 
made light enough and powerful enough to 
raise their own weight, with something to spare. 
The flying lemur, the flying squirrel, the rude 
sustaining membranes that inventors have con- 
structed, have sustained their heavy weights in 
drifting many yards. Man has imitated such 
animals: his predecessors the bats and the great 
pterodactyls have llown on membranes. Why 
may not he hope sometime to combine the high- 
est products of his inventive genius in some con- 
trivance which shall enable him to drive his fu- 
siform balloon a hundred miles an hour defying 
wind and storm; or why not hope to learn from 
the albatross and the condor and the eagle the 
secrets of flight, and like them, to soar aloft and 
above the clouds, to glide hour after hour on 
widespread, motionless wings with the siieed 
of gales that vex the earth below, and as far as 
the wiid goose or the carrier pigeon or the mi- 
gratory eagle can lly, crossing continents and 
oceans, as certainly and even possibly as safely 
as do railway trains or steamships to-day? It 
would be rash as yet to assert that all this is even 
po-ssible; but it would be still more rash to as- 
sert the contrary. Man has accomplished hardly 
less wonderful tasks. Who shall say that the 
limit of his powers of invention and construc- 
tion has been reached or even approached? The 
engineer, like the man of .science, has an infinity 
of opportunity still before him. And it is to the 
combination of scientific knowledge and con- 
structive talent of the engineer rather than to 
the haphazard operations of the hand anil brain 
of the ignorant contriver of olden time that we 
are to trust, if at all, for the accomplishment of 
thi.s, the most stupendous of his tasks. Scientific 
research, e.xact computation, precise adjustment 
of means to well-understood conditions are the 
lines which lead to final success." 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



19 



Standard Wiring Table. 

At the December meeting of the council of 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
the following committee was appointed to form- 
ulate and submit for approval, a standard wiring 
table for lighting and power purposes: F. B. 
Crocker, chairman; Thomas P. Conant, Dr. 
Louis Duncan, Prof. W. R. Geyer, A. E. Ken- 
nelly, Geo. B. Prescott, Jr., Prof. E. P. Roberts, 
William Stanley, Jr., Dr. Schuyler S. Wheeler. 

The committee decided to hold its first meet- 
ing at the rooms of the institute, 125 Temple 
Court, New York, on Friday, January 10. It is 
not intended by the committee to make any rad- 
ical departure from the best practice of to-day, 
but rather to establish a table which shall be 
generally recognized and used as a standard. 
Suggestions from persons interested may be ad- 
dressed to F". B. Crocker, Columbia College, 
New York City. 



Operating" Small Machines by Electric 
Motor. 
The application of the electric motor to driv- 
ing small machines is well shown in the accom- 



this portion of the track, a distance of a quarter 
of a mile was marked off by fog signals, on ac- 
count of the mist, and a sufficient space being 
allowed for the driver to get up speed, the signal 
to str.rt was given. At the end of the distance 
the coaches were slipped, and although running, 
as was afterward ascertained, at the speed of 
thirty miles an hour, were brought to a standstill 
in about 200 yards. This was considered to be 
a very good trial, inasmuch as the rear van was 
running free, and would necessaril}'' impel the 
first coach over the lines, coated as they were 
with a film of ice. Two or three other trials were 
made with almost precisely similar results, and 
Stechford was then reached. As it had been 
demonstrated that the electric brake was effec- 
tive the guard's van was detached, and trials 
were made with the single coach. The results 
arrived at were of a more satisfactory character. 
A half-mile run was tried, and the coach slipped 
while traveling at the rate of forty-two miles 
an hour. The brake being instantly applied, 
brought the coach to a standstill in 150 yards. 
No doubt that distance would have been consid- 
erably diminished but for the fact that the 




OPERATING SMALL MACHINES BY F.LECTRIC MOTOR. 



panying cut. The motor is of Thomson-Hous- 
ton manufacture, three-horse power, and is 
belted directly to the saw. It has been in use 
since October, iSSS, and has given the most ex- 
cellent results in every way. The fact that it is 
available at any time, and can be started and 
stopped so readily, renders it particularly eco- 
nomical for this class of work. 



Test of the Forbes-Timmis Electric 
Brake. 

In a recent issue of the Western Electrictan 
a description of the Forbes and Timmis electric 
brake was presented. This apparatus was re- 
cently given a practical trial on a train on the 
London and Northwestern railway. The details 
of the tests which were made on the London 
and Birmingham main line, are given by the 
London Electrical Engineer as follows: An old- 
type coach, with four wheels only, was fitted 
with the apparatus. In one of the compartments 
was a battery of seventeen storage cells. The 
brake handle is simply a switch, to complete the 
circuit to the magnetic iron disks of the brake, 
with a resistance regulating the strength of cur- 
rent. After the 8:40 London train had left Ad- 
derley Park Station a large engme was attached 
to the coach, to which an ordinary brake van 
was linked in case of emergency. The line be- 
tween Adderley Park and Stechford, over which 
the run was made, is in every way suited for 
such a trial, there being a straight run for nearly 
a mile and a half, over an almost level line^ On 



wheels, being instantly locked, glided along the 
glazed surface. It might naturally be expected 
that the sudden application of the brake would 
have manifested itself m an unpleasant manner 
to the occupants of the coach; but the applica- 
tion was only slightly appreciable by the nine 
occupants. This is attributable probably to the 
fact that the brake is in no way connected with 
the body of the carriage, the magnetic disks be- 
ing kept in position by stays running from one 
to the other. The trial lasted for about three 
hours, the best result obtained being the stop- 
ping of the car in sixty yards, when traveling at 
thirty miles an hour. The experiments were 
considered by the company's officials to be high- 
ly satisfactory. 



The New York Question. 

The people of New York city are slowly awaking; to a 
realizing sense of the folly into which their scare on the 
subject of electric light wires so suddenly carried them, 
siys the Boston Herald. The systtms of arc lights for 
street and house purposes and electric motors for ordinary 
manufacturing uses have been destroyed by municipal 
action through the greater part of the city, a result brought 
about by the death of two men who were killed while en- 
gaged in the work of repairing electric wires, a fatality for 
which the carelessness of the victims was possibly the 
chief cause. But the eagerness of some of our New York 
contemporaries to start a sensation which would enable 
them to pose in the light of public benefactors led them 
to enter upon an indiscriminate crusade against the elec- 
tric light and power companies, and in a rash moment, in 
obedience to a supposed popular demand, the poles and 
structures supporting electric light and power wires were 
destroyed and the wires themselves removed. 



Theory of Compounding Dynamos for 
Constant Potential.' 

Bv Du. Louis Bei.i.. 

A short time ago I came across a certain fact that seemed 
to bear on the theorj' of compouDding dynamos to produce 
constant potential; I was sufficiently interested in the fact 
to work it out. It is not complete, for the simple reason 
that I have not had the opportunity either to revise it or to 
obtain such experimental conlirmalion of it as I hope to do 
later In general we can say that the object of compound 
winding a machine is to avoid extraordinary trouble. If 
constant potential is desired, it is a possible thing to pro- 
duce something very like it by a shunt winding alone. It 
has even been said that a shunt machine with no resistance 
to speak of in the armature would give a constant poten- 
tial. That is not quite t'ue, but it is certainly true that a 
shunt mach'ne with very powerful magnets and very small 
resistance in the armature will give a potential that is very 
nearly constant; but to produce such a machine is decided- 
ly difficult. It is not merely a question of designing skill, 
but sometimes it involves a great deal of trouble, a great 
deal of added weight and considerable added expense to 
produce a machine whose field tnagnets are so powerful as 
to completely overpower the armature and produce with 
simple shunt winding somewhere near a constant potential. 
As a result compound winding has been devised. It is at 
the same time to be regarded as a labor saving device, as a 
device for improving a shunt machine, designed and made 
with proper skill and care, and not at all as a device for 
making a tolerable compound wound machine out of a bad 
shunt machine. The result of compound winding of that 
sort I do not think would be satisfactory from either a 
practical or theoretical point of view. I shall introduce to- 
night one machine that evidently was built in that way. 
One might call it a lazy man's machine — a shunt machine 
very badly designed and changed tea compound appaiezt- 
ly to make up for these deficiencies. 

We might start the discussion by asking why a shunt 
wound dynamo having powerful field magnets, and an ar- 
matu-e not very powerful relatively to the field magnets, 
should not maintain a practically' constant potential. The 
answer which has always been made to that question, and 
not quite the correct answer is, because the armature 
has resistance. If, for instance, we have a shunt wound 
machine which will give 100 volts on open circuit when 
worked at its full capacity, the armature will absorb a cer- 
tain amount of the voltage, so to speak. In other 
words, a certain amount of voltage is necessary to 
overcome the resistance of the armature when a 
powerful cDrrent is being passed through it. Therefore a 
machine which gives 100 volts on open circuit, would not 
give the same amount with a powerful current passing 
through it, because the armature has an appreciable resist- 
ance, and a certain amount of voltage is absorbed there. 
There will be then a drop in voltage. That amount we can 
calculate readily. If we have a machine which will give E 
volts at a certain speed on open circuit, and have an arma- 
ture with a resistance of R^ and then pass the current, C, 
through it, we will get a drop in voltage which I will call 
e, equal to R C. And that is the approximate reason why 
we have to resort to compound winding, or why it is some- 
times convenient to do it. Now the first and natural 
suggestion is to put on enough series turns to make up for 
the loss of ^ volts. Now that is very simply done indeed, 

and the result, takmg the formula a= , would be that 

A, the number of series turns required to do that work 
would produce e volts, and biing the voltage up to the 
point where we started. 

Now if that were all that were necessary I should 
not be reading this paper now. Compound winding would 
have been worked for all it is worth, and that would be 
the end of it. Unfortunately that is not enough, and for 
this reason: The voltage at the terminals has dropped on 
account of the absorption of voltage in the armature. 
Now if we are to get 100 volts at the terminals, we must 
produce in the machine more than that, because we 
are using up a certain amount, e, in the armature. In 
order to accomplish that, the induction through the mag- 
nets must necessarily be increased, and the other factors 
remain constant; that is, the speed and number of wires 
in the armature. I am going to use the term "magnetic 
lesistance." I am aware that it is a teini that is not in 
good theoretical standing. I see that Mr. Fleming, in his 
recent book, has used it, and I am going to make bold to 
use that term, because it is convenient. We then meet 
the difficulty that this number of series turns, --J, will not do 
the work, because by adding the n'ecessary induction, 
we increase the magnetic resistance a certain amount. 
Suppose we call the magnetic resistance ot the 
machine at the start //; call the resistance at full 
load, the resistance when we put on the maximum 
induction that we are going to use qx. The magnetic resist- 

qx 
ance then is increased in the ratio of -— . Consequently 

in order that the series turns added should produce c. volts to 
make up for that drop in voltage, we must wind on not .-/ 
series turns, but a number rather larger than <?, to compen- 
sate for the fact that the magnets have increased in 
magnetie resistance. In other words, it would be in the 

ratio of — . That is the point where S. P. Thom- 
son in his well-known book dropped the subject, and that 
is the point where, so far as 1 know, nearly everybody else 
dropped it. That is very pretty, so far as it goes, and it 
is perfectly correct so far as it goc, and that is all. Any- 
body who attempts to build a compound wound machine 
according to that formula, will find himself very sad when 
he gets through, because he w II not get a constant potential 
by any such machine. The next question is, why? It is 
perfectly evident that if that does not give the result there 

I Abstract of an address before ibe Chicago Electric Club, January 6, 
16,0, 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ii, 1S90 



is some good and sufficient reason for it; ihat there is 
something^ we have forgotten, and that that something 
probably, jut'ging from the results of trying to use the 
formuht.-, is a very important something. The first thing is 
this: We have increased by adding seiics turns the magnetic 
resistance in the ratio of qx to q. and that applies to 
the shunt windings as it does to the few scries turns that 
we Have added, for by adding these series turns 
and increasing the induction, we have increased the 
magnetic resistance. Then surely the number of shunt 
windings which produce E volts, when the magnetic resi^t- 
ancc is q. will not produce it, when the magnetic resistance 
is */.r. We must add then, cither more shunt turns or an 
equivalent in scries turns. And that is one of the import- 
ant things which has been neglected in the ques- 
tion of compound winding. It is not very difficult to com- 
pute ihat amount The shunt ampere turns sulVicient to 
produce e. when the resistance is ij of course will not pro- 
duce it when the resistance is ^.v; therefore, we must add 
enough series turns to bring the induction up to its proper 
value. 

If the iron is not nearly saturated; in other words, if the 
machine were properly designed in the first place from a 
magnetic point of view, that quantity will not be a large one. 
So that so far as things considered up to this point 
are concerned, wc should we have properly the *'. volts 
with which we started out. the d:op in the armature 
having been counteracted. But unfortunately another 
term has been neglected in the question, and one 
that is still more important. I think every man who 
hss built a compound wound machine, will be able to 
have a lx>Ierably clear idea of what that term is. al- 
though the value of it has not been taken into account 
properly. It is a term that is caused by the demagnetiz- 
ing effect of the armature current. The armature is cross 
magnetized and the field is disturbed by it, and as soon as 
the brushes are given a lead, to get them to a point where 
they will not spark, the effect of the armature begins 
to make trouble atd demagnetizes the field magnets. 
'I'hcre is a certain contrary magneto motive force in 
the armature owing to the fact that it is running with 
Iei.d. and has to be run with a lead on acccunt of 
the disturbance between the field and the pole pieces. 
The demagnetizing effect upon the armature may 
rise to such a considerable amount as to cause strious 
trouble, particularly if the machine is a high potential 
machine, and there are very many turns in the armature. 
or if the machine has insuliicient iron in the field magnets 
the same result will follow. That amount has been 
and is ver\' readily worked out in terms of the number of 
windings on the armature. Its effect is quite large in 
some cases, so that instead of saying, as one custcmarily 
does, that to build a shunt machine to give a constant 
potential, you should have little < r no resistance in the 
armature, we should also have to say in addition that it 
should not have ary convolutions on the armature to speak 
of, or it will give the cross magnetizing effect. It shou'd 
be noted right there that everybody knows who designs 
machines that the sparking trouble that compels one to 
shift the position of the brushes to get ibem to a r,on- 
sparking point, is very considerably affected by the shape 
of the horns of the pole piece. Sometimes a little tact in 
changing the shape of the ends of the pole pieces will en- 
able one 10 tun with a gieat deal less lead, and get a very 
much more workable machine. But to return to the de- 
magnetizing effect of the armature. That amount has 
been worked out by Hopkinson, although it is not quite com- 
pound winding. It was worked out by him in that admiia- 
ble paper, published in iSb6, which I was about to say con- 
tains the sum and substance of the theory of the dynsmo; 
it is a paper which has not been lead as much as it ought to 
be. lie worked out the cross magnetizing effect of the ar- 
mature, the demagnetizing effect, and found it to be the 
following: The formula is 417 C _';' ^' = 4 Im C. In other 

words, he found the magncti/ed effect in magnetic units de- 
pended upon the angle of lead of current, and the number 
of convolutions in the magnet. Now having this demag- 
netized effect of the armature all we have to do to counter- 
act it is to reduce it to ils corresponding number of series 
turns, and that comes out very simply. Suppose we call f 
the number of series turns necessary on that account; we 

have C equals the simple quantity C = m -_ In 
other words, the number of series turns which will have to 
be added to counteract the demagnetizing effect of the ar- 
mature equals the number of turns en the armature, divid- 
ed by the quantity _ where 1 is the angle of lead. 

Now then we have those three factors which go to make 
up the series turns necessary to give a constant potential 
machine. The first one, the one which has been known 
for a good while due to the fact that 1 he armature has a re- 
sistance. The second one, due to the fact that the magnetic 
resistance of the machine increases as one computes the 
series turns to take care of the first turn. And fin;iliy, still 
more series turns must be added to counteract the demag- 
netizing effect of the armature- And they come out in 
respectively simple foims. The only trouble is this quan- 
tity, fl'i. We don't always know what qx is, although we 

q 

ought to know very nearly what y is il the machine has 
been carefu'Iy designed in the start. I!ut it is quite easy 
to get an approximate idea of ry.v from almost any of the 
published curves of magnetization. Those in Ilopkinson's 
paper are perhaps the handiest to work with that I know 
of. If any one krows anything about the iron that is used 
in building a machine, he can arrive at a fairly good idea of 
ijx. It is a quantity that is quite obtainable. I think 
that these three terms include ail the terms which are of 
suflicient size to be met with in actual dynamo building. 
Thcorelically, they arenot all that would have to Ic taken 
into account, and I have omitted in the Hrst place all 
terms involving the square and higher powers 
of the ratio, because the-y are quite small; in the next place 
alt terms involving the differential of that ratio, and finally 



the periodic terms which involve the self induction of sec- 
tions of thearmaiure and things of that kind. They are 
ver\' small. I think, compared with either of these three 
terms, and so :^m3ll that ihey need not cause very much 
trouble in practice. One thing more so far as these terms 
are concerned, and the work is complete. These scries 
turns should be wound on the magnet. Consequently the 
numVer of series turns, whatever it is, deduced in this way, 
would have to be multiplied by the co-efficient of leakage 
of the machine, whatever that may be. That coefficient 
is very seldom as low as 1.25 and not very often as high as 
1.9. So we will have to multiply the number of series 
windings derived in this way from these three terms, by 
that co-elhcient, whatever it may be, to get the total number 
necessary. There is quite a wide variation in the value of 
leakage, and of course any form of magnetic frame that 
we are tolerably well acquainted with, we can make a very 
close guess indeed as to the actual value of this co-efiicient, 
I added these two terms, B and C, and looked to find spec- 
ifications in some compound dynamo for the sake of 
applying this, and seeing whether it actually gave the 
proper number of series turns to be applied. 1 was not 
very lucky in that search. 1 had little time in which to 
look, only a couple of days, and I did not find very much, 
and I am compelled to use as an illustration a machine 
which shows a necessity for the corrections more than any- 
thing else. . It is the machine described by Thomson. 
It is a four-pole machine with a gramme armature. 
The armature contains 320 turns with a resistance of 
.025 ohm. The total resistance of the series turns 
was .C05 ohm, making .03 ohm the total resistance. The 
dimensions of the machine are partly given, but the 
machine was built with very much too little iron. The 
iron was very much over-saturated. In fact, the amount- 
of iron was so small as to be very objectionable, the over 
saturation being very severe. The details of the machine 
were not given as perfectly as I would like to have 
them I had to make a guess for the ratio. The guess 



I made for that was 



qx 



:i.3. The leakage I lake 



is 1.6, which was not an excessive amount, I think, 
for a four-pole machine built on these lines. It 
is rather small, if anything, considering the char- 
acter of the machine. Finally the leakage I took as 
/=^V n-, which I think is not a large lead for a saturated 
machine; a machine where there is too little iron and with 
quite a powerful armature. 

These three quantities I judged, as far as I could with- 
out working them through to see where they would lead 
me. Having taken those I proceeded ts put them into 
these various formula- with the resistances given, and the 
number of shunt terms given, which was 352, as I men- 
tioned before, on each of the four poles of the magnet. 
The result I found was this; Taking these terras one b)' 
one .-/=S turns, B^io turns, showing that this factor which 
has been completely neglected in most work of this kind 
was in this case more than twice the quantity which 
Thompson would give for the full number of series turns 
necessary for compound. And then working out the arma- 
ture turn, C^32. it makes a still further increase. In fact 
the amount owing to the armature alone was 4 times the 
number given by this old standby formula. Then multiply 
the whole by «, the co-efficient of leakage of the machine, 
we get 96 series turns as necessary to compound that par- 
ticular machine. Having worked that out I turned back 
to the description of the machine, 96 was the series 
turns on that machine. In other words I happentil 
— I say happened, bi cause 1 did not know exactly 
vyhat those were,— to get precisely the number of 
series turns that were required as found in practice to 
compound that machine. Now, I do not know whether 
it \\as well compounded or badly. Ji dging from 
the general design 1 should say that it was not compounded 
very well. At all events, it is quite clear that these three 
terms give a close approximation to the actual number 
of turns found to be necessary. If that is true in a 
machine so thoroughly saturated, a machine with 
altogether too little iron in it, and a machine where the 
voltage at full load, without compounding, must be barely 
o^erhalf the normal voltage, which is 65; if it works prop- 
erly in a machine of that kind, so as to give approximately 
the numbt r of turns retjuired to compound it, it certainly 
ought to do so where the number of volts to be acccunted 
for is one-tenth of the total number produced. I have not 
been able to get any other machine to which I could apply 
it, but from the result of that I am convinced that it is a 
fairly good approximation to the number of terms actually 
required in practice. 

In closing I would reiterate again what I said at the 
start, that I do 1 01 think the compound machine ought to be 
abused in the way it was when the machine thai gave these 
results was designed. It is too much to ask a machine to 
do, to scrimp it on iron, proportion it badly, anci then 
expect it to give constant voltage; it simply will not do il. 

I win say that these formula; will compound the machine 
correctly, I think, when the voltage due to the shunt turn 
is K. ConstCjUcntly it will compound correctly when the 
machine is run at such a speed that the shunt turns alone 
will give R. volts on open circuit, and that will be the speed 
for compounding, and the speed at which these formuhc 
represent, I think, nearly the proper amount of series turns. 
Of course if the machine is run at any other speed, in 
other words, if the shunt windings give more or less than 
E. volts the machine cannot be expected to compound. It 
would not compound, and everybody knows very well 
that a com.pound machine is tensitivc to changes of 
speed. 

I wish very much I bad obtained the details of several 
compound wound machines, which were properly designed 
at the start I have faiih to believe thai the results would 
be much belter; that these formuhc would represent the 
series turns necessary much more closely in case of a ma- 
chine properly designed to start with, than one which I 
know was baciy designed. 1 hope to be able to do so in 
the future. 



Electrical Engineering in America. 

]!v G. 1,. Adukmirookk. 



Returning to the Tittsburg station, five W'estinghouse 
engines of 250 indicated horse power drive live alternating- 
current dynamos of 2,500 16-candielight power capaciiyeach 
tesidesihe machines elriven from the Corliss engine. The 
exciters are run from smaller engines. The engines driv- 
ing the alternating d\namosmake 250 revolutions per 
minute, the dynamos making 1.050 revolutions per minute. 
The power is conveyed overhead by belts to the first llcor, 
where the dynamos are placed. Each of these dynamos is 
on a sliding bed, so that the belt can be tightened, and. as 
I have already said, the exciters are run separately from 
the machines. The machines are so well known it is bald- 
ly necessary to describe them. I may. however, with ad- 
vantage say a few words on the construction of the arm: - 
ture, which is the least easy part to understand from writ- 
ten descriptions or diagrams. In I'rof. Silvanus Thomj - 
son's book on dynamo machines the diameter of the arma- 
ture is given at nearly twice its breadth. While this is true 
of the smaller machines, in the 2,500 machine — which is 
the standard size for large stations, and is the sizeemploycd 
in the new station in Sardinia street in London — the length 
of the drum is considerably greater than the diameter. 
The drum itself is formed of thin iron plates, just like an 
Edison armature, only of larger diameter; and as the iron 
near the center is useless, holes are punched in the sheets, 
which lightens the armature, and secures ventilation. 
Round the outside of this iron core and over the two ends 
insulation is laid. As regards the coils of wire in which 
the current is generated, they are made in this way: be- 
ginning at the inner side of the coil the wire is wound on 
an oblong frame to correspond with the shape of the 
lleld-magnets, one turn on the top of the other. The 
coils are only one wire thick — that is. there is only one 
layer of wire between the drum and the field-magnels. 
When these thin flat coils are laid on the drum, the round 
ends of the coils are tuined down at right angles over the 
edge at each end of the drum, and the connections from 
coil to coil are made. A small piece of wood screwed into 
the side of the drum and projecting over the end of each 
coil, keeps it in its place. When all the coils are fixed 
in their places, sheets of mica are laid over them all round 
the armature and bands o* fine wire with a little thicker in- 
sulation underneath them are bound round the whole ar- 
mature at short intervals, in exactly the same way as is 
usual with the armature of continuous current machines. 
An armature made in this way has perhaps an amateurish 
look about it. but there is no doubt they work well in prac- 
tice and give excellent results. It is further worth noting 
that as the field magnets are long and narrow — a ratio of 
at least 10 to 1 in the large machines— they cannot be 
very economical as far as exciting current is concerned. 
Still, since the exciting current anyhow, bears such a 
small ratio to the energy which the machine will transform 
into electric current, this is not a very material point. 

The mains are run from the dynan-os to the switch- 
board in troughs cut in the joists supporting the llcor, 
which is made to take up over these troughs. 

The switch-board at Pitlsbuig consisted of a wooden 
frame boarded over, about 9 feet high and 12 feet or 14 
feet long, and standing about 3 feet from the wall, so as 
to give room to go behind and make the connections. 
This, I may say, is the usual way of arranging switch- 
boards in America. 

The general type of switeh used in America for alter- 
nating-current work, and it is not confined to the Westing- 
house company, is exceedingly simple in construction and 
operation, as well as efficient. In general principle it is 
like an ordinary tobacco chopper. To the top of a small 
upright a lever is hinged, terminating in an insulated 
handle. The metal part of this lever has a hatchet-shaped 
projection cast on it, projecting in the same plane as the 
motion of the lever. When the lever is pulled down the 
hatchet-shaped piece sticks in between two spring pieces 
set up to receive it, and so makes contact. If the lever 
has two hatchet-shaped pieces attached to it opposite each 
other, and engaging in spring pieces on either side, ac- 
cording as the handle is thrown over in one direction or 
the other, we have a two-way switch. ' Unite two of these 
levers together by a cross-bar of insulating material, with 
a handle in the middle, and we have a double-pole two- 
way switch. Place a spring in the columns holdirg the 
hinges on which the levers turn, to throw down the levers 
when nearing the spring contact pieces on either side, and 
we have the complete article. These switches were all 
mounted on wooden bases. In fact, 1 saw no slate used 
in America anywhere for such purposes, except at the 
Electric club in New York. In the new Westinghouse 
station in Sardinia street, however, the whole of the 
switches are mounted on enameled slate, and very nice 
they look. 

One exciter is used for several machines; each exciter 
has a resistance in its field-magnets, which can be varied. 
There is, moreover, a separate resistance in the field-mag- 
net circuit of each alteinatirg machine, so that the e.m.f. 
of the machine can be varied while its speed remains con- 
stant. 

Double throw-over switches are connected so that each 
altcrnating-cuirent machine can be connected to either of 
two exciters, and so that any main cinuil can be run frcm 
any machine. The general principle followed is to keep the 
machines at work as fully loaded as possible. 'J hus in 
the day many circuits will be run off one machine, but as 
evening comes on they will one by one be taken off and 
put on other mschines. The throwing over is so quiikly 
done as to -^nly just cause aperccptible lUcker in the lights. 
All these switches were bare and unprotected. 

1 did nof hear or see much of the method of running 
two separate machines parallel on the same circuit. What- 
ever may be done in isolated instances, it does noi appear 
to be practised generally; indeed, with the American sys- 
tem of running a number of small circuits instead of fewer 



■January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



heavy ones, the desirability of doing so does not often 
come in. 

I should like to indorse here what I see Prof. George 
Forbes said in his paper on foreign central stations with re- 
gard to feeders. The area which can be economically sup- 
plied from a central station has certainly been greatly in- 
creased by the adoption of 1,000 or 2,000 volts instead of 
100. But at the same time our notions of the area which 
can be supplied from one center have experienced a corre- 
sponding growth. 

If, then, such an increased area is supplied on a high 
tension system from one center, we have as great, or nearly 
as great, falls of potential to deal with as if the low ten- 
sion system were used over a correspondingly smaller area. 

To secure the highest class of lighting, therefore, to- 
gether with the flexibility desirable in an installation lighl- 
, ing a large area, the whole of the outside work should be 
based on as complete and carefully designed a set of feed- 
ers as from our present knowledge we should employ with 
alow tension system. 

On many of the Westinghouse feeders lighting at great 
distances, there is a fall of potential of as much as 10 per 
cent. To avoid pilot wires an indicator is used, which, I 
think, Prof. Forbes has already described here. There is 
no regular voltmeter for driving the machines by, but an 
indicator is used with but one single maik on the dial. 
When the machine is giving the voltage which is required 
at the further end of the feeder to keep the lamps at their 
proper brightness, the hand of the indicator will be right 
over the mark on the dial. The loss in the feeder will, of 
course, differ according to the current flowing through it, 
so to allow for this a compensator is attached to the indi- 
cator. The main current flows through the compensator, 
which is arranged to cause a slight back-pull on the needle 
of the indicator; this pull becomts greater as the current 
increases. As the current increases therefore, a slightly 
higher voltage on the machine will be necessary to keep 
the needle in its place. The instruments have, of course, 
to be made so that they can be adjusted to the calculated 
requirements of each feeder. When once set right, how- 
ever, their operation is simple enough. 

The Westinghouse company also use a piece of appa- 
ratus containing an adjustable converter, which enables 
them to supply current from the same machine to two 
feeders having a different fall of potential. 

The Thomson-Houston station in New York is situated 
in Twenty-fourth street East, near the river, and occupies 
what was formerly a large sugar refinery. It is, therefore, 
a building of the warehouse class, but very strongly built. 
I was told that this station was neither so large nor so well 
arranged as their station in Brooklyn, but the latter, I re- 
gret, I had not time to see. Two boilers struck me here 
as out of the ordinary patterns. The simplest 'way to 
describe them is I think, to consider them as large loco- 
motive fire-tube boilers ser on end. The tubes are about 
15 feet long, and the water line is about 10 feet up the 
tubes. This gives a considerable steam space above, 
through which the fire- tubes pass, superheating tVe steam 
generated, and thoroughly drying it. At first sight one 
might suppose this an uneconomical pattern, as the heated 
gases pass so quickly into the fine. Bnt the gases appear 
to give out their heat well, for Mr. Foster, the station 
superintendent, told me the temperature of the gases going 
into the flue was not above 550^ F. The lower portion of 
this boiler is, however, the interesting part. I cannot very 
well describe it without the aid of a diagram. The outer 
shell of the boiler is expanded out and prolonged about a 
couple of feet below the tubes. It is turned up at the bot- 
tom, and united all round to the crown plate of the boiler, 
into which the lower ends of the tubes are expanded. This 
prolongation of the shell then forms a circular hollow, or 
chamber, about 2 feet deep. The internal space inclosed 
by this hollow chamber forms the firebox or furnace, and 
is about 6 feet in diameter Any sediment collects in the 
hollow chamber, and can be taken out at manholes. There 
were two of these boilers in use, and it was in contempla- 
tion to increase their number. 

The engine^and. there is only one — which furnishes 
power to this station, is a large compound condensing 
Corliss engine; the two cylinders being in tandem. It is a 
very fine piece of work of its class. It drives on to a 
large flywheel with a smooth face of about 60 inches 
breadth. This flywheel transmits its power to a line of 
countershafting, which is arranged on the floor above, by 
means of a large leather belt 5S inches broad and of great 
thickness. I think, in all, 17 machines are run from this 
line of countershafting — 15 55-light arc machines and two 
alternating current machines; in this case the machines are 
on the same floor as the countershafting. The general 
construction of the Thomson-Houston alternating current 
machines is on the same lines as those of the Westinghouse 
company. The main difference is that instead of the ends 
of the coils on the armatures being turned over the edge of 
the core, as in the Westinghouse machine, the armature 
has a sort of prolonged lip all round the outside at each 
end, and the ends of the coils lie flat on this instead of be- 
ing turned over. To their smaller machines, also, the 
Thomson-Houston company frequently add a commutator, 
and commute part of the current to excite the field-mag- 
nets, as Zipemowski. Deri, and Blathy are in the habit of 
doing. The switch-board here is on much the same lines 
as I have already described. It was all quite open and 
exposed ; but I was told that in view of an accident which 
had happened there a short time before, they proposed to 
cover the exposed parts up. 

This way of leaving the working parts of high tension 
alternating current switchboards exposed is not confined 
to American manufacturers; a good deal of the Continen- 
tal work is even worse. Yet all the different patterns of 
switches and converters could be protected at a moderate 
cost, and by the exercise of a very moderate amount of 
skill and ingenuity. I cannot help thinking that not to do 
so, to save money in this direction, is false economy. 

ISOLATED PLANTS. 

Let us now turn for a few moments from central stations 
to what are called "private installations" in this country, 



and "isolated plants" in America. I have already spoken 
of internal construction work, or wiring and fittings, in 
connection with central stations. With isolated plants there 
is not much difference. Of course the character of the 
work differs greatly in different places, as it does here, but, 
taking it as a whole, I don't think it is equal to our stand- 
ard; whether from an engineering or artistic point of view. 
I noticed, by the way, that there is a much greater ten- 
dency to turn incandescent lamps upward in fittings, like 
gas-jets, instead of downward, as with us the majority of 
lamps are turned. Isolated plants are driven by steam and 
gas engines, located in cellars and basements, exactly like 
they are here. As you are aware, accumulators are not =0 
generally used; I only saw the set at the New York Elec- 
tric ciub. With respect to dynamos, the Americans 
have been fully alive to the developments, both theoretical 
and practical, in our knowledge of the magnetic circuit 
which have taken place during the last four or five years, 
and all their modern machines appeared to me fairly up to 
date in this particular. W^hat I may be permitted to call 
the Edison-Hopkinson type, the Kapp type, the Man- 
chester type, and the Weston type— the latter with two 
magnets placed horizontally— appear to be the favorites, 
just as they are here. The construction and workmanship 
of the machines appeared to be much on a par with our 
own. There is little to choose between in one or the 
other. As to the way the installations are run, judging by 
that crucial practical test, the look of the coinmulator and 
brushes, it is much the same as here, certainly, I thmk, on 
the whole, not better. The lamps, as a rule, I did not 
find any steadier, nor are they kept nearer their proper 
voltage than they are here. This applies to arc lamps as 
well as incandescent: there is no magic about arc lamps 
over on the other side of the water; they are subject to the 
same vicissitudes and uncertainties as they are here, and 
do not burn steadier than those in any moderate- sized sta- 
tion here where the appliances are such that the lamps get 
a fair chance. 

The switch-boards in these private installations are 
nearly always mounted on wood, and there is even a dis- 
position to cut things fine in the strength and solidity of 
these wooden basebcards, somewhat, as it seemed to me 
in one or two instances, at the expense of efficiency and 
lasting qualities. 

ELECTRICAL TRAMWAYS. 

Such very full accounts have been published of every- 
thing that has been done in this direction, that there is 
really little I can add to them. In the Electrical IVoih* 
for October ig there is published a table of the electrical 
tramways in actual operation and under contract in the 
United States. The total mileage of both is 1,260 miles, 
with I, ?S4 cars, on 179 roads Of this, 716 miles we?e, 
it appears, actually being operated by electricity at the 
date of the return, and 544 miles, were under ccntract. Of 
this total, 21 miles were worked by cars with storage bat- 
teries, and ail the rest, with the exception of two or three 
miles, by overhead conductors. 

Nothing can be simpler than the way these overhead 
conductors are put up. Two lines of posts, about 20 feet 
high, are set up opposite each other, one on each side of 
the street; light steel wires are run across from one to the 
other; a small iron holding piece is attached to the center 
of the steel suspender, and this holding piece carries a 
bare, hard-drawn copper wire, along which the current 
flows, returning by the rails. Where feeders are used, 
they run along one side of the street, and connections are 
made at intervals with the central wire. The way the 
conductor is carried round corners is on a par with the rest 
of the work. Posts are set at the further corners of the 
street, and from each of these two, three, or four steel 
wires are run at an angle with each other, meeting corre- 
sponding wires run from posts on the inntr side of the 
curve. In this way the wire is made to take the form of 
part of a rough polygon, while the horizontal and vertical 
movements of the fishing rod connector on the car are 
sufficiently ample to keep the contact-wheel on the wire 
when the car is going round a corner. 

This method of erection does not look very nice, cer- 
tainly, but it appears to answer the purpose well. Such 
work could, I think, be more solidly carried out here for 
about ;i^70 a mile. In a few places standards with pro- 
jecting arms placed in the center of the street have been 
used for carrying the overhead couductor. If neatly con- 
structed; there is no reason why these should be unsightly, 
and they can be used for the further purpose of lighting 
the streets. 

A great point about these electrical tram cars is the way 
in which their speed can be varied. They can be run at 
three or four miles an hour in crowded streets and while 
turning corners, or in broad roads in suburbs where there 
is not much carriage traffic, the pace can be increased to 
16 miles an hour. The cars are stopped very qu-ckly and 
reversed, and will, of course, run either way on the same 
track. 

The companies claim a reduction of 50 per cent, in the 
cost of working over the employment of horses, putting 
aside all the extra facilities which the electrically-propelled 
car gives. A very notit cable point about all electrically- 
propelled cars is the quiet and gradual manner in which 
they start and come to rest, and the evenness of their 
motion while running. In these points they greatly sur- 
pass both cables and horses. I took the opportunity of 
talking with a good many members of the general public 
in the train and hotels about the working of these cars. 
There is no doubt that the outside public thoroughly ap- 
preciate them, and understand their value. At present 
electrical tramway work is the most "live" branch of the 
electrical industry in the States, and every one connected 
with it was full of buoyancy and hope at its future pros- 
pects. It is really sad to think that after all the skill and 
care which has been lavished on electrical tramway work 
here, it should be dragging along in such a half-hearted 
and pottering fashion 

While in America, through the kindness of Mr. Lock- 
wood, I had an opportunity of going over the telephone 
exchange system of New York with him, and of seeing the 



Cortland street exchange, which contains more than 
3 500 subscribers, and is capable of extension to double 
that number. I also visited the W^estern Electric company's 
factories, both in Chicago and New York, where all the 
telephonic apparatus for use in the States is made. Al- 
though a description of the present, slate of this industry 
would properly come under the heading of my paper, 
seeing that the paper has already extended to such length, 
and that, owing to circumstances, telephony is a matter of 
comparatively limited interest here, however important in 
itself, I will not say more about it, but will conclude with 
a few general remarks. 

In the early portion of this paper, I endeavored to con- 
vey an idea of the roughness and crudeness of American 
outside construction work. After reading over the proofs 
of the pap^r, I do not think I have overdrawn the picture; 
rather it is underdrawn, if anything. At the same time. I 
do not wish it in any way to be understood that American 
engineers are necessarily rough and untidy in their ideas, 
and incapable of different work. Besides their electrical 
plant, the numbers of beautiful tools, crowned by the 
latest pattern of the phonograph, which came over here 
from America, point to an entirely different conclusion. 
In accuracy of workmanship and careful finish, when they 
consider it suits their purpose, the Americans are our 
equals, if not our superiors; the difference lies in the fact 
that our ideas often differ from theirs as to where this ac- 
curacy and careful finish should come in. English engin- 
eering would hardly dare to appear before its fellow-citi- 
zens as the responsible owner and designer of such a ter- 
rible eyesore as American outside work is; but the Ameri- 
can engineer appears to look at it from a different point of 
view. It is not his business to think of his fellow-citizens. 
Each of his fellow-citizens, he considers, is quite compe- 
tent and capab'e of taking care of himself. It is the busi- 
ness of the electrical engineer to forward and extend the 
applications of electricity. If in doing this he does any- 
thing disagreeable to his fellow-citizens, it is for them to 
protest when it becomes intolerable to them, not for him 
to think of it beforehand. 

And I would like you to try and think for yourselves, 
and really feel the enormous facilities which American en- 
gineers have in the past enjoyed, and still enjoy, in ex- 
tending! heir business, by simply being allowed to erect 
open wires everywhere through the streets. Even where 
wires are now being put underground, they are largely put 
underground in order to carry on existing work, and to ex- 
tend it, not merely to take advantage later of what may 
chance to turn up on the route. 

Besides this, we have all had it drilled into us by this 
time that it does not matter how perfect, how desirable, 
how useful a thing is likely to be, before it can come into 
general use the public have got to be educated up to it, to 
see it, and fee! its desirability and utility, and its practi- 
cability — to understand it. each man for himself. Now, the 
American system of overhead wires and cheap line con- 
struction, bad as it may be in itself, has from the very first 
brought electricity home to everybody, right to their very 
doors, not so much as a luxury, but as a practical desirable 
factor of everyday life, an attraction to public resorts, and 
a good advertisement for business. Consequently, electric- 
ity is in America no more a wonder, but a fact of everj'day 
life to an extent that it is not yet here. 

Looking at their plant, looking at their apparatus, and 
looking at the facilities which Americans have enjoyed for 
extended practical experiments on a larger scale, it does 
not appear to me that their actual achievements, simply 
from an engineering and scientific point of view, have been 
greater than ours have, in spite of the apathy on the part 
of the public and investors with which we have had to con- 
tend. Still, the fact remains that they have done more 
business than we have, even considering the difference in 
population. 

Of what work we have done so far, Englishmen may 
feel justly proud, and with better times I trust we may 
still be able in friendly rivalry to show that we are com- 
petitors worthy of America's best mettle. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Forbes admired the realistic description of electrical 
work in the United States given in the paper and fully en- 
dorsed the author's account of American electrical engin- 
eering, particularly as regards the rough-and-ready way in 
which the work is usually carried out. Although this class 
of work may be necessary for the rapid extension of elec- 
tric lighting (as well as of railways) in America, where 
great distances have to be covered, yet he thought the 
more solid construction adopted by English engineers would 
prove better In the long run. For some time past he had 
frequently heard of great advances made on the other 
side of the Atlantic, and expected to have heard something 
definite about them from Mr. Addenbrooke, but, with the 
exception of electric tramways. Utile change seems to have 
been made since his visit two years ago. At that time, 
however, most tramways were worked by accumulators. 
Information about motors and meters would have been 
very acceptable, particularly for alternating current work. 
Speaking of American factories. Prof. Forbes said that 
great attention was paid to testing, and as a result the 
efficiency of converters had been considerably increased. 
As regards distribution, he was glad to hear of the frequent 
use ot feeders, and hoped they would be more generally 
adopted in England. In conclusion, he asked what kind 
of cable was used for underground work. 

H. C. Donovan considered that the apparent disregard 
of insulation was to be attributed to the dryness of the 
climate, and expected to have seen this brought out in the 
paper. 

W. P. Granville said the usual method of specifying 
insulation resistance of cables (viz., in megohms per mile) 
was unsatisfactory, and that the diameter of the conductor 
should be taken into account, for if this is not done the 
same material used on conductors of different sizes would 
give quite different insulation resistances. He also thought 
that the insulation tests of lead-covered cable should be 
made before sheathing, and while the cable is immersed 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ir, iSgo 



in water. In his opinion the whole subject required 
reconsideration. 

Prof. S. I'. Thompson had hoped to hear that in the five 
years since he visited the States improved methods of 
wiring, etc.. would have been adopted bu; no great change 
seemed to have taken place, except in the use of altern.iling 
currents. On his visit he obtained an insulator even more 
crude than the one described by Mr. Addenbrooke. This 
he promised to exhibit at the next meeting. .Mler making 
inquiries as to the kind of motor used in the constant cur- 
rent arc circuits. Dr. Thompson expressed his opinion that 
the alleged greater steadiness of American arc h'ghts was 
not due to any superiority in the design or workmanship of 
the lamps, but to the greater personal pride and confidence 
which the attendants have in the particular system with 
which they are connected. 

Mk. Swinburne pointed out the great difference which 
exists in the management of English and American fac- 
tories, and thought the system adopted in the latter, where 
the perfecting of designs .ind the experimental work are 
kept quite distinct from the wholesale manufacturing part 
of the business, was most likely to lead to success. So far. 
however, he believed machines of English design bttter 
than American, for the weight efficiency of the former is 
generally higher. Referring to Mr. Granville's contention, 
he said that instead of insulation resistance being given in 
megohms per mile, they should be expressed in megohm 
miles for each si/e of conductor. 

The President, while deprecating imperfect work in gen- 
eral, thought it advisable that English electricians should 
acquire whatever good could be got fiom the "rough and 
ready" method adopted in America, and considered that 
progress might be retarded by waiting too long to attain 
perfection. He was anxious to know how constant cur- 
rents were used for motors, and also whether the overt ead 
wires used for tramways interfered with the ordinary street 
traffic. 

Replying to Prof. Forbes' question as to recent ad- 
vances. Mr Addenbrooke said he had not concerned 
himself with them, for his object was to see the systems 
and apparatus in common use. As to motors he made no 
inquiries respecting their peculiarities, but as regards 
meters he was informed that numbers of the Westinghouse 
t\pe were in constant use. He agreed with Prof. Forbes 
alwul the way in which testing is appreciated, and with 
Prof. Thompson as regards the interest which the men 
take in their work; the latter fact Mr. Addenbrooke at- 
tributed to better wages and great chances of promotion. 
Speakinj- of the insulation of cables, he thought the abso- 
lute thickness of insulating material should be stated. In 
reply to the president's question relating to tramway wires. 
Mr.Addenbrooke pointed cut that they were placed eight 
or nine feet above the tops of the cars, contact being made 
by a "fishing-rod" connection. In some cases these wires 
are carried by brackets projecting from poles fixed along 
the middle of the roadway, the poles being also utilized for 
supporting arc lamps and for general lighting circuits. 

I. ant Carpenter, who paid a hurried visit to America 
during August and September, said he quite concurred in 
Mr. Addenbrooke*s remarks about the temporary character 
of the work, particularly in the western towns. In many 
places on the Pacific slope he found that water power was 
extensively used, both for arc lighting and tramway work; 
one town in Washington, he observed, had laid down elec 
trie tramways befo:e making the common roads. Incan- 
descent lamps are comparatively rarely seen in the far 
West, and from enquiries he learned that where they had 
been tried, the stations were so badly managed that the 
life of the lamps averaged between 200 or 300 hours. 
Passing on to Canada, he said that Quebec, Montreal, and 
Ottawa were all lighted electrically by water power. Ai - 
other fact that struck him was the large numbers of long- 
distance telephone wires in use in the States. He also 
noticed that many of the wires were now being put under- 
ground. 

(_i. S. Ram said he could not agree with Mr. Adden- 
brooke on the glaring character of arc lamps fixed on poles, 
and added that the tower system had been almost aband- 
oned in New York in favor of poles. He greaily preferred 
the blaze of light in that city to the comparative darkness 
of London. As regards the character of overhead work, 
he thought the account given in the paper was not over- 
drawn, and in support of this he exhibited a photograph 
of a building in liroadway. New York, in which hundreds 
of wires were unintentionally included. On careful exam- 
ination of the photograph the insulation on some of the 
wires was teen to be hanging in shreds 

C. E. Spagnoletti thought the necessities for insulation 
were so different in England and America that the systems 
could not be compared on the same basis To show the 
great variation or insulation resistances in the country, he 
said that on the South Wales branch of the Creat Western 
Railway the insulation resistances of the telegraph lines 
varies from several megohms to a few thousand ohms ac- 
cording to the weather. He also mentioned the difficulties 
experienced by Mr. Edison when experimeming in London 
and at Ealing with his automatic chemical telegraph. The 
maximum rate he could attain there was 500 words per 
minute, whereas in America he could get 2.000. 

Mr. Prcece, speaking of insulation requirements in the 
two countries, said that in his opinion the dffferences arise 
from the facts that the prevailing English winds are warm 
and moislene<l by passing over the Gulf .Stream, while in 
America, the shores being washed by Polar currents, the 
winds arc cold and dry. Referring to his own visits to 
America, the speaker said he always benefited considerably 
by being associated with the 'go-aheadcdness" of Ameri- 
can enginceis, and he believed that on visiting this country 
American engineers derived similar advantages. 

A. Reckeozaun deprecated the wholesale condem- 
n;tion of posts made by Mr. Addenbrooke, and said that 
many were not unsightly, while some were ornamental. He 
considered the paper chiefly a criticism of the bad work 
done in America, and the good work was barely mentioned. 
For example, little is said of installations in which second- 
ary batteries are employed, although there are many in 



constant operation, and electric railways are not de- 
scribed. 

F. Reckenzaun concurred in his brother's remarks 
about the imfair criticism contained in the paper, and 
thought the cifferences of opinion arose from the totally 
different idtas as to the way in which electrical engineering 
should be carried out. In the American methods, he said, 
great skill and ingenuity was shown in combining economy 
with simplicity and efficiency. Although the aic lamps are 
not ornament.il, yet they are simple and efficient, and 
cheap construction admits of them being universally used. 
He agreed in general with Lant Carpenter's remarks 
on incandescent lighting, but was inclined to believe its 
limited use was due to the people wanting the biggest and 
best light obtainable at the price. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
New York Notes. 

Nkw York, Jan. 4. — The pole choppers and wire cut- 
ters have been working steadily since the decision favoring 
the Board of Electrical Control was handed down two 
weeks ago by Judge Uarielt, and as a result of their labors 
about 1.300.000 feet of wire and goo poles have been de- 
stroyed. The Mount Moriis company which had not been 
disturbed before, suffered last Tuesday when its wires were 
cut by Inspector Fit/patricli, of the lioard of E'ectrical 
Control. The telephone company's service has been crip- 
pled by the wholesale cutting of wires. 

The offic'al death record for last year shows that nine 
persons were killed in this city by electricity. Most of the 
victims were employes of electric concerns. 'I'he same 
source of information shows that eighty persons were killed 
by street cars or run down by wagons in this city. This 
would indicate that of all the dangers to tht public, that of 
electricity is really very small. In view of these facts it is 
no wonder the merchants of this city are complaining bit- 
terly of the course pursued by the Board of Electrical Con- 
trol in shutting off their light at a time when it was most 
needed. 

The special commission appointed to test the efficiency 
of the electrical machines recently purchased by the State 
for the execution of murderers, visited Auburn Tuesday, 
killed a calf and an old horse and returned to town perfect- 
ly satisfied with their day's work. 

The Pearl street station of the Edison company was de- 
stroyed by fire Thursday, involving a loss of about S150,- 
000. This plant was the oldest Edison station in the city 
and the first in the country to use the underground system. 

The New Year chimes of 1S90 were recorded by two 
phonographs placed in the belfry tower of Grace Church. 
One of the cylinders will be preserved in the church while 
the other will be used at entertainments during the season. 
The record rn the cylinders is excellent, and the reproJuc- 
tion of the tunes comes out clear and strong. W. H. T. 



Boston, Mass. 

Boston, Mass., January 3. — The new governor of 
Massachusetts was inaugurated yesterday. In his inaugur- 
al address, in pointing out the subjects upon which he 
deemed legislation desirable, Governor Bracket t said; 
"The report that the Boston fire was caused by an electric 
wire, and the accidents almost daily occurring from the 
same cause, admonish us that, while electricity has been 
made so largely subservient to the uses and conveniences 
of civilization, it is adding lo the insecurity of life and 
property. The necessity is urgent for the enactment of 
laws for the supervision and regulation of electric wirts 
wherever they exist, and for such othir carefully matured 
measures as will, without impairing the use of electricity, 
lessen the perils attendant thereon." The legislature will 
doubtless be called upon in various ways this winter to leg- 
islate upon matters that are of vital interest and importance 
to the electrical industries. 

Bids for lighting the streets of Boston by means of arc 
lamps were received by the superintendent of lamps last 
Saturday in place of those received on Nov. 29, which were 
reported in the Boston letter at that time. All of those bids 
(vere rejected by Mayor Hart on the ground that they were 
excessive, and a call for new bids not to exceed 40 cents 
per night per light, has resulted in the following bids: Su- 
burban Light i^: Power company, for Roxbury for one and 
three years, 38,",,'*, cents, and for five years, 391',,', cents; 
for the city proper, South Boston, West Ro.sbury and Dor- 
chester for five years, 391',',, cents a light per night; Brook- 
line Gas company, Brighten district, for five years, 40 cents 
a light; Walworth Light kV Power company, for the entire 
city for live years, 40 cents a light per night. The contract 
has not yet been awarded. The city is at present lighted 
by the Charlestown Gas company and the Boston lOlectric 
Light company, the contr.ict expiring on Jan. 7, but neith- 
er of these companies made bids under the 40 cent retiuire- 
ment. Both of them sent in letters stating their inability to 
comply with the terms and conditions of the proposal. The 
action of the board of aldermen, in jiostponing indefinitely 



at the meeting this week, the order requesting the mayor 
not to give his approval of any new contracts which shall 
requite the city to pay more than 40 cents per light, indi- 
cates a disposition to go slowly in so important a matter. 

It is expected that the West End Street Railway com- 
pany will make an application to the legislature this winter 
for an elevated railroad charter. President Whitney, of 
the West End is authority for this statement of the com- 
pany's intentions, but the exact plans of the undertaking 
have not yet been made public. Last year the company 
successfully opposed the plans of all others who sought the 
right from the legislature to erect overhead structures in 
the streets because of the many objectionable features of 
such structures. This expressed intention of the West 
End company is of interest to electricians because of the 
company's enthusiastic adoption of electric motors to re- 
place the horses on all surface roads, a step which indicates 
ihat, should an elevated road be built, electricity would 
probably be the motive power for the trains. The fact that 
the Thomson-Houston Electric company is now building 
an experimental electric locomotive for the West End com- 
pany also indicates a desire on the part of the railway com- 
pany to obtain a motor that will be suitable for the drawing 
of heavy trains. 

The selectmen of Revere have decided that the managers 
of the Boston & Revere electric railroad must resume the 
operation of their road at once in order to comply with the 
conditions of the franchise. This is a summer road and 
had put up its cars for the season, but the selectmen hold 
that it must be kept in operation throughout the year. 

The Billings & Spencer company at Hartford, Conn., has 
recently booked an order from the Edison Machine Works 
for 50,000 Billings' patent drop forged commutator bars. 
The order will require the use of thirty tonsof Lake Super 
ior copper. During the past year the company has supplied 
over 100 tons of these forgings to dynamo and motor man- 
ufacturers in the United States. The Canadian patent of- 
fice has recently granted Mr. Billings a patent on his in- 
vention. 

The Robinson- Foster Motor company's works at Pea- 
body, which were recently sold at a mortgagee's sale, were 
reoperied this week under neiv management for the manu- 
facture of motors and other electrical apparatus. 

H. C. Spaulding, the general manager of the Thomson- 
Houston Motor company, lectured on Thursday evening of 
this week at Wells Memorial Hall upon "Electric Power." 
This was one of the lectures in the Lowell Institute course. 
Photographs of motors operating in various industries were 
passed around for the inspection of thos; present. 

It is stated in the financial columns of the /Avw/t/ that 
those who purchased Thomson-Houston stock in the fall of 
1S88 paid between .'JlSo and I90 per share. The actual cash 
value of the dividends and rights received by them since 
that time, has been considerably in excess of $50 per share. 
When the Thomson-Houston syndicate made the original 
purchase of the companj', the net earnings were about $5 
per share on the outstanding stock. While the number of 
shares has since been largely increased, the current net 
earnings of the company are about ^15 per share on all of 
the iSo.ooo shares of common stock. The par value of the 
shares is $25. O. II. M. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 6. — Bids received for lighting the 
streets of the city by electricity indicate that the several 
companies have divided the city up into districts, one of 
which is apportioned to each company, and there is practi- 
cally no competition in the bids. The companies have, 
nevertheless, made a slight reduction in their charges. 'i"he 
prices range from 45 to 55 cents per lamp per night. The 
higher prices are charged in the suburbs where there is 
little private lighting, and the interest on plant chargeable 
lo the city is therefore greater. The lights are to be kept 
burning from sunset to sunrise every day in the year. The 
prices named above are from one to two and a-half cents 
less per tamp per night than was paid in 1889. The city 
now pays about $200,000 per annum for electric lighting. 
A committee of councils is to report next week on the sub- 
ject of building an electric light pLnt. It is said that §50,- 
Goo per annum could be saved if the city should supply its 
own lights from stations on the Delaware and Schuylkill 
water fronts. F. 



South Bend, Ind., is lighted by electricity. The 'J')ibuiie 
of that city says: '"The electric company was fortunate 
in being able to begin its contract for lighting the city on 
the date lixeil upon, the first day of the new jear. It is 
probably the only instance on record where a contractor 
with the city has not a^ked for extension of time. Nearly 
a hundred lights were turned on New N'ear's night at 6 
o'clock, illuminating every part of the city. Forty of these 
burned until 6 o'clcck the next morning. The city electric 
lighting S)steni is now fairly under way, and the light 
furnished is a most brilliant one. Four dynamos are in 
operation, and more are in reserve in case of accident. ' 



January ii, 1890. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



23 



THE ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

Rochester, Minn., is enjoying electric lights for street il- 
lumination. 

Seymour, Ind., has contracted for electric lights for pub- 
lic illumination. 

Work has been begun on a new incandescent electric 
light plant at Muscatine, la. 

The demand for arc lights in Bryan, O., has necessitated 
an increase in the capacity of the station. 

The electric railway at Spokane Falls, Wash., will be 
illuminated throughout the line by electricity. 

A French paper estimates the number of arc lamps in 
Paris at 900, and incandescent lamps at 63,000. 

The electric light company at Independence, Mo., is in- 
troducing new machinery and enlarging its plant. 

The West Superior, Wis., Electric Light company has 
increased its capacity by adding a 50 arc light machine. 

The Weeping Water Electric Light company was incor- 
porated at Lincoln, Neb., last week, capital stock $30,000. 

An English company is about to install an electric light 
plant in Hammerfest. Norway, the northernmost town of 
the globe. 

The Naperville, III., Electric company has been incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $12,000 to operate an elec- 
tric light plant. 

The Evanston. III., electric light station is rapidly ap- 
proaching completion. The boiler is on its foundations, 
two engines are set up and the dynamo foundations are 
completed. 

The Duluth, Minn.. Electric Light company has placed 
a new 50-light arc dynamo in position at the station. The 
company's contracts with the city for street lighting will 
be filled immediately. 

The people of Delphos, O., ushered the new year in 
with a blaze of glory supplied by the new electric light sys- 
tem for illuminating the streets. Everything worked well, 
and the people are delighted with the new light. 

The mayor and city council of Denver, Colo., are en- 
gaged in a controversy over supplying the city with electric 
lights. The aldermen have their own opinions as to the 
appropriations, plans, etc., while the mayor is equally posi- 
tive in his opinions, 

J. A. Eendure of Ottawa, Kan., is installing for the 
Pittsburg Gas Light & Coke company of Pittsburg, Kan., 
a 70 arc light and 750 incandescent light plant; both are 
Westinghouse machines. The plant will probably be 
started January iSth. 

The city trustees, of Sacramento, Cal,, have voted to 
grant a franchise to C. F. Fargo, L. L Baker, J. D. 
Redding, H. G. Smith and others to introduce a West- 
inghouse electric light plant, and have awarded the com- 
pany a contract to light the streets. The new company 
agrees to have its plant in operation in ninety days. 

Chicago merchants on State street and Archer Ave. have 
formed an electric light company and hope to have a plant 
running at an early day in that locality. They intend to 
illuminate the street in front of their shops as well as the 
interior of the structures and have adopted the Schuyler 
system. Archer Ave., from State to Stewart streets, 
Wentworth Ave. from Archer Ave. to 31st street and all the 
branch streets will be included in the territory'. 

The Citizens' Electric Light & PoA'er company of East 
St. Louis, which has been awarded the contract for 
lighting the streets of the city, commenced to place poles in 
position, and expects to have them all up in two weeks. 
The wires will then be strung, and before the close of the 
present month the City of East St. Louis will be magnifi- 
cently illuminated. About 100 lights, it is estimated, will 
be necessary to properly illuminate the town, and the cost 
will not e.Kceed the price of poor gas to any alarming ex- 
tent. 

The annual report of the operations of the Allegheny 
County Electric Light company show that a year ago the 
number of incandescent lights operated was 20,145; arc 
lights, 240, and there are at present 27,500 incandescent 
and 740 arc lights in operation. The present capital is 
$500,000, and its earning capacity for the last six months 
was $30,000 net, 12 per cent. In view of the earning 
power of the capital at present employed and the constant- 
ly growing demand for service, it was decided to increase 
the capital stock to $1,250,000, the prosperity of the com- 
pany rendering the increase safe in the estimation of the 
stockholders. 

The Thomson-Houston Electric company reports the 
following sales of arc apparatus to central stations: Low- 
ell, Mass., 25; Rochester, Md., 50; St. John, Mich., 30; 
Camden, Ark., 30; City of Chicago, 111., 210; Chicago, 
III., 100; Litchfield, 111., 50; Fairhaven, Washington. 30; 
Chattanooga, Tenn., 100; Toledo, O., 50; W. Superior, 
Wis., 50; Cincinnati, O., 200; Macon, Ga., 100; Potts- 
town, Pa., 50; Spokane Falls, Wash., 100; Huntington, 
Pa., 50; Bedford, Md., 50; Long Branch, X. V., 100; 
Wilkesbarre. Pa., 50; Austin, Minn.. 50; Weymouth, 
Mass., 60; New Haven, Conn., 50; Missoula, Mont., 50; 
Cedelia, Mont., 100. 

The Westinghouse Electric company secured contracts 
for alternating current apparatus during the first three 
weeks of December for the following central stations: Sa- 
lem, O., 750 lights; Louisville, Ky., 750 lights; Green- 
field, Mass., 750 lights; Denison, O., 500 lights; St. Louis, 
Mo., 2,500 lights; Hamilton, Ont., 1.500 lights; Denver, 
Col., 3,000 lights; Pittsburg, Kan., 750 lights; Pueblo, 
Col., 750 lights; McKinney, Tex., 500 lights; Portland, 
Ore.. 6,000 lights; Lynchburg, Va., 750 lights; Dansville, 
N. Y., 500 lights; Batavia, N. Y., 750 lights; Pittsburgh, 



Pa., 3,000 lights; Oldlown, Me.. 750 lights. Arc light 
machines of a capacity of 250 lamps were sold to Pitts- 
burgh, Kan., 50; Portland, Ore., 100, New Bedford, 
Mass., 100. 

The Thomson-Houston Electric company reports the 
following sales of incandeFcent apparatus to central sta- 
tions: Sioux Falls, So. Dakota, 50 lights; Tuscumbia, 
Ala , 100 lights; Mays Landing, N. Y., 400 lights; Port- 
land, Me., Soo lights; St. John, Mich., 500 lights; Boston, 
Mass.. 500 lights; Adams, Mass., 500 lights; Middleboro, 
Ky., jOo lights; Seymour, Conn., 500 lights; Langhorn, 
Pa., 500 lights; Plymouth, Mass., 500 lights; E. Green- 
wich, R. I., S50 lights; Oswego. N. Y., 1.300 lights; 
Hyde Park, Mass., i 300 lights; Andover, Mass.. 650 
lights; Winchester, Md., 650 lights; Somerset, Ky., 650 
light-; Watertown. N. Y., 650 lights; Catskill, N. Y., 650 
lights; Rochester, N. Y., 650 lights; Huntington, Pa., 650 
lights. 

The Thomson- Houston Electric company reports the 
following sales of arc and incandescent apparatus for iso- 
lated plants: Arc — AUentown Rolling Mill, Allentowu, 
Pa., iS: L. F. Bartlett, E. Saginaw, Mich., 18; Pioneer 
Mining & Manufacturing Co., Thomas, Ala., 37; Merri- 
mac Manufacturing Co., Lowe-l, Mass., 45; G. F. Blake- 
raan &: Co.. E. Cambridge, Mass., 30. Incandescent — E. 
A. Gyde, E. Saginaw, Mich., 35; National Transit Co., 
Kane, Pa., roc; National Transit Co., Parker Landing, 
Pa., 100; Waterworks Building. Detroit, Mich.. 100; St. 
Clair Hotel, Cincinnati. O., 100; Louisville Chair Co., 
Louisville, Ky., 200; J. O. Shoup & Co., Dayton, O.. 
1,600; Norfolk Woolen Co., Norfolk. Mass., 50; Wads- 
worth, Howland & Co., Maiden, Mass., 50; J. W. Ayer, 
Brewer Village, Me., 50; AUentown Rolling Mill, Allen- 
town, Pa., 200; White Cycle Co., Westboro, Mass., 100; 
Midgely Wire Belt Co.. Beaver Falls, Pa.. 100; Locke 
Bros., Salem, Mass., 200; Woodrough & McFarlan, Cin- 
cinnati, O., 200; H. A, Marston, So. Framingham. Mass., 
200; Eastern Manufacturing Co., Brewer, Me., 200. 



THE ELECTRIC MOTOR. 

March 15th is the appointed time for opening the new 
electric railway at Covington, Ky. 

Traffic on the electric road at Minneapolis, Minn., is so 
great that already it has been found necessarj' to order 
new cars. 

The work of equipping the Union Passenger Railway at 

Richmond, Va.. with Sprague motors of the latest type, is 

now in progress- 
Electric cars for the Crescent City Railroad company. 

New Orleans, La., are being constructed, and the line will 

scon be in operation. 

The taxpayers of Rock Island, 111., want an electric 
railroad and are endeavoring to secure the extension of the 
Central Street railway of Moline lo the business center of 
Rock Island. 

After considerable argument between the electric rail- 
way management and the city council, the Hutchinson, 
Kan., Street Car company has decided to place poles for 
its electric system in the center of the street. 

The management of the Beaver Falls College & Meta- 
mora Electric Railway company, of Beaver Falls, Pa., has 
decided to adopt the Thomson-Houston electric system. 
Work will be commenced early in the spring. 

The Cincinnati, O., aldermen are considering a franchise 
enabling the South Covington &: Cincinnati Street Railway 
company to substitute electricity for animal power. The 
Board of Public Works has recommended its passage. 

The Thomson-Houston company is building electric 
locomotives for the West End Street Railway company, of 
Boston, capable of drawing a long train of cars and on 
these the motors will probably have a different position. 

With the completion of the Sixteenth street motor line at 
Omaha, Neb., the extension of the electric lines in that 
city will cease for the winter. The season just closed has 
been a prosperous one for electric roads in Omaha and 
Council Bluffs. 

Pueblo, Colo , citizens are not satisfied with horse cars 
and they are anxious to have the local street railway com 
pany introduce an electric system. Should the company 
fail to do so another railway company will be formed to 
build an electric road. 

The Robinson Electric Street Railway company of To- 
ledo. O.. and the telephone and telegraph companies 
doing business in that city have engaged in a legal warfare 
over the respective merits of the several litigants to string 
wires in the streets of Toledo. 

John Weber of Des Moines, la., who purchased the 
Atchison, Kan.. Street Railroad company's plant, has taken 
possession and is preparing to introduce an electric system. 
A power house will be erected at once, and the contract 
for the electrical equipment awarded. 

The Bangor, Me . Electric Railroad company is about 
to move its plant to Veazie, and will use water power in- 
stead of steam, It is the intention of the management to 
extend the line considerably during the coming season, and 
to make additions to the rolling stock. 

The River and Rail company of New York, will con- 
struct and operate an electric road at Denver, Colo., and 
promises to have it running next summer. This company 
has a storage battery system which is highly commended 
by leading electrical experts who have tested it. 

The storage battery cars used on the new electric railway 
between Beverly and Danvers are said to be running with- 
out a hitch of any kind. The road is by no means a level 
or straight one, but the cars are run at a good rate of 



speed. Each set. so it is claimed, will run a car forty 
miles with a single charge. Tie batteries are charged by 
means of a 36-horse-power engine, and the lime occupied 
for the double equipment of six cars is only eight hours. 

The Short Electiic Railway company, of Cleveland, O.. 
has secured the contract for the two divisions of ihe South 
Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway company, eight 
miles in length, with an original equipment of ten cars. 
Work on the overhead construction has begun, and the 
road will be in operation in a few weeks. 

F. J. Baker, manager of the Chicago office of the Daft 
Electric company, has recently installed a 7-horse power 
motor in the printing office of Geo. E. Cole & Co., Chica- 
go. Besides running the printing oftice ihe motor supplies 
power to run the freight elevator. Notwithstanding the 
fact that Mr. Cole has a 40-horse power engine and a 50- 
horse power boiler in his basement, he has found that he 
has effected a saving of $20 per month by using the motor. 

The following from a Boston paper will prove interest- 
ing to those who have never seen an electric car during a 
snowstorm: "The writer had occasion 10 be out at night 
for as much as an hour in the worst of the blizzard. For 
ten minutes at least he: stood in Copley square watchirg the 
electric cars go by in a rapidly moving string, through the 
driving snow and over the encumbered tracks. It was 
simply a procession of fiery chariots. Frcm the rearwheels 
the fire flew out in each direction. Up on the trolley wire 
there were'frequent discharges of fire, accompanied with a 
ringing sound — 'ping, ping 1' The greeribh light from 
all these discharges intermittently illuminated the facades 
of the magnificent buildings in the square like flashes ot 
lightning, though the full glare of the light was softened a 
little by the masses of falling snow. It was a weird spec- 
tacle, surely. The writer is told that the fiery discharges 
along the track when the cars pass over the snow is due to 
the slight lifting of the wheel from the rail by the snow, 
and tiiat this separation of the two metallic suifaces pro- 
duces an arc, as in the electric arc light. But wiiatever 
may be the cause, the effect is decidedly picturesque, 
though not to say alluring." 

The citizens of Denver, Colo., are pleased with the oper- 
ation of the new electric line in that city. A local paper 
says: "Denver's first electric street railway is a demon- 
strated success. It will be the forerunner of the adoption 
of the electric overhead system upon every thoroughfare 
and to every suburb where already rapid transit is not af- 
foided, and will pay. It is faster, safer and more easily 
regulated than the cable; and it is less noisy md more 
comfortable in every respect. A car can be run at two, 
five, ten, or twenty^ miles an hour. It can be stopped in- 
stantly. It can be reversed. The tramway electric road 
was practically tested yesterday. A motor car, loaded with 
passenger-, ran the round trip of the line twice, or, in all, 
sixteen miles. The car was well filled with invited guests 
on each trip. The result of the test w^as that every pas 
senger was delighted. The speed of twenty miles an hour 
was attained, and at the will of the driver the car moved at 
sc:arcely a snail's pace. It stopped and started without jar 
or jerk. It made less than half as much noise as a cable 
car. A <:ingle car will run rapidly with one motor, and two 
tr^il Ctiis can be carried at twenty miles an hour with two 
motors. One or both can be used at the will of the driver." 



THE TELEPHONF. 

Fire was discovered in the janitor's room of the Chicago 
Telephone company's building Saturday morning. It was 
extinguished before much damage was done. 

The rate war promises to break out afresh in Kansas 
City, Mo., where it is claimed the city has authority over 
the telephone company, though that corporation is organ- 
ized under the state, and not the municipal law. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 

The Citizens' Electric Supply company has been organ- 
ized at East St Louis, to manufacture electrical apparatus 
and supplies; capital stock, ^1,000; incorporators, H. D. 
Sexton, I. B. Sager. and Martin D. Baker. 

The killing of a couple of horses by electricity, Christ- 
mas, at Pittsburg, Pa., has created quite a stir in that city. 
All dead wires are being removed by order of the city 
council, and a careful inspection of live wires has been 
ordered. 

John Morrill, the veteran base ball player, who is now 
on the Pacific coast writes as follows concerning an electri: 
cal device which it is proposed to introduce into the game- 
" In our game yesterday we tried the new first base bag. It 
is made of rubber with an electrical attachment, and the 
m.inute the runner or fielder touches it a bell rings in the 
grand stand. With the hope that it will assist the scorer 
or reporter in deciding whether the umpire's decisions on 
close plays are correct, I am satisfied that it will not ac- 
complish the desired result, and there is nothing that can 
be invented that will be an improvement on the old canvas 
bag." The inventor of this de\'ice evidently had little re- 
gard for the life, health or safety of the umpire. 

A Cleveland paper says: Copper magnates now boast 
that in a short time prices of copper w-ill be as high as they 
were under the influence of the exploded French syndicate. 
This simpiy means that a new syndicate is getting in its 
work, that a new combination is organized with European 
producers to maintain extravagantly high prices. This 
movement is not, like a protective tariff, in the interest of 
the American working men. It is purely for the benefit of 
the stockholders of copper mines. Such a combination, 
pervading the entire world, leaves no room for the free- 
dom of competition to regulate prices. The Calumet and 
Hecia, Tamarack, Quincy, Osceola, Atlantic, Franklin, 
Huron, Kearsage, and Peninsula, nine.great copper com- 
panies, each send a representative to confer with the repre- 



-4 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January i t, 1890 



sentativis of European companies and up go the prices of 
copper all over ihc world. The companies above named 
produced 45/>:>c tons of copper during the first ten months 
of iSSq. The wages paid to their men were already estab- 
lished by the intluencc of the protective tarilT. The prolits 
were certainly high enough. It is a well-known fact that 
more than one of the above named companies can sell cop- 
per at S cents per pound, and make a fair profit. They 
want 15, 16 and 17 cents per pound, and to get it they do 
not look to the tariff, but seek the protection of a combi- 
nation with European millionaires, to force up prices to 
.\merican consumers. The moment American producers 
u lite with Europeans to e.\tort extravagant prices from 
American coQSum;rs. that moment they forfeit all claim to 
profeclion from our govern meni. 

A new fog signaling apparatus has lately been perfected 
in England which is of sufticient merit to attract the atten- 
tion of all those interested in the saving of life and prop- 
erty at sea. says the New York I/t-niU. It calls into use 
electricity, which admits of the signals being automatically 
worked and at the same time records every signal as it is 
given on a band of graduated paper This paper forms a 
complete register of the signals, and is documentary evi- 
dence in case of dispute as to whether or not a vessel was 
signaling when a collision occurred. The apparatus con- 
sists of a single switch which is placed on the vessel's 
bridge so that the signaling can be controlled by the officer 
on watch. When it is desired to blow the signal whistle 
or begin the automatic signaling, whatever its nature may 
be. the lever is turned to the 'under way" notch if the ves 
sel be moving, and the electric current at once begins 
working the valve of the steam whistle at regular intervals. 
conforming to what the law specifies. Should the vessel 
be at anchor the switch is turned to "at anchor," and the 
bell is rung in the same way. The register consists of the 
band of paper properly subdivided and moved along by 
clock work. A traveling pointer, actuated by an electro- 
magnet, pricks the paper at every sound of the bell or 
whistle. The signaling can also be made at will entirely 
independent of automatic inechani im by simply pressing a 
button which closes the circuit leading to the bell or 
whistle. 



dent of the new concern, and K. \V. Wells, general man- 
ager. The Western department with headtiuarters at Chi- 
cago, will be under the minagement of E. V. Keller. It 
is expected that by combining these three great important 
concerns one of the strongest corporations of that class in 
the coun'rj' will be secureii. The new concern will be 
identified closely with the Westinghouse interests. 



Personal Mention. 

G. II. Gale of the r>etroil Storage Battery company was 
in Chicago last week. 

William S. Turner, of Woodbridge & Turner, New 
York, visited Chicago last week. 

John G. Boyd, representing the Queen City Electric 
company. Cincinnati, O., paid a brief visit to Chicago last 
week. 

T. P. Conant, superintendent of construction for the 
United Edison coaipany, New York, was in Chicago last 
week. 



Business Mention. 



The Cleverly Electrical companvof lorS Chestnut street, 
Phila., has just issued an unusually handsome calendar for 
1S90. 

Pellingell, Andrews & Co. of 192-196 Summer St., 
Boston, are circulating with their compliments, a large 
office calendar for 1S90. 

K. E. Degenhardt, Western manager of the Standard 
Underground t'able company, has moved his office to 542 
Rookery Building, Chicago 

The sales of the Westinghouse Machine company of 
Pittsburg, for October, 18S9 an'ounted to 109 engines, 
aggregating 5,94 )-horse power. The orders for Novem- 
ber, however were the heaviest in the history of the com- 
pany. During this m^nth 104 engine; were sold, agfjre- 
gating 7,iSo-horse power. 

W. B. Pearson hereafter will represent the Ball Engine 
company in Chicago, with office at 403 Home Insurance 
building. His territory will include Illinois, Iowa. North- 
ern Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan, to the east shore. 
Mr. Pearson is favorably known to engine buyers in Chi- 
cago and surrounding territory, and the large and growing 
business of the Hall Engine company will no doubt, be 
still further extended under his management. 

The Huluth. Minn., Electric Light & Power company 
has enjoyed a prosperous year and added to its plant two 
750 incandescent dynamos of the Westinghouse alternating 
current system, purchased the lot and building where it 
first located on Michigan street, thus doubling the amount 
of real estate owned by the company; increased its steam 
appliance by the erection of a large brick slack and by the 
purchase of another 173 horse power engine and a 500- 
horse power boiler of the Scotch marine type. In the 
prosecution of its business for the year, it has paid for labor 
and construction neatly $60,000, and has wired seven of the 
finest business buildings in the city, including Temple 
Opera and a large number of the most costly private resi- 
dences; has more than doubled its capacity and is still far 
behind its orders for new work, being unable to secure a 
sufficient supply of material and skilled labor for the rapid- 
ly increasing demand for its service. 

The Marr Constniclion company, the Keystone Con- 
struction company and the Washington Carbon company, 
of Pittsburgh. I'a.. have become consolidated under the 
name of the North Ame ican Construction company. This 
organization will be one of the strongest concerns in Ihe 
country. In addition to the construction work it will con- 
tinue the manufacture of carbons, increasing the present 
facilities. Electrical supplies of all kind will be manufact 
ured and a specialty of this class of work will be made. 
The headquarters of the consolidated concern will be at 
Pittsburgh, I'a., and the business throughout the country 
will be coi'lucied for a time at least, through the same of- 
fices as hereiolore. l-'rank S, Marr will probably be presi- 



Electrical Patents. 



/sstiir,i Dfc. 31. 18S9. 

418,198. Method of Making Collars on Axlesby Elec- 
tricity. Hermann Lemp and Elihu Thomson, Lynn, 
Mass. 

418,208. Insulating and Waterproofing Composition. 
Anthony E. Menuez. Minneapolis, Minn. 

418,227. ICIectric Exercising Machine. Edward W. Rob- 
inson. Boston, Mass. 

41S.24S. Electric Magnetic Motor. Nikola Tesla, New 
York, N. Y. 

At the start the magnetic poles of one element or 
field of the motor are progressively shifted by alter- 
nating currents differing in phase, and pissed through 
independent energizing circuits while the coils of the 
other element are short-circuited. When the motor 
thus started reaches or passes the limit of speed syn 
chronous with the generator, the coils, previously 
short-circuited, are connected up with a source of 
direct current and by a change of the circuit connec- 
tions producing a simple alternation of the poles. The 
motor then continues to run in synchronism with the 
generator. 

The first claim reads: 

"The method of operating eleclro-magnetic motors, 
which consists in first progressively shifting or rotating 
the magnetic poles of one element until it has reached 
a synchronous speed, and then alternating said poles 
and passing a direct current through the coils of the 
other element." 

418,249. Lightning Arrester. Elihu Thomson, Ljnn, 
Mass. 
The claim follows: 

"The combination, with an electric circuit and a 
branch or ground from the same containing electrodes 
placed in close proximity but separated from one 
another, of a circuit breaker in the said circuit and an 
electro magnet or other responsive device in the ground 
branch for controlling said circuit-breaker." 

41S.25S. Electric Railway Signal. Edgar C. Wiley, In- 
dependence, \'a. 

418,270. Combined Gas and Electric Light Fixture. 
David J. Braun, Chicago, 111. 

The object of the invention is to have a combined 
gas and electric light cock of such a character that the 
electric light wires will be entirely concealed, but at 
the same time readily accessible without the necessity 
for disconnecting the gas fixtures or cock, or changing 
the appearance from an ordinary gas stop cock. 

41S.284. (,)uadiuplex Telegraohy. Clarence L. Healy, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

418.301. Armature for Dynamos. James J. Wood, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

418.302. Automatic Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Ma- 
chines. James J. Wood. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The last claim is given: 

"12. In a current-iegulator operating by the shifting 
of the commutator brushes, the combination with the 
brushes, of a friction wheel connected to them so that 
its rotary movement shall shift them, two oppositely 
revolving friction rollers movable into and out of con- 
tact with said wheel, an electromotive device respond- 
ing to changes in the circuit and connected to said 
rollers, whereby by its movement in one direction or 
the olher, one or the other of said rollers is moved into 
driving contact with said wheel, and a bearing for said 
wheel movable toward and from said rollers, whereby 
the relative positions of the wheel and rollers may be 
adjusted." 

418.303. Current Regulator for Dynamo Electric Ma- 
chines. James J. Wood, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Of the twenty claims the nineteenth is given: 
"In a current regulator operating by the shifting of 
the collecting brushes on the commutator, the combi- 
nation, with an automatic current regulator comprising 
a shifting mechanism having differential driving 
pinions, of the main commutator brushes and their 
carrier connected to and driven by the larger of said 
pinions, and supplemental brushes and a carrier there- 
for connected to and driven by the smaller of said 
pinions, whereby the movement of the shifting mech- 
anism communicates difTerenlial movements lo the 
respective pairs of brushes causing the main and sup- 
plemental brushes to relatively approach each other 
when moving from and separate from each other in 
moving toward the position of maximum current." 

418.321. Type-Setling Machine. John B. Odell, Chica- 
go, 111. 

418.322. Electric Signal System for Letter-Boxes. Geo. 
L. B. Rounseville, Chicago. III. 

A number of letter boxes are electrically connected 
with a central station to establish communication be 
tween each of said boxes and said station. Letter 
boxes thu-i connected to a central station are provided 
with automatic means whereby, when the box is 
opened, the number of the box will be announced and 
registered at the central station, said announcing and 
registering taking place automatically, and being be- 
yond the control of the person opening or attempting 
to open the box. 
418.369. Screw-Cleat for Electric Wires. George E. 
IlnfT. Hartford. Conn. 



418,373. Electric Railway. Hoseii W. Libbey, Boston, 

Mass. 
418,391. Passenger Recorder (or Railway Cars. Addison 

C. Stone, Chicago, III. 
418,402. Electric Brake Mechanism for Cars. William 

H. Darling, New York, N. Y. 
418,426. Incandescent Electric Lamp Socket. Krank 

Thone, Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

418.443. Mechanical Telegraph Instrument. Jesse H. 
Bunnell, New York, N. Y. 

418.444. Electric .\rc Lamp. Jesse 11. Bunnell, New 
York. N. Y. 

The claim reads: 

"In an arc lamp, the combination of an electro-mag- 
net and armature for striking the arc, and an independ- 
ent differential electro- magnet system for elTecting the 
feed, one magnet of said system being in series with 
the carbons and the arc striking magnet, and the other 
magnet of said system being in shunt around the arc, 
but in series with the arc striking magnet." 

418,472. Electric Meter. Charles A. Pratt, Toledo, Ohio. 

418,474. Electric L'ght Carbon. Llewellyn .Saunderson, 
Kingstown County of Dub'.in, Ireland. 

418.483. Secondary Battery. Albert E. Woolf, New 
York, N. Y. 

418.484. Perforating Machine, Frank Anderson, Peeks- 
kill, N. Y. 

418,510. Method of Finding the Positions of Distant Ob- 
jects. Bradley A. Fiske, U. S. Navy. 

41S 550. Apparatus for tlie Manufacture of Gas Martin 
C. Burt, L^ke Yiew. 111. 
The claim reads: 

"In an apparatus for the manufacture of gas for il- 
luminating or heating purposes, the combination of a 
vessel for holding the li<.|uid from which the gas is 
made, a retort mounted on a movable frame, a means 
for causing it to be alternately immersed and removed 
from the liquid, a generator of electricity connected by 
wires with the framework and retort, and a means for 
forming and breaking the electric circuit, whereby the 
retort as it emerges is heated sufficiently to convert 
the liquid carried up by it into a fixed or permanent 
gas." 

41S 551. Apparatus for the Manufacture of Gas by Elec- 
tricity. Martin C. Burt, Lake View, III. 

418.559. Electric Meter. Alphonse J. Frager, Paris. 
France. 

The electric meter comprises the combination of the 
following instrumentalities: First, an electro dynamo- 
meter, which indicates at each instant the electrical 
energy expended per second; second, a clock work, 
which meairures time and marks off the intervals at 
which the energy is counted up; third, a registering 
apparatus, which carries into effect the product of the 
first two quantities and indicates on dials the total en- 
ergy consumed. 

418.560. Bell. Edward Frost. Littleton, Mass. 
418,602. Governor for Steam Engines. Louis Bell and 

William H. P. Creighton, Lafayette, Ind. 
4(3,636. Electric Light Fixture. George C. Baillard, 
New York, N. Y. 

4 1 8.652. Generation and Distribution of Electric Cur- 
rents. Francis J. Patten, New York, N. \ . 

Claim 5 is given: 

"An alternating current transformer h iving two 
primary inducing circuits connected to separate leads, 
which conveys, respectively, the opposite impulses of 
the same alternating current." 

418.653. System of Electrical Distribution. Francis J. 
Patten, New York, N. Y. 

Claim 4 re?ds: 

"The method of producing and regulating arc lights 
which consists in sending alternating currents through 
tlie carbon points of the arc lights, and the positive 
and negative impulses of the same current inversely 
through circuits controlling the regulating mechanism." 

418.654. Electric Motor. Francis J. Patten, New York, 
N. Y. 

Claim 1 follows: 

"The method of operating electric motors which 
consists in producirg the constant magnetization of 
one element by sending through separate windings on 
said element the opposite impulses of an alternating 
current in opposite directions, and in giving to the 
other element an alternating polarity by sending 
through its windings an alternating current." 

418.655. I)istribulion of Electric Currents. Francis J. 
Patten, New York, N. Y. 

Claim 4 reads: 

"The method of charging storage batteries by means 
of an alternating current, which consists in carrying to 
a middle point of a storage battery an alternating cur- 
rent, and in conveying to the opposite poles, respec- 
tively, the positive and negative impulses of the same 
current." 
418.659. Dynamo Electric Generator. William Stanley, 
Jr., Great Barrington. Mass. 

Tlie method consists in opposing the magnetic po- 
tential of the held magnet by an alternating counter 
magnetic potential of the armature in effective value 
approximately equal to the field magnet potential and 
varying the opposing effect of such counter-magnetic 
potential by varying the position of its phases with ref- 
erence to the field magnet poles by variations in the 
current (lowing. 
418,662. Process of Electroplating Dental Plates. Joseph 

G. Ward, Newark, N. J. 
418,664. Electro-Magnetic Type Setting Machine. Wjl- 
helm Dreyer, Frankfort-on the-Main, Prussia, Ger- 
many. 



January 1 1 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



EilOENE F.. Phillips, President. W. H. Sawyer, sec'y and Electrician. 

AMEEICAU ELECTEICAL WOUKS, 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Manufacturers of Patent Finished 

ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, Office and Annunciator Wire, Rubber Covered 

Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Telephone and 

Incandeseent Cords. 

FARADAY CABLES. 

New York Office, 18 Cortlandt Street, 

p. C. ACKEBITIAN, Agent. 

Eugene F. Phillips, President. John Carroll, Sec'y. Treasurer. 

EUGENE F. PHILLIPS ELECTRICAL WORKS, 





(LIMITED.) 



Ollice and } 
Factory, f 



St. Gabriel Locks, Montreal, Canada. 



- HANUFACTUREHS OP - 



ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, Office and Annunciator Wire, Rubber 

Covered Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Telephone 

and Incandescent Cords. 



FARADAY CABLES. 



THE "CLARK" ^WIRE. 

Insulaiion Guaranteed Wherever Used, Aerial, Underground or Submarine. 




In a letter from the Inspector of the Boston Fire Underwriters' Cuion, under date of March 
29. 1886, he says : "A Tlioroughly Keliable and Desirable Wire in Every Respect." 

The rubter used In Insulating our wires and cables Is specially chemically prepared, and is guaranteed 
to he loalerproof, and will not deteriorate, oxidize or crack, and will remain flexible In extreme cold weather 
and not affected by heat. The insulation Is protected from mechanical Injury by one or more hralds and the 
whole slicked with Clark's Patent Compound, which Is water, oil, acid and, to a very great extent, fire proof. 
Our insulation wilt prove durable lohen all others fail. We are prepared to furnish Single Wires of all 
gauges and diameter of Insulation for Telegraph, Telephone and Electric Lights from BtocK. Cables madfl 
to order. 

^EASTERN ELECTRIC CABLE COMPANY, 

' 61 and 63 Hampshire Street, Boston, Mass. 



HENRT A. CLARK. General Manager. 



HERBERT H. EUSTfS. Electrician 



HAZAZER & STANLEY, 
JElectrical House Furnisliiiigs, 

DUST-PROOF BELLS, 

33-34: If^ranlcfort St., UE'W' YOUK. 

STAINDARD ELECTRICAL TEST 

lETSTE-XJlwlEITTS. 




Ayrton & Perry, Ammeters and Voltmettrs, 

Carpentier Ammeters and Voltmeters. 

Siemens' Electrodynamometers, 

Cardew Voltmeters. 
Queen's New Laboratory Standard Resistance Boxes. 
Queen's New Portable Combination Test Sets. 

Complete Outfits for Insulation Testing. 



JAMES W. QUEEN & CO., 



924 Qestnat Street, Philidelpliia. 





SPEAKIE TUBES it WHISTLES, 

Oral, Electric, Pneumatic, and Mechanical 

ANNUNCIATORS AND BELLS 
W. R. OSTRANDER & CO., 

2 1 , 23 and 25 Ann St. New York. 

Factory, 1461 and 1463 DeKalb Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
" Send for New Catalogue, out August 1st. 



FRICTION CLUTCH PULLEYS 

AM» CUT-OFF COUPIilXCiS. 

Vise-like grip of clutches ootionally gradual or sudden. 
Large friction surfaces prevent undue wear. 

Disengaqement of clutches is positive. 
Pulley shaft automatically oiled. 
They haue a g. od record running through fiue years. 

Experts are invited to examine peculiarities. 
HendforlSSO Catalogne. 

ECI.IPSE \V|]\I>E]!irGIIIfJE €0., Beloit, Wis. 




LEONARD <&; IZARD COMPANY, 

coKSULTma ahd cohtractikg electrical ekgiheers, 

For any or all Systems of Eleetric Street Railways, Electric Motors of all Kinds, Incandescent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Electric Light 

Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Electric Transmission of Power, Train Lighting Plants. 
A full line of Commercial Supplies carried at all times for Plants described above. Plans and Specifications for all Kinds of Electrical Construction Work. 

Sherman and Van Buren Sts.-RIALTO BUILDING, CHICAGO. ILL. 

Branch Offices: The tumbwr Fxchanee. Booms 5 and 6, Minneapolis.-JMinii. ; Moith-westfrn Uln'ual Mfe In^nrsnce Block, Room 115, Telpphono 1-rfi, llilwaiik«>c, Wis 



vLO'V/> 



INSULATED WIRES AND CABLES, 

Electric Light, Telephone, and Telegraph, 

CANDEE AERIAL WIRES, OKONITE WATER-PROOF TAPE, MANSON PROTECTING TAPE. 
AWARDED A GOLD MEDAL AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION. 

THE OKONITE COMPANY, - - ■ 1 3 Park Row, NEW YORK. 

Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Omaha, Minneapolis, Cincinnati Louisville. St. Louis. Kansas City, and San Francisco. 




TRADE MARK. 



BRANCHES: 



Automatic Electric Motors 




In all Sizes from One-half H. P. Upward. 

High Efficiency, Perfect Regulation, Superior Workmanship, Ease of 
Management, Memarkahle Simplicity, Etc., Etc. 



jyVNAJiLO 

For Electroplating, Electrotyping, Copper Eefining, Etc. 

BDimril nCPIPPC- NEWVORK.aSChunhSt.: BOSTON, 111 Arch St.: PHILADELPHIA, 606 Ccir.merceSt.: CHICABO, 42 LaSalle St 
DAiinVjIl UrrilfDO. KANSAS CnV, RIalto Building: NEW ORLE/.NS, 106 Carondelet St, 

THE EDDY ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO., WINDSOR, CONN. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ri 1890 



Established in 1861. 



^'^^ ELECTROLIERS, 

COMBINATION 

GAS AHD SLECTHIC 

FIXTURES. 

ELECTRIC AND GAS GLOBES, 
SHADES, Etc., Etc., 

Madison Street and Fifth Avenue, 

CHICAGO. 

BRANCH STORE 

2134 Michigan Avenue, 

THE SPERRY ELECTRIC CO., 

D. P, PEERY, Vice-President and General Manager, 

.MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

SPERRT IMPROVED STSTEM 




-OF- 



HIGH OR LOW TENSION. 



1. The new Sperry apparatue free from repairs for twelve months. 

2. That the new sperry Improved Dynamos can he coupled in eerles with perfect safety. 

3. That any namber of lamps from one to capacity of dvnamo can he cat In or oat of circuit, 
singly or in ^foape. with perfect eafety, and without sparking at the bruehee. 

4. To absorb power in exact proportion to number of lights burning. 

v\rE: 

1. The new Antomatic Sperry Dynamos and Lamps Burpaee In efliciency those of any other 
make. 

'^. That there is greater economy in operating the new Sperry System than any other. 

3. That our antomatic regulation has no equal; no rheostat, no wall boxes, no solenoid or 
doeb-pot. 

4. That If yon will visit onr factory we can show you the best arc lighting apparatus in existence. 

We invite correspondence with electrical engineers. Intanding buyers, and Interested 
people everywhere. 

rHE mm electric cc, isi, iss, m m\ :iinton st„ Chicago, ill 

VXV^ OrncE AND Factory ^'ff 

2134 to 2140 DeKalb St., - Sr. LOUIS, MO. 

Maunfaclnrers of ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS aM CARBON SPECIALTIES, 




OUR 

■BLiCKDI&MOND 

POINTS 

— iinsiii\E — 

THEM ALL. 

\VRITE FOR SAMPLES AND PRICES 



Lone Life, 
Uniform Size, 

SCPERlORfALlTY, 

Guaranteed Second 
to None. 



Stilwell's Patent Live Steam-Feed Water Purifier. 

Removes all Impurities. 

Eiiiircly prevents SCALE in Steam 
Boilers. Catalogue 011 np]ilicatioD. 

STILWELL&BIERCEMFG.CO., 

DAYTON, OH IO. 

GEORGE CUTTER, 

CONSULTING ELECTRICIAN, 
80 Adams Street, - CHICAGO. 




BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO., 

Orford Rosette Pendant «!!,!!'* 



THE LUNKENHEIMFR BDtSS MFG, CO., - Cincinnati, Ohio. 




Wrlt« for Jnne, 1S89, Cataloene of (S) eiobe Valves, Pop i^sfety Valve 

Liabricators, Oil and Orease Cups, Engine Bnl*(ler8* Brass Goods, 

and Olass Oil Caps for Dynamos. 



i 2 Pearl Street, Room 6, 




EUREKA CONSTRUCTION. 



BOSTOSr, MASS. 

Iiproveil Patented Material for Street 
Railf ay Roaft-teils. 

BEST MATERIAL. LOWEST PRICES. CORRES- 
PONDENCE SOLICITED. 

THOMAS ASHBURNBR, Western Agent, Kansas City, Mo. 

Rolled any weight desired. Patent allowed. Sample 
Chair and Section of Rail Sent, Espreee Prepaid, to 
Prospective Parchasers. 



BALL 



RELIABILITY, 

ECONOMY, 
SIMPLICITY, 
DURABILITY. 



AUTOMATIC 

CUT -OFF 



ENGINE 



THE MOST PERFECT 

GOVERNING 

EVER OBTAINED. 




STANDARD 

=»^^-r-^' DOUBLE 
^^^^V^ ^ COMPOUND 

TANDEM 
COMPOUND 



For Electrical Lislitinsr, EU'ctrica] Railways and pur- 
poses Avliere perfect ,aroveriiiiig' is required, it has no equal. 

BALL ENGINE CO., ERIE, PA. 



J. F. PORTER, Pros. & Genl. Manager. E. RUEBEL, Superintendent. 

CENTRAL ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, 



919 LOCUST STREET, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

BRANCH: NASHVILLE, TENN. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

For any system of Incandescent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Street Railway Plants, Electric Power 
Plants, Electric Light Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Train Lighting Plants, Pole Line Construction. A full line of supplies 
carried at all times for plants described above. Flans and specifications for all kinds of Electrical Construction. 

THTSTANDARD CAWrrcTMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO, 



AXaxi.ixZ'A.o'txi.z'er'Si of 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS AND BATTERY MATERIAL. 



January ii, iSgo 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN, 



VICTOR TURBINE WATER WHEEL 




The attention of ELECTRIC COMPANIES is called to this CJELE- 
BRAXED WATER WHEEIL. as particularly adapted to their use, 
on account of its remarkably steady motion, hisrii Speed 
and ^reat Efficiency, and larg^e Capacity, for its diameter, 
being double the Rower of most wheels of same diameter. It is used by a 
number of the leading electric companies with great satisfaction. In the econom- 
ical use of water it is without an an equal, producmg the highest per cent, of use- 
ful effect {guaranteed. 

SEND FOB CATAIiOOCE AND PARTICUI-ARS. 

Our Horizontal "Victor" is highly recommended, as no geaiZ are required, 
and it can be belted directly to dynamo. 

The accompanying engraving represents a pair of 12-inch ^^CXOR 
Xl'RBI.'VE!* arranged on a horizontal sh^, with Cast-Iron Flume, Draft 
Tubes, End Bearings for Shaft, and Driving F*u]leys complete, all mounted upon 
a substantial cast-iron bed plate. The entire arrangement is very complete and 
strictly first-class in every particular. We are now prepared to furnish Victor 
Turbines, either single or in pairs on horizontal shafts, and where the situation 
admits of their use. we recommend them. 

STILWELL & BIERCE MFG. CO., - DAYTON, OHIO. 



HOI-IilES, BOOTH & HAYIDEKS, 

FACTORIES: WATERBURT, CONN. 

BIANrFACTIJBEBS OF 

BARZ: AND INSUIaATZSD "VITIRE. 

Underwriters' Copper Electric Light Line Wire, handsomeiy finished, highest conductivity. Copper Magnet Wire, Flexible Silk, Cotton and 
Worsted Cords for, Incandescent Lightini?. Round and Flat Copper Bars for Station WorK, Insulated Iron Pressure Wire. 

PATENT K. K. LINE WIRE 

For Electric Light, Electric Railways, Motors, Telegraph and Telephone Use. 

AGENTS FOR THE WASHINGTON CARBON CO., CARBONS FOR ARC LIGHTING. 

THOS. L. SCOVILL, New York Agent, 

25 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK. 



GLOBE CARBON co.,^AKERs^«:^ 

vMyj^LEVELAND, OHIO. ^^ ro^ IL ughting 



BELDING MOTOR & MFGl. COMPANY, 






[FFIGE 144 Adams Street, The Rookery, ) 
FACTORY 128-130 So. Clinton Street, I 



CHICAGO, ILL, U.S.A. 



MAKUFACnjBERS OF THE 



BELDING ELECTRIC MOTORS 



} 



Perfect Automatic Regulation, 

Highest EEBciency Guaranteed. 

^THESTRON&ESTARMATOREMADE, PERFECTLY BALANCED, ABSOLOTELT NO HEATING. 

All Parts Interchang'eable Even to Commutator. 

Oorrespondence Solicited. - Agents Wanted in all the Principal Cities. 




Telepiiones and Electrical Sup- 
plies of Every Description. 
Elgifl TelepboDe and Eiectrieai Supply Co. 
ELGIN, ILL., U.S.A. 







Ai\<:AH;),lNCANJ)£.SCENT^U<.Tf\IC 
tlGWINa, ^l.ecrRO-pl,ATINa,ANJ) 
fOREXPERlMENrALUSE. AUJO MOTORS. 



THE STANDARD OPEN CIRCUIT 



BATTERIES OF THE WORLD. 




PARIS 
HIGHEST AWARD! 

THE ONLY 

GOL^MEDAL 



N(DV.I6,1880. M'^', 
SlW. I -•54. JAj' 
AlIlG.II ^5.. :-':"" 



FOR 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 

EXPOSITION 

1889 



eONDA. 




THF. LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 149 West 18th Street NEW YORK. 



XVI 



WESTERN ELECTSICIAN. 



Januafy ti, iSgo 



BUTLER HARD RUBBER CO 



THE 



33 Mercer Street, N£Vl^ YORK, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Of every description, including the celebrated HARD RUBBER BATTERY CELLS, manufactured under 
Kiel's Patents for Primary and Storage Batteries. The cheapest and best Cells in the market. Also 
Sheet, Rod, and Ttlbinff (Kiel's Patent) for electrical purposes, at reduced prices. Standard quality Sheet, Rod, 
Tubin<r, Insulator Hooks, Key Knobs, Switch Handles, Telephone Receivers and Battery Syringes, constantly on hand. 

HARD RUBBER SPECIALTIES OF ALL KINDS MADE TO ORDER. SEND FOR PRICES AND ESTIMATES. 

For Sale bv CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., Chicago, 111. 




C-9 


m 


^3 


o 


CO 








o 






^™ 






^ 


3 


3 


to 


3 




5" 


n 


OQ 




m 


CD 


X 


SO 


-a 




CD 


o> 


^ 




CD 


^3 


CO 


s 



THE SCHUYLER ELECTRIC CO., "'""H"*"- 




January 1 1, i8(,o 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



JOHN W. MASON, Manager. 
SPECIAIi AeEKTS 



-vlO ^v> 




TRADE MARK. 
WIRES AND CABIiES. 



GATE CITY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Have a FUL,Ii STOCK of 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES! 

And will make IiO>V Prices and PBOIflPT Shipments. 

522 DELAWARE STREET, - - KANSAS CITY, MO. 



WHEN YOU BUY A MOTOR 

Prom ANY Manufactarer or Dealer, 

State that you WANT IT SUPPLIED 
WITH the 

Whittingham 

Automatic 

Switch. 

Send for Catalogue. 

Automatic Switcli Co., 

No. 8 Keyser Building, 

BALTIMORE. MD. 




The GODI.D PACKING GOMPAIffT^ 



3G Cambrldse Street, 

EAST CAMBRIDGE. - MASS., 

MA^iUFACTURE THE 

Gould Steam and Water Packing 

The Original Ring Packing, Pat. June 1, 1880. 

Superior to any Packing in the market for Steam, Water 
or Ammonia. Self -Lubricating, does not corrode the rod, 
never grows hard If directions are followed. Sent on thirty 
days' trial. Satisfactory or no pay. None genuine without 
fhiB trade mark and date of patent stamped on wrapper. 

Beware of Infringements and Imitations. 

ALBION CHIPMAN, Treasurer. 

All similar Packings are imitations and calculated to deceiTB- 




DAF 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CO 



ELECTmC RAILWAYS. 

STREET OR TRUNK LINES. 

ELEVATED OR UNDERGROUND. 



Central Stations for Power Distriliution. 



STATIONARY MOTORS. 

STORAGE BATTERIES, 



Executive Offices: 115 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

AGENCIES, 13 South Fourth St., Philadelphia; 119 La Salle St. , Chicago. 

Factory: JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



NEBRASKA ELECTRIC CO. 

A. H. ZENNER, Manager. 
CONTRACTORS AND JOBBERS. 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL CONSTRDCTION AND SDPPLIES. 

1521 FARNAM ST., OMAHA, NEB. 

Pumpelly Storage Batteries, Standard Underground Cable Co.'s Wires, Celebrated 
Waring Cables and Conduits, Paiste Switches, Stoddard Cut-Outs, Thomson- Houston 
Motors and Dynamos, Sawyer-Man Lamps and Specialties, Combination Fixtures 
and Electroliers, Gleason & Bailey Mfg. Co.'s Supplies, Wing's Disc Fans and Ex- 
hausts. Electric Lighting and Supplies, Electric House Furnishings, Bell Hangers, 
Sundiie", Complete Steam Plants. 




ELECTRIC HEAT REGULATOR 

Saves Coal, Saves Doctor's Bills, Saves Labor; 

Automatic, Simple and Durable ; insures uniform temperature 
throughout the house; no heater complete without it; can be 
applied to any kind of heating apparatus. Try one, and be con- 
vinced. 
If not sold In your town write us for Illustrated circular and prices. 

CONSOLIDATED TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING CO., 

Bii«Ne:APOL.is, aiiNif. 



V. F. ANNETT. Prest. 



S. F. FENTON, Yice-Prest, and Treas. 



Hotel and House Annunciators. 
Electric Gas Lighting. 
Fire and Burglar Alarms. 
Electro-Medical Apparatus, 
Electric Lighting. 
Telegraph Instruments. 
Wire and Batteries. 



CHAS. SrOtlEY SMITH, SeO^ 



The United Electric Go. 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies, 
SALT LAKE CITY. - UTAH. 



PARTRIGK & GARTER'S 

1, 2, 4 AND 6 CALL 



Patent Indicating Bells! 





4-rALL BELL. 1-CALL BELL. 

For Prices and Further Particulars see our New Catalogue. 



FJSANKLIN S. CARTKR. 



E. WARD WILKINS. 



CHAKLES M. WILKINS. 

TRAD1>'G*B 

Manufacturers of ELECTBICAL SUPPIilES, 

Sole Proprietors PATE ST NEEDLE ANNUNCIATORS 
114 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ii, 1S89 



"0. & C; ELECTRIC MOTOR COMPANY, 

402 ^ 404 GREENWICH STREET, NEW YORK. 

Ovsr 6,000 How in Use 



ALL STANDARD SIZES 

OF— 

ELECTRIC MOTORS 

— ■S-B.01S. — 
1-8 H. P. TO 40 H. P. 



Chicago Office. Phcenix Building. 
Cincinnati Office. 99 West Fourth Street. 




UNITED STATES, 

Running Sewing Machines, Elevators, 
Printing Presses, Ventilating Fans, Blow- 
ers, Coffee Mills, Polishing and Grinding 
Tools, Etc. 



New England Office. 32 Oliver Street, Boston. 
Philadelphia Office, 301 Arch Street. 



iOHIM STEPHENSON CO., 



i_ns^n~:Eo, 



NETAT YORK. 



STREET CARS 



-FOR- 



ELECTRIC MOTORS 



CARS ADAPTED TO ALL SYSTEMS. 




ELECTRIC LIGHT, COMBINATION 



-^~ 





ADAPTED TO ANY SYSTEM OF IN OANDE SCENT LIGHTING. 



ALL APPLIANCES FOR THE EDISOI ELECTRIC LIGHT, 



Illustrated Catalogues, Designs and Estimates Furnished on Application. Correspondence Solicited. 



Office and Works, \ -ivt-ottt -vr\T>Tr i Show Rooms, 

292-298 Avenue B, f -™-t-W ICUllJi. \ 65 Fifth Avenue. 



T. W. WILMARTH & CO., 227 State Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 

AGENTS FOR OUR FIXTURES IN THE NORTHWEST. 



Januar}' ii, 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



SOUTHERN ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO, 



Of Every Description at Bottom Prices. Prompt Shipments and Intelligent £xecntion of Orders, Our Specialties. 




310 North Third Street, 



TRADE MABK. 
AGENTS. 




MATHER ELECTRIC CO., 

CHICA60 OFFICE:^^*>™ "' ^^i'S^**"*?"^*!?*"^' U- H. B£1I>, Manager. 
t lia t^alle and Kandolph »t8. ) 

THE BEST SYSTEM OF INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 




The EMPIRE CITYELECTRIC CO. 

15 DEY STREET, 




Electrical 
Supplies, 

SEND FOR QUOTATIONS. 



PROF. H. ARON'S 

Electric Current Counter 

Gold Medal Awarded at Melbourne Exhibition, 1888-89. 

The most r. liable and simplified Electric Meter ever inventeci. 
Guaranteed correct fur smnll and large currents. 

Built for Direct Two-Wire, Three- Wire, Fiue-Wire to 
Nine-Wire, and all Alternating Systems 

in sizes from 15 up to any number of amperes. Every 
counter measures correctly the amount of current con- 
sumed from a fraction of an ampere up to its full 
capacity. 

Adopted Ijy Siemens & Halske, Berlin, Germany; 
Edison Company. Berlin, Germany; Municipal Electric 
Lighting Works, Berlin, Germany, and others. Exclus- 
ively used in Paris, Vienna, Constantinople and other 
European cities. 

OPINIONS OF AMERICAN ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANIES. 
Thom-'on-TTouiton Co., Liinn, Ifass —"Counters work very satisfactorily." 
Edison Ilium. Q.k. Brn, klyn. N. F— "We have four Aron Counters in use since some 
months, durin r which lime no trouble has been experienced in regard to care of 
Sjme, and satisfactory readings have been obtained." 
Mather Elect ic Light Co., Manches<er,Conn—'-'We find that the Aron Counters register 
i accurately as is necessary for the purposes to -which such meters would be ap 




plied; we have perfectly satisfied ourselves of their adaptability." 
Outer (N.n.) Electric Liqht Co.— "We have tested the Aron Counter and have no rea- 
son to doubt its reliability. We beg to inclose order for a few counters of 75 to 
lOJ amperes." 
San, Francisco Electric Light Co.— "The Aron Counter is the best instrument we have 
seen We have thoroughly tested a Counter of alternating current, and are sat- 
isfied it will work correctly." 

In use by European Central Stations measuring over 60 million watts. Unques- 
tioned superiority. Indispensable for Central station work. Amount of current consumed 
may be ascertained at a glance, the dials being constructed on the same principle as 
the gas meter dials. 

FOE PEICEa AND PAJITICOLAES, AP3BEES: 

W. HACKENTHAL 

Sole Manaikctnrer and Importer, 

21 BEEKMAN STREET, - - NEW YORK. 




PATENT 
DOUBLE 



LIFT-OVER 



PENDANT BURNER 



Igniting Cas or Gasoline by Electricity. 



This PENDANT BURNER has the Double Lift- 
Over Electrode, which saves two-thirds of Battery Power and 
avoids Short Circuiting, which is liable to occur in many others. 

The Double Lift- Over Electrode is a very important feat- 
ture no other Pendant has. 

Electric Fpark or Connection only when Gas is Ignited. 



Electric Cas Lighting Apparatus. 
Electric Bells and Annunciators. 
General Electrical Supplies. 

Electrical Specialties to Contract. 




^3rzia.mo a.zid C3rlixid.er Oils. 

Second to none. Free from gum or acids. Especially adapted for all fast runnning 

machinery. By reflltering can be used continually. Adopted by the largest 

Electric Plants of the West. 

8. TAUSSIG, Agent, - 43 River St., CHICAGO. 

WRITE FOR PRICES AND SAMPLES. 

THE PERKINS 
ELECTRIC LAMP 
COMPANY, 

Chicago Office, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN ST. 

A NEW BOOK 

Will be issued as soon as the Revisionary work is completed. 

ELECTRIC LAW, 

Edi'.ed by Fkkd H. Whipple. P.lce, landsomily printed and bound, $10.(0. 



The Electric Railway Municipal Lighting. 

In paper, |1.00, L°ather, |2.00. 

Whipple's National Electrical Directory. 

Price, 11000. 



Whipple's Electrical Reports. 

Published Monthly. |3 00 per year. 



Address 



The FRED H. WHIPPLE CO., 

33etx-olt, AXlola. 

Or any Electrical Journal or leading Book Store. 

New York Office, 1 8 Cortlandt Street. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January ii, 1890 



THE BEST or ALL 



THE WHLTER K. FREEMHN 

TRANSFORMER SYSTEM 

OF INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 




ALTERNATING CURRENT DYNAMO— CAPACITY, 500 16-CANDLE-POWER LAWPS. 

We Guarantee 12 16-C. JP. Lamjjsfor each Mechanical B. P. applied to Dynamo. We Guarantee our Trans- 
formers and Dynamos for two years, and sell our Apparatus upon its Satisfactory Performance. 

Our Apparatus is of the Highest EfTiciency, Mechanically and Electrically. 

WE GnARANT££ ITS OPERATION, AND 



CORRESFOUEEUCE SOI^ICITEID. 



M 



NATIONAL ELECTRIC MFG. CO 

EAU QLaAIRE, wis. 

GEO. B. SHAW, - General Manag^er. 

EASTERN ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION CO., Gen'I Eastern Agents, 

33 GOLD STREET, NEW YORK. 



BAKER, BALCH & CO., General Agents, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



THOMAS WOLFE, Southwestern Agent. 

UNION DEPOT HOTEL, 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 



January ii, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



A PRACTICAL ANDJOMMERCIAL SUCCESS. 

The ThoMsoa-Ho Bston Elec tric R'y Sysien, 

ECONOMICAL, DURABLE, RELUBLE. 




NEW TYPE THOMSON-HOUSTON ELEOTRIO RilLWAT TRUCK, 



RESULT OF ONE YEAR'S WORK. 

RAILWAY CONTRACTS OF THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC RAILWAY CO.: 



Alliance Street Mailway Co., Alliance, O. 

Atlanta & Edgewood Street Sailway Co., Atlanta, Ga. 

AttleborOj No. AtUeboro & Wrenthani Street Mailway Co., 

Attlehoro, Mass. 
Americus Street Railway Co., Americas, Ga, 
Atdrurn Electric Railway Co., Aiiburn, If.Y. 
Banffor Street Railway Co., Bangor, Me. 
Belt Idne Railway Co., Lynn, Mass. 
Brooklyn Street Railway Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Central Passenger Railway, Louisville, Ky. 
Central Railway Co., Peoria, HI. 
Citiisiens' Electric Street Railway, Decatur, III. 
Colerain Avenue Railway Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Danville Street Car Co., Danville, Va. 
Derby Sorse Railroad Co., Ansonia, Conn. 
Dea Moines Electric Ry. Co., Des Moines, Iowa. 
Eckington & Soldiers Home Ry. Co., Washington, D. C. 
East Sarrisburg Passenger Railway, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Fulton Co. Street Ry. Co., Atlanta, Ga. 
Hillside Coal Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Hoosac Valley Street Ry., North Adams, Mass. 
Joliet Street Ry. Co., Joliet, HI. 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Myrtle Street Line) Lynn, 

Mass. 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Nahant Line) Lynn, Mass. 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Crescent Beach Line) Lynn, 

Mass. 
Lynn & Boston Railroad Co., (Highland Line) Lynn, Mass. 
McGavock & Mt. Vernon Horse Ry., Nashville, Tenn. 
Metropolitan Street Ry. Co., Kansas City, Mo. 



Naumkeag Street Ry,, Salem, Mass. 
Newburyport & Amesbtiry Horse Ry. Co., Nembury' 

port, Mass. 
Newport Street Ry. Co., Newport, R. I, 
Newton Street Ry, Co., Newton, Mass. 
Nay- Aug Cross Town Ry. Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Omaha & C. B. Ry. and Bridge Co., Omaha, Neb. 
Omaha Motor Ry. Co., Omaha, Neb. 
Ottawa Electric St. Ry. Co., Ottawa, III. 
Ottumtoa Street Ry. Co., Ottunitva, Iowa. 
Plymouth & Kingston Ry. Co., Plymouth, Mass. 
Quincy St. Ry. Co., Quincy, Mass, 
Redbank & Sealrright Ry., Redbank, N. J. 
Richfnond St. Ry. Co., Richmond, Ind. 
Rochester Electric Ry. Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
Revere Street Ry. Co., Revere, Mass. 
Ross Park Street Ry, Co., Spokane Falls, W. T, 
Riverside and Suburban Ry. Co. Wichita, Kan. 
Scranton Passenger Ry. Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Scranton Suburban St. Ry. Co., Scranton, Pa. 
Seattle Electric Ry. <& Power Co., Seattle, W. T. 
Southington <& Plantsville Ry. Co., Southington, Conn. 
Third Ward St Ry, Co,, Syracuse, N. T. 
Topeka Rapid Transit Co., Topeka, Kan. 
Toledo Electric Ry. Co., Toledo, Ohio. 
University Park Ry. and Electric Co. Denver, Col. 
Vine St. Ry., Kansas City, 3Io. 
Watervliet Turnpike & R. R. Co., Albany, N. Y. 
Wheeling Ry. Co., Wheeling, W. Va. 
West End St. Ry. Co., Boston, Mass. 



IXT" 



Brooklyn Street Railway Oo. 

Des Moines Electric Railway Co. 

Eckington & Soldiers' Home Railway Oo. 

Julien Electric Traction Co. 

Seattle Electric Railway & Power Oo. 



LiSnin & Boston Street Railway Co. 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & Bridge Co. 

Revere Street Railway Co. 

"Wheeling Railway Co. 

"West End Street Railway Oo. 



THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 



620 Atlantic Ave., BOSTON, MASS. 



148 Michigan Ave., CHICAGO, ILL. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Januarj- tt, 1890 



THE ELEGTRIGiL SUPPLY CO 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



FUSE WIRE I 

Send for our New Circular List of FUSE WIRE, No. 596. 



11 1 r 



All conditions have been carefully studied in the manufacture of this Fuse Wire, 
and we have successfully devised a system of alloys for each different carrying capacity, 
or size of wire. This, together with accurate determinations by careful tests, has given 
us an article unparalleled for accuracy and reliability. In the table given below will 
be found the fusing current under all conditions: 





s s 
1 £ 


1 
o 

a ^ 

"3 
p. 
tm 
a 
"3 
a 


• 
a 

- s. 
a ° 
a. 2 

tm 

a 

s 


Namber of lamps which can be 
operated. 




d 
e 


at 

h 

IS. 

o 
la 



1 

3 
4 
6 
6 

8 
!) 
10 
12 
14 
15 
16 
18 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
50 
00 
70 
75 
100 
126 
150 
175 
20O 


S 

Jd 

ll 



1 

3 
4 
6 
li 

9 
10 
11 
12 
15 
17 
18 
20 
2« 
25 
31 
37 
43 
49 

?J 
80 
103 
J32 
1F6 
185 
215 
2S0 


o 

SS 
l» 

S^ 

1 

I 

5 

8 
10 
12 
14 
10 
18 
!i0 
24 
2- 
30 
32 
3b 
40 
50 
60 
70 
811 
100 
120 
140 
160 
200 
230 
300 
360 
40O 


l| 

OS 
" OS 


S 

1 


1300 

1301 

UOi 

1308(4 

1303 

iSOl 

1305 

1300 

1307 

130« 

1309 

I31I1 

1312 

1314 

1315 

131(1 

1318 

13S0 

Kta 

1330 

1385 

1340 

1350 

13«0 

1«70 

1375 

1400 

1425 

1450 

1475 

1500 


1^ 

2 

■^ 
4 
6 
6 

8 
9 

10 

12 

14 

15 

16 

18 

20 

2B 

30 

35 

40 

50 

GO 

70 

75 
100 
125 
150 
175 
SOD 


1.8 

2 

4 

5 

5.4 

8.3 
10 
11 
12 
13.! 
15 
18 
21 

22.6 
24 
26 5 

ao 

35 
42 
49 
50 

W) 

88 
100 
130 
155 
185 
218 
!M5 


2.2 
2.5 
■ 4.4 
6.6 
0.2 
8 

10 

12 

14 

15 

18 6 

21 

24 

% 
30 
32 
40 
48 
58 

. 04 

76 

90 
10) 
112 
140 
IhS 
195 
230 
260 




1 

3 
4 
5 

8 
9 
10 
12 
13 
16 
19 
20 

24 
27 
38 
40 
40 
53 
67 
80 
93 
100 
■ 133 
165 
200 
280 
265 


$1.90 
1.90 
3.00 
2.05 
2.10 
2.25 
2.60 
3 00 
3.50 
4.0(1 
4.50 
6.00 
6.00 
7.00 
7.50 
8.10 
9.00 
10.00 
12.00 
14.00 
16.0.) 
13.00 
19.00 
20 00 
21.00 
21.60 
24.60 
28.00 
32.00 
36.00 
40.00 



The a*)0V6 prices ara gabject to (llecomt to the trade. 



Our Illustrated Catalogue of Electric Light and Power Supplies, No. 560, 
is the Most Complete Book of its kind ever issued. 



171 Randolph Street, 

CHIC^^GrO 



FACTORIES, 



ANSONIA, CONN. 



January II, iSgo WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



IMPORTANT. 

^%t PA %^ 

SUSTAINED. 



The broad right to the use of Double Carbon Electric Arc Lamps 

declared to belong to the Brush Electric Company, under 

U, S. Letters Patent to Charles F. Brush, No. 219,208. 

In the suit of The Brush Electric Company vs. The Fort Wayne Electric 

Light Company, decided at Indianapolis, Dec. 24, 1889, 

JUDGE GRESHAM SOLDS^ 

1 That Brush was the Pioneer Inventor in Commercial Arc 

lighting. 

2 That the Brush Patent in suit is the Pioneer Patent for 

Double Carbon Arc Lamps. 

3 That the Patent is Broad and Fundamental. 

4 That all its Claims (six in number) are valid. 

5 That the claims of the Patent are all infringed by the Defendant. 

The Court says: "The separation of the two pair of Carbons, so that the Arc is established between one 
pair and maintained between the Carbons of that pair until they have been consumed and then automatically es- 
tablished between the Carbons of the other pair and maintained between them until they have been consumed, is 
a dissimultaneous and successive arc-forming separation, and it is this feature which distinguishes the Lamp in suit 
from all prior lamps." 

The Brush Electric Company is assured by the most competent legal advisers 
that under this Brush Patent, as interpreted by the U. S. Circuit Court, practically 
all Double Carbon Electric Arc Lamps now ofifered for sale are 




and notice is hereby given that Infringers, whether manufacturers or users, will be 
prosecuted and held for damages to the full extent of the Law. 

THE BRUSH ELECTRIC CO., 

CLEVELAND, - - OHIO. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 1 1, 1890 



FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC COMPANY, 



f^oxrt AT^Tetyxie, XxLcaLlAxxa. 



Manufacturers of tlie 

SLATTERY INDUCTION SYSTEM 

OF 

IHGANDESCENT LIGHTIRG, 

.Wn THE 

WOOD SYSTEM 

OF 

ARC LIGHTING. 




The Most Oarefolly Worked- 
out and Oompleta Altematliif 
System of Electric Lighting la 
Existence. 

Armatures and Oonvertsra 
Guaranteed. 12-16 Oandle Poww 
Lamps to the Mechanical Honw 
Power Guaranteed. 




CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 

115 BROADWAY, 

Boreel BIdg. 



MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS. ^„,„„,. ^^ 

FORT WAYNE, IND. PHILADELPHIA OFFICE, 

„ ' . ^ ^. 907 Filbert Street. 

CHICAGO OFFICE, f85 Dearborn St., First Floor, ^ ^ WILBUR. Manager. 

W. J. BUCKLEY, Manager. .niiio o 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE, 217 Sansome St. I ClTY OF MEXICO OFFICE, F. ADAMS. SUCCESSOR 





DETROIT 

Electrical Works, 

MANUFACTURERS. 



In our Annunciators our aim has been that 
nothing should he wanting in style, workman- 
ship or material to make them the BEST ever 
put on the market. 

Dealers who wish to identify themselves with 
the best goods and the safest policy, should 
handle the products of the DETROIT ELEC- 
TRICAL WORKS, which have the highest in- 
dorsement of both dealers and consumers through- 
out the country. 

Write us for Illustrated Annunciator Chart. 



RE8PE0TFULLV, 



standard Hotel Xccdlc .^nnniiciator, 

Wm aU£>T CALL and FIRC ALARM AnACHMCNTS. 



Detroit Electrical Works, 



z>E3a?xt.oza^, Axzo: 



$8 per Annum. 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



1 cents per Copy. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY i8, 1890. 



No. 3. 



SPEAKING TUBES M WHISTLES, 

Oral. Electric, Pneumatic, and Mechanical 

ANNUNCIATORS AND BELLS. 
W. R. OSTRANDER & CO., 

2 1 , 23 and 25 Ann St. New York. 

Factory, 1461 and 14.63 DeKalb Ave, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
■ Send for New Catalogue, out August 1st. 





, ^^ Standard Underground Cable Co., 

^^9\ WESTINGHOnSE BLDS, PITTSBURGH, PA. 



COMBINES 

IN A HIGH GRADE 



G. L. WILEY, 18 Cortlandt St , New York. 

F. E. DEGENHARDT, 

Room 542 'Rookery," 
Chicago. 




Weatherproof Wlre-^ ^"^^ m 
SAFETYIDURABIUTY. 






MAUDFACTTJREKS OF AND DEALERS IN 



t Eleclric Co. 

^D DEALERS IN 

EVERYTHING ELECTRICAL 

SKKD FOB ase PA«B CATAI.OG1TE, 

1 11 Arch Street, BOSTON, MASS. 



NEWYORKBELTING&PACKINC CO 



JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treas., 15 PARK ROW, NEW YORK. 

Oldest and Largest ManafactuierB la the United States of 

VULCANIZED RUBBER FABRICS 

For ITecliaiifcal Purposes. 

!IUSSERSELT!NE,M111UH0SE 

UACHUIE BELTUie 

With Smooth Metallic Robber surface for use 

on DynamoB and swift innnlng macliiiies. 
VULCANITE EMERY WHEELS. RUBBER MATS 
MATTING AND STAIR TREADS. 
BRANGHEtt; Bosto", yhiiadelpiiia, Clevsland, Detroit, Chicago, C-ncinnatl, St Louis, "tnneapolis, Denver. 





(3131) 



ELECTRIC 
LIGHT, 

HIGH OR LOW 
VOLTAGE. 



The 



iQdia-RDlilier and Gntta-Ferclia Insalatiag Co 



Vulcanized India-Rueeer Cables, to any 
specification up to 8,000 Megohms per mile. 

Absolutely Pure Rubber Cables, 

Concentric Cables, any millage, Flexible 
Cords, Silk, Hemp, Cotton, Dynamo 
Wires and Carles, very pliable. Every 
varieu- of Incandescent Cores. 



UNDER WATER 

AND 

UNDERGROUND. 



MANIJFACTURERS OF 

Three and Two-wire Ca- 
bles, to any specification 
up to 8,000 Megohms per 
knot. 

Cables ot High insulation 
and Long Life, all millage. 



WM. M. HABIR8HAW, F.C. S. 

General Manager. 



Offices: 1 59 Front Street, 

NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



MARINE 

ELECTRIC 

LIGHT 

Installations 



Standard Marine 
Cores to any Millage 
or Specification up to 
9,000 Megohms per knot. 

Two -Circuit Concen- 
tric Cables, both cir- 
cu'ts, 9,000 Megohms per 
knot. 

Na\"y Portables, Silk, 
Cotton and Hemp. 

Bell Wire, rubber cov- 
ered, for Marine Work.' 

Pliable Cables, for 
Search Lights. 




DAY'S KERITE INSULATION. 

Ttie acknowledged Standard for durable and high 
Insulation. Its merits proved by a record of over 
quarter of a century. Adapted to all electrical purposes. 



B«cItIc Light and Power, 
Telegraph and Telephone. 

Railway and all other . j Fncased IVirei 

Branchei ei Signaling. '■^'"' '"Caseff IVires. 



Aerial Use, 
All Sizes Subterranean Uie, ' 

Submarine Use 

Concealed Wiring in all Locationi. 



E. B. McGLEES, General Manager, I6 Dey st JEW YORK. 

■Western Electric Co., Chicago, 111., Sole Agents for the West. 



ANSONIA BRASS & COFFER GOMFANT, 

Sole Manufacturers of COWLES* PATENTED 

Fire -Proof and Weather -Proof 

ELECTRIC LIGHT LINE WIRE. 

C B B A ' 



V./....v.M|iffiN<«'<«<V'' 



CUT SHOWING STYI.K OF INSULATIOH. ,- . — 

A— Copper Wire. B. 5.— Two Braids, saturated with Fire-Proof Insulation. O-^ttidMCoaak 

■Unrated with a Bloc*, WEATHER-PRoopCompofiilioD. . , .. . - ^ » «• 

Approved by New York Board of Fire Underwriter*. Sanpfes fiiniished opon ftppBCWOB. PBf» ■■» 
trie Copper Wire, bare and covered, bf every description. 

FACTORIES: 



wARPPonae S 19 and 21 Cliff St,. New York. 
wABtKuams.. ^^33 gjjj, ^35 vVabatti Ave., Chi 



cago. III. ANSONIA, CONN. 



THE EDISON MACHINE WORKS, 

MAJfVFACTUBEBS OF 

WeatherproofWire. Insulated Iron Wire. Magnet Wire, Rubber Covered House Wire. 
Annunciator Wire. German Silver Wire. Oflace Wire. Flexible Brush Holder Cable. 
Gas Fixture Wire. Arc Lamp Cords. Tinsel Cords. Flexible Cords. 

Telephone, Telegraph and Electric Light Cables. 
PARAGON TAPE. 

JAMES F. KELLY, General Sales Airent, - 19 Dey Street, NEW YORK. 

WOBKS: SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January i8, 1890 



THE THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 



Arc and Incandescent 

£lectric 
liighting Apparatus. 



G20 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

148 Michigan Ave , Cuicago, III. 

115 Broadway, Nkw York, N. Y. 
315 W. 4th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

116 Gravier St., New Orleans, La, 

503 Delaware St., Kansas City, Mo. 
319. N. 3d St., St. Louis, Mo. 
234 Jlontgomery St., Saj* Fhancisco, Cal. 



Electric Railway 

Equipment. 
Electric Motors. 




Ai-c Dynamo. 



No better proof of the superiority of our arc apparatus 
can be offered than the fact that of the 21,000 arc lamps 
operated by Gas Companies in this country, over 11,000, or 
52 per cent., are Thomson-Houston. The dynamo is entirely 
automatic in its regulation, perfect in mechanical construc- 
tion, and economical in operation. The lamps burn steadily 
and uniformly, and hold their adjustment better than any 
other lamps on the market. 




Our direct current incandescent dynamo is rapidly gain- 
ing favor with practical electric lighting men, as its many 
features of excellence are recognized. Like the arc dynamo 
its regulation is automatic, permitting any number of lamps 
to be thrown on or off without in the least affecting the 
others in service. Our incandescent lamps have an un- 
equaled record for long life. 



Direct Cnnt'iit Incandesi-ent Dynamo. 




The problem of long distance incandescent lighting is 
practically solved by the alternating current dynamo, and to 
meet the demand for a machine of this character we have 
constructed what is unquestionably the most perfect alterna- 
tor offered the public to-day, embracing as it does, all the 
features that combine to make a perfect dynamo — automatic 
regulation, perfect mechanical construction, highest effici- 
ency, and economy of operation. 



Alternatiu;; C'liricnt It.> iiitiiio, 




notor. 



The employment of electric motors for driving small ma- 
chinery is becoming so common, and its advantages so well 
known, that it is unnecessary to elaborate in this direction. 
In the construction of our motors we feel that we have reached 
a point where their superiority cannot but be admitted. 



LIGHTNING ARRESTER. —All of our installations are 
protected from destruction and injury by our lightning arrester, which 
we will fully guarantee to operate successfully in every instance. The 
Company guarantees to repair or replace apparatus injured by light- 
ning where these arresters fail to operate. 



January i8, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



CHAS. D. JENNEY & CO., 




One B. P. Constant Potential llotor. 

AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC MOTORS 



-^x* rF^x:- 



HIGHEST EFFICIENCY 

For both Arc and Incandescent Oircuits, from 1-2 to 100 
H. P. All of our Motors have 8elf-Oiling Boxes. 



OX'Z'XOX:: 



224 S. ILLINOIS ST, - INDIANAPOLIS, INO, 



ELECTRO-DYNAMIC CO. 

224 Carter St., Philadelphia. 

Dynamos, Motors, Batteries, 




Voltmeters and Ammeters, Switclies, 



LiaxS- 



Gomplete Electric Lislit 

and Power Plants. 
STREET CARS EQUIPPED 

FOR ELECTRIC PROPULSION. 



The Oldest and Most Experienced Electric Mo- 
tor Company in the World. 



Chicago Office, 502 Phenix Building. 

Detroit Office, 30 Atwater St., East. 

San Francisco, 220 Sutter St. 



THE MITCHELL VANCE CO., 

(Sncce.aora to niTCHEI,!,, VANCB A CO.) 
DESIGNERS AND MAKERS OF 

ARTISTIC ELECTROLIERS AND COMBINATION FIXTURES. 



Having no Special Agent 
in Chicago for our 

Goods, we Solicit Cor- 
respondence from 
Buyers, which 

we Promptly Answer. 

Combinatioii Fixtures, 

Electroliers, Brackets. 
Pendants, Reflectors, 




Architects' and Decora- 
tors' Designs and 
Suggestions Carried Out 

with Fidelity 
to the given Motive. 

Insnlating Joints, 

and All Fittings for 
Incandescent Ligbting, 




MANUFACTORY, SALESROOM, 

24 and 25th St. and 1 0th Ave., 836-38 Broadway and 1 3th St., 

NEW YORK CITY. 

QUEEN CITY ELECTRIC CO., 



-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



DYNAMOS AND MOTORS. 



TWO FIRST PRIZE GOLD MEDALS 1888. 

MOST EFFICIENT. MOST EFFICIENT. 




DYNAMO 
25 to 500 

LIGHTS' 
CAPACITY. 

— iND— 

ECONOMICAL. 



MOTOR 

1-8 to 50 

Horse Pnwer. 

READY. 



ISOLATED PLANTS and C ENTRAL STA TIONS FULLY ERECTED. 

Motors for Running 

ELEVATORS, MS, PUMPS AND &EMAL MACHINERY. 

We give an Absolute Guarantee regarding Materials, Workmanship 
and Efficiency. 

OFFICE, FACTORY AWD SAI.FSROO]»I, 

58&60Longworth St., CINCINNATI, 0. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 1890 



TTHE lV.A^TIOIVA.t. C:^RBOIV C30 



CleT7-ela<nd., 01:iio. 



-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS and BAT TERY MATERIAL. 

CONTRACTING ENGINEERS FOR ERECTING 
COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS FOR 



JARVS 



ENGINEERING CO., 

61 OLIVER STREET, 



tosa^oio'. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER STATIONS. 

NATIONAL FEED WATER HEATER. 

lARVIS BOILER SETTING, to Burn Anihracile Coal and Coko 

Screenings. 
NATIONAL ROCKING AND SHEFFIELD GRATE BARS 

SEND FOR NEW CATALOGUE. 



ECONOMICAL ARC LAMPS 

FOR INCANDESCENT CIRCUITS 




These lamps, hiirning in series, require about 50 volta and 8 amperes of current. ' 

Electrical contractors can make money by acting as our agents. When writing please state voltage and system used. For J 

prices and Information regarding our new and improved Huiiipie Arc, Multiple Series and Search Lamps, address \.,M4 

K..H».;.^P THE ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION & SUPPLY CO.. - 18 Cortiandt Street. New York City. 




Dynamo Belts Carried in Stock. 


KNAPP ELECTRICAL WORKS 


VllOllirO <^°'''->^^ O" "><^" SPEED WITH BOILERS, Etc. 

rNblNtu For Driving Dynamos. 

■1 Complete Steam Plants Furnished and Erected. 

iNGL SH. MORSE & co.'"::rr.ro. 


GENERAL ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES, 

And Western Agents 

Perkins Incandescent Lamp Conipany, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO, ILL 


SEND FOR SPECIAL CIRCULARS. 



EDISON M ANOFACT ORING CO., 

EDISONIALANDE BAHERY. 

(UNDER AUTHORITY OF THOMAS A. EDISON.) 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

PRIMARY BATTERIES for TELEGRAPH "MAINS" and "LOCALS," 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, TELEPHONE TRANSMITTERS, 
ELECTRO-PLATING, ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

ANNUNCIATORS AND BURGLAR ALARMS 
AND ALL CLASSES OF CLOSED AND OPEN CIRCUIT WORK. 



coiejEe:BSi=03^^)^2sroE: sox-icite^). 



JAMES F. KELLY 



General Sales 
I Aeent, 



1 9 Dey $t., NEW YORK. 



January i8, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



THE REYNOLDS 

Improve d Corliss Engine 

Is especially adapted for electric plants 

of all kinds, and has made a record in 

this field which cannot be excelled. 

rr IS t79SaUAI<£D fob ECONOU? of FUBIj, BEOUIiABlTT OS 
MOTION, AKD BTTSABTLITT IK USE. 




SOLB BUILDERS 



EDW. P. ALUS & CO.. 



RELIANCE WORKS. 



MILWAOKEE, WIS. 



rite for onr CatalusnfM- 



Manafactarere of and Dealers In 

Pulleys, Gears, Shafting, Hangers, Leather, Rubber 

and Ccitton Belting, Lubricants, and Mill and 

Engine Supplies of Every Description. 

CHICAGO BRANCH, 41 ail 43 SOUTH JEFFERSON ST, 



BERN$TE[N ELECTRIC CO. 

INGMDESGENT LAMPS 

FOR ■ 

ARC-LIGHT GIRGDITS. 

SIMPLE. RBMABLB. DURABLE. 



The only safe socket for series lamps, and the only 
socket having insulating material for the outside 
parts. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

620 ATLANTIC AVENUE, 

CHICAGO OFFICE. 80 Adams Street, GEORGE CUHER. Agent. 




EXCELSIOR ELECTRIC CO. 

MOTORS 

FOE 

Arc § Incandescent Circuits 

'n'OEJCD FOB ASY CURBEST. 

». PERFECT AUTOMATIC REGULATM.* 




Highly Efficient and Economical. 



CONSTANT SPEED UNDER ALL LOADS. 

F. ^W. HOBNE, Manager 

WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES. 

1 1 EAST ADAMS STREET, - - CHICAGO. 



COMPOUND. 



CONDENSING OR 
NON-CONDENSING. 

le Sises, 5 to BOO H. P. Hot yet equaled by any form of Sngiie for 
HIGH FUEL DUTY AND SIIVIPLICITY. 



STANDARD. ''5'tJfl5!)H'"'p.'- 

3,000 in nse in all parts of the Civilized World. 

JUNIOR. 

AJ7 AnTOUATIC EHS: 
Well Built Economical, 



6 Sizes in Stock, 5 to 50 H. P. 

AJT^AnTOUATIC EHSUTE CHSAPEE TEiH A SLIDE VA17E. 
' ' ■ ■ " Over 300 sold the first year. 



Reliable. 



All the above built stncUy to Gauge -with Interchangeable Parts, 
uepairs Carried in Stock. Send for Ulostrated Oatalognes. 




SELLING DEPARTMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. 



NEW YORK, 

BOSTON, 

PITTSBURGH, 

CHICAGO, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

ST. LOUIS. 

KANSAS CITV, 

DENVER, 

OMAHA, 

PINE BLUFFS, Ark. 



17 Cortlaiidt Street, l ttt,^,,*; »,„ „ 

Hathaway Building, ! T^S?''g!^ 
WestinghouseBuilling, h Church, Kerr 
156, l58Lake Street, J * ">■ 
608 Chestnut St., M. K. Muckl§, Jr. & Co. 
3tt>, 301 Washington Ave. I „„. ^ . 
312 Union AvenSe. {■ rmrbanks 

1330 Seventeenth Street, | '^ '-?• 
1619 Capitol Avenue, F. C Aver. 

Geo. IL Dilley & Sons. 



SALT LAKE CITV, 259 S. Main St. 1 Utah & Montana 

BUTTE, MONT. E. QraniteSt f Machinery Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO, 21 and 33 Fremont St., Parke i Lacy Co. 

PORTLAND, OR. *!, 35 N. Front St., Parke & Lacy Mch. Co. 

S?L^"N^TiX^•^•^i!°Slt• [TheD.ATompMnsCo. 
DALLAS, TEX. Keating Imp. & Mch. Co. 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN. C. E.James i Co. 



W. D. SARGENT, Pres. JOHN A. BARRETT, Vicc-Pres. and Cons Ele;. E. H. CUTLER, Trea?. and Mgr. FRiNK A. PERRET, EUc. 

THE ELEKTRON MANUFACTURING CO., 

70-81 . W a.sl3.1xiston St., ^zrcsols-l^rxa., 3^. 'S'., 

MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

PERRET ELECTRIC MOTORS AND DYNAMOS. 

AUTOMATICALLY REGULATED, UNEXCELLED IN SIMPLICITY 

AND DURABILITY. 



The Only Machines Having Laminated Field Magnets of Softest Charcoal Iron 

By Means of Which Higher Efficiency, Closer Regulation and Slower Speed 

ARE OETAIKED THAN IS POSSIBLE OTHERWISE. Eg^CAREPUL IKVESTIGATION IKVITED. 




^ert^^^^^^r^^t^^^. 



^P fb/f £l 

J-'LJ tubing all' 



M. Purposes 



Pure Sheet Tfubber Etc. ^g^ 



4ddres^ JHE Br.GoODRICH Co. 



AKRON RUBBER WORKS 

AKRON, OHIO. 



.^J^GOODRICHHAHD RUBBER G. 



JiflQiM^pc-^nrerS 0/ 



Specialties OF all kinds to order- 

—^^^SeND for ^T/tLOGUE. ■^^ 



i--fe- 


%i 


'A(s. 


'V\^ 


i>r, Ohio. 


I'Hi 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 1890 



THE BEGINNING OF THE END. 




WESTINGHOUSE COMPANY DEFEATED. 



Sawyer-Man Patent Decided by the Court to be a Fraud and Absolutely Valueless. 

EXTRACTS FEOM THE DECISIOIT OF JUSTICE BRADLEY, OCTOBER 5, 1889. 



Circuit Court of the United States, ] 

For the Western District of Pennsylvania, j 

THE CONSOLIDATED ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY ("SnD. 



■va. 



McKGESPOKT LIGHT COMPANY ( 



Edison ' 

Company^ 



No. 6 May Term, 1888. 



ON BILL AND FINAL HEARING. 



OIF'in^TXOIT O^ TSEi ODTJieT. 



BRADLBY, Circuit Justice: 

"The great question in this suit is, whether the patent 

sued on is valid, so far as involves a general claim for the use in electric 
lamps of incandescing carbon conductors, made of fibrous or textile sub- 
stances. If it is, the complainant must prevail. If it is not, the bill 'must 
be dismissed.' " 

"Is the patent valid for such a broad claim? The de- 
fendants contend that it is not. First, because no such invention wss set 
forth in the original application, but was introduced more than four years 
after it was filed, and after the same material had been used by Edison 
and claimed by him in application for a patent. Secondly, because Edison, 
and not Sawyer-Man, was really the original and first inventor of an in- 
candescent conductor made of fibrous or textile material for an electric 
lamp." 

"It is very clear to us that in the original application for 

the patent sued on, the applicants had no such object in view as that of 
claiming all carbon made from fibrous and textile substances as a conductor 
for an incandescing electric lamp. Nothing on which to base any such claim 
is disclosed in the original application ; we have carefully compared it with 
the amended application on which the patent was issued, and are fully 
satisfied that after Edison's inventions on this subject had been published 
to the world there was an entire change of base on the part of Sawyer & 
Man, and that the application was amended to give it an entirely different 
direction and purpose from what it had in its original form." 

"By an adroit amendment made in 1885, they say, 'Our 

improvement relates more especially to the incandescing conductor, its 
substance, its form, and its combination with the other elements com- 
posing the lamp.' The purpose of this amendment is obvious and needs 
no comment." 

"The fact is that Sawyer & Man were unconscious that 

the arc was not new, and supposed that they could get a patent for it; but 
as their eyes were opened, they changed about and amended their appli- 
cation, and made the material of the conductor the greit object — carbon 
made from fibrous and textile material. Compare the original with the 
amended application, as first stated in this opinion, and this purpose most 
obviously appears." 

"The fact that the whole object of the application was 

changed, is evinced by the correspondence of the parties." 

"This testimony of Mr. Broadnax, which is undoubtedly 

to be relied on, in connection with the letter just quoted, shows that the 
idea of claiming carbons made from fibrous and textile materials was an 
after-thought, and was no part of the purpose of the original application. 



The amendments relating to this new and broad claim were made after- 
wards, in February and March, 1885. 

"We are of the opinion that the changes made in the application in 
this regard were not justifiable, and that the claim in question cannot be 
sustained." 

"We are not at all satisfied that Sawyer & Man ever 

made and reduced to practical operation any such invention as is set forth 
and claimed in the patent in suit. Their principal experiments were made 
in 1878, and perhaps the beginning of 1879. The evidence as to what they 
accomplished in the construction of electric lamps is so contradictory and 
suspicious that we can with diflBculty give credence to the conclusions 
sought to be drawn from it. We are not Satisfied that they ever 
produced an electric lamp with a burner of carbon made 
frova. fibrous material or any other material which was a 
success." 

"The application for the patent In suit was not 

made until January, 1880, nearly or quite a year after all 
their experiments had ceased, and after the inventions of 
Edison had been published to the world." 

"The explanations made by the complainants 

for the delay in applying for the patent in suit, fail to satisfy 
our minds that Sawyer & Man, or their assignees for them, 
have not sought to obtain a patent to which they were not 
legitimately entitled. 

"But suppose it to be true, as the supposed inventors and some of the 
other witnesses testify, that they did in 1878, construct some lamps with 
burners of carbon made of fibrous material and of an arched shape, which 
continued to give light for days or weeks, or months; still, were they a 
successful invention? Would any one purchase or touch them now? Did 
they not lack an essential ingredient which was necessary to their adoption 
and use? Did they go any further in principle, if they did in degree, than 
did other lamps which had been constructed before? It seems to us that 
they were following a wrong principle — the principle of small resistance 
in an incandescing conductor, and a strong current of electricity; and that 

the great discovery in the art was that of adopting high re- 
sistance in the conductor with a small illuminating surface 
and a corresponding diminution in the strength of the cur- 
rent. This was accomplished by Edison in his filamental 
thread like conductors, rendered practicable by the perfection 
of the vacuum in the globe of the lamp. He abandoned the old 
method of making the globe in separate pieces, cemented together, and 
adopted a globe of one entire piece of glass, into which he introduced 
small platinum conductors, fastened by fusion of the glass around them, 
thus being able to procure and maintain perhaps the most perfect vacuum 
known in the arts. In such a vacuum the slender filaments of carbon at- 
tenuated to the last degree of fineness, may be maintained in a state of 
incandescence without deterioration, for an indefinite time, and with a small 
expenditure of electric force. This was really the grand discov- 
ery in the art of electric lighting, without which it could 
not have become a practical art for the purposes of general 
use in houses and cities." 

"The principal and great thing described is the 

attenuated filament, and its inclosure in a perfect vacuum." 

"We think we are not mistaken in saying that 

but for this discovery electric lighting would never have 
become a fact. We have supposed, it to be the discovery of 
Edison, because he has a patent for it. This may not be the 
case; it may be the discovery of some other person. But 
whoever discovered It, it is undoubtedly the great discovery 
in the art of practical lighting by electricity." 

"The bill must be dismissed." 



PRICE OF LAMPS MUCH REDUCED. SEND FOROUR NEW PRICE LIST OF LAMPS. 



UNITED EDISON MFG. CO. 



65 FIFTH AVENUE. 



January i8, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 




TRADE HARK. 



42 La Salle St. 



CHICAGO. 



KEY AND KEYLESS 




-AND- 




I 



LAMPS 

FOB ALL SYSTEMS. 




A FULL STOCK OF 

LATEST 

Improved 
Specialties 




CHICAGO. 



4? La Salle St. 









42 La Salle St. 




taAD£ MABK. 



CHICAGO. 




LINE EQUIPMENT 



-FOB THE- 



TELEGBAPH 



-AND- 



TELEPHONE. 




FOR 



M Lighting, 

EleeWe M^my, 



And the Use of Electricity 
in all Branches. 



CHICAGO. 

4? La Salle St. 




n 



TRADE MARK. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January i8. 1890 




POWELL'S PATENT "SIGNAL" 

Dynamo Oilers, 

THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

SiKtit i.lnriih.T 1-. liucl with HU'iare wlinlnw 
['.ififi, wtiiid ;irt> -..TiTt'd tijf brtuiHt*>'il iilate.t. unil 
.ail r-f rnuxvpd tor iDsptL-UuD. cleaolnK t^r repalm 
.a 4iiy tliur. witliiiut Mi'ppine the oil feed, wbllo 
(Ur lUActiiDtf Is runiilnt;. 

MISITALTURKD DT 

THE WM. POWELL CO., 

NOS. SO. 52 AND 54 PLUM STREET, 

CINCINNATI, O. 

Pleiie send for Prices and Discounts. 




POND 



ENGINEERING CO. 

707 and 709 Market St., St. Louis. 
427 '-The Rookery," Chicago. 
31 Waterworks Building, Kansas C'ty. 
319 Ramge Building, Omaha. 
ENGINES, BOILERS, ETC., FOR DRIVING DYNAMOS. 

COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS CONTRACTED FOR. 

Erected Ready for Service. 

ISPRCf AI.TIE8 :-The AmlDgton & Sims KoKlne. Steel Boilers, Ireson Link Belt. S'snd- 
ftrd RocklDE and Sheffield (rrtttes, Lowe Ueater, Hyatt Filter, Blake Pomp, Kortlng Injector, etc. 

SEXD FOB I.A.TE8T CATAIiOCUES. 

WM b. Tl/MNER. J. LGSTUR WOODBKIUOE. 

inrOODBRIDGE & TURNER, 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 

COUPIiETE EqUIPXtENT OF ELECTRIC BAILWAl^S. 

Steam Plants 'or Electric Light and Power. Arc and Incandescent Lights Installed. 

D«*Hlgrn8 and EHtlmates Snbnilttefl. 



WESTERN ELECTRIC CO. 



DISQOE LeCLABCHE BAHERT. 




We are continually 
increaslrig the efficien- 
cy of our 

DISQUE LeCLANCHE 

BATTERY, 

And Guarantee It 

IN THE MARKET. 



AMES, CHERAR & CO., 

[1^ N. W. Agents, 

ST. PAUL, - MINN. 
Write for Revised Pricep. 



THE JULIE N ELECTRIC CO., '''"'^ta^t^S po^l'''''"' 
THE JULIEN ELECTRIC TRACTION CO., ^'iS^Sie^ 



The EMPIRE CITYELECTRIC CO. 

15 DEY STREET, 




Electrical 



Supplies. 



SEND FOR QUOTATIONS. 



A NEW BOOK 

Will be issued as soon as the Revisionary work is completed. 

ELECTRIC LAW, 

Edited l)y Fkkd H. WnirPLE. Price, handsomely printed acd bound, 110.00. 



The Electric Railway. Municipal Lighting. 

In paper, $1.00, Leather, |2.00, 

Whipple's National Electrical Directory. 

Price, $10 00. 



Whipple's Electrical Reports. 

Published Monthly. |3 00 per year. 



Address 



The FRED H. WHIPPLE CO., 

X>etx*olty Z^lola. 

Or any Electrical Journal or leading Book Store. 

New York Office, 1 8 Cortlandt Street. 



Western Agent, 

I. n. COLBURH & CO. 

Dynamos, Motors, Etc. 



Western Agent, 

A. F. MOORE S 

Wires and Cablet. 



G. A. HARMOUNT 

3l5--32i Wabash Ave., CHICAGO. ILL 



WHOLESALE DEALER IIV 



General ** Electrical ^ * Supplies, 

Manufacturer and Owner of the NEW PATENT 

MESSENGER and firE ALARM 
— SIGNAL ROXES 

WITH PUSH BUTTON CALLS. 



ells, Batteries, Buzzers, Buttons, Break wheels, Burners- 
Brackets, Burglar Alarms. 



Write 



lectroliers, Eccentric Clamps, Electricians' 
Tools, Extension Bells, Elevator Cables, 



For I 



pring Jacks, Signal Boxes, 
Silk Cord, Single Relays, 

Spark Coils, Switches, Splicing Tools. 

■elegraph 

Supplies, 
Thermostats, Ticket Cases, Telephone Tools, Tin Foil. 



January i8, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANTS 




-IN- 



Mills, Factories, Public Buildings, Hotels 

TI^E.^'riSES, ETC-, ETC. 



THE UNITED STATES 

ELECTRIC LIGHTING COMPANY 



(WESTINGIODSE ELECTRIC COMPANY, Itsstes.) 



More than One Thousand Plants in 

Operation. 



Equitable Building, New York City. 

Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"The Rookery," Chicago, III. 

American Central Building, St. Louis, Mo 
Mitchell Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

328 Montgozaery St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Eamm Building, Portland, Oregon. 

Dallas, Texas. 

Charlotte, N. 0. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January icS, 1890 




GENERHL- OFFICES: 

510 West 23d Street, 



January i8, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 




^I^ 



WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC 



PITTSBURGH, PA., U. S. A. 



ARC LIGHTING EXTRAORDINARY. 



Single Carbons requiring renewals only once in four days. 

The mains may be carried under-ground and have no electrical connection 
with the circuits and the lamps, embodying the same features of separation 
between the current in the street mains and that in the lamp, as is found in the 
incandescent system of The WESTINCHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY through 
its converter. 

The single carbon admits of a larger and more powerful arc than can be 
obtained from the ordinary two carbon lamp. 

The system fully covered by patents. 

The dynamo may be run all day on a short circuit. A short circuit on the 
line will not burn out an armature. 

The machine is self-regulating from one lamp to its full load, without any 
extraneous device. 

The saving in cost of carbon renewals In this system in the course of a 
short time would justify the entire replacement of any existing arc system by 
this new one. 



Boston, New York, Chicago, Cincinnati, San Francisco, 
Portland, St. Honis, Charlotte, Dallas. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 1890 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM. 

The Pioneer of Successful Electric Railways. 

The only Award given for Electric Railways at the Paris Exposition of 1889 was a 
GOLD MEDAL presented to the Sprague Elecuric Railway and Motor Company, for the 
most perfect system of Electric Railway Equipment. 



What are the Essential Features in any Comprehensive 
Electric Railway System? 

Main Feeders from Power Station. 

Main Conductor Feeding in Trolley Wire. 

Uniform Size of Trolley Wire, Independent of Length of 
Line, or Number of Cars Operated. 

AND WHY? 

BECA.USE, Thereby only can be secured Uniform Electrical Pres- 
sure. 

Absolute Reliability of Service. 

Non-interference with one section by interruptions upon any 
other. 



The Sprague Company will guarantee to operate a ten mile 
Thirty Car, Double Track System with 

Less Engine Power; 

Less Dynamo Capacity; 

Less Weight of Conductors; 

Less Loss in Distribution; 

Less Loss in Motors; 

OR IN WORDS THAT ARE UNDERSTOOD BY ALL, WITH 

More Car Miles per Ton of Coal Consumed; 

More Miles of Line with a Given Loss; 

More Territory Covered by a Given Outlay; 

More Reserve Capacity in a Given Plant; 

THAN CAN BE DONE WITH ANY OTHER SYSTEM. 



FEATURES OF A CORRECT MECHANICAL DESIGN OWNED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE SPRAGUE CO: 



Centering the Motor on the Driven Axle; 

Flexible Yielding Support for Relief of Strains; 
Universal Movement of the Trolley Pole; 

Single IJever Movement for Motor Control; 



NO COMPETITOR OF THE SPRAQUB 
COMPANY CAN MAKE A SIMILAR 
GUARANTEE, AND ACCOMPLISH 
IT TO THE LETTER. 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY & MOTOR COMPANY, 

Wos. 16 and 18 Broad St., iiew York. ; ; Rialio Building, Chicago. 

The Interior E lectrica l Conduit Co. 

A New and Improved llethod of Eqalppins Bnildlngs Avith an Insulated Tube Conduit for any t^yateni of Electric Wiring. 

OOnVE^BXJSrXJNTG;-: 

gy^PEXY — Absolnte immunity from elec#ic fires. 
ACCESSIBILITY— I*^rfect access to concealed \vires. 
ECONOMY— ^inall coBt ot installation, and freedom from fntnre expense. 
DURABILITY— Absolutely moisture-proof tube and appliances, insurin*; longevity of wires. 

CONVENIENCE— Syytenia of electric wiring may be laid out on original plans ;n a manner similar to that employed for gns, water and steam piping; the conductors may be drawn in at pleaBure. 

FOR CIRCGLARS. PRICK LIST AXD IXSTRrCTIONS, AD0RKSS, 



THE INTERIOR ELECTRICAL CONDUIT CO., 



154 AND 156 WEST 27TH ST., NEW YORK CITY. 




-T^E- 



mn umm co., 

PUSH-BUTTON 



TORRINGTON, CONN., 

AND 

95 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YIIRK, 




FUR TIIR 



Westertt ElectriciaD 

S ( .CO. 



FRANK T. BROWN, Late 

PRIHCIPAL EXiMlNER ELECTRICITY, 
D. S. PATENT OFFICE, -- - 

Bntterwortti, Hall, Brofn & Sniilli, 

I'ntent AttomcyH, 

26-26 HONOREBUILOING. - - CHICAGO. 

Twt> complete BetJ, of l'. s. Electrical Patents. 

.AI.I. SIZES 

AND 
QUALITIES 



MICA 



For Electrical Pnrposeis. 

EUGENE MUN SELL &00„ 

218 ■Water St., Now York. 



C.,B.i£Q.R.R. 

Hat^ been selected 

As the OfQclal Koute for paBeengera 

to the 

National Electric Light Association 

To be h*'ld In Kansas City, Pflb. 11, 12, 13 
iind 14, because It is the 

Best Appointed I.ine ! 



CHARLES MUNSON.PREsr. 
FRANKGMOSSfSECT STRESS. 




PlTTSBUf^GH . 

New York. 



F0REE(4a)BAIN, 

84 MARKET ST., CHICAGO, 

Electrical Expert^ 

DESIGN ER AND MANUFAC TURER. 

Special and Experimental 

MACHINERY . 

Large Dynamos and Motors for Special Work 

built lo Order. Coal Mining Ilaolage 

a Specialty. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT REPAIRING. 




^^^3a 



SanFrangisgo. 
New Orleans. 



28,30,32,34 & 36. S. CANAL Si. 



LOCKWOOD AMMETER 
- POLARITY INDICATOR 

For Arc and Incandescent Circuits. 



Lockwood Instrument Co., 

91 Griswold Street, 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY i8, 1890. 



No. 3 



East End Electric Light Company of 
Pittsburgh. 

Since the East End Electric Liglit company 
of Pittsburgh, Pa., finished its arc light plant, 
that central station of electric lighting has be- 
come one of the most important in the country. 
Commencing with a very small number of lights 
generated by the direct current system about 
three years ago, the company has constantly in- 
creased its plant until the buildings now cover 
an acre of valuable ground, stocked with 
machinery which operates no less than 16,000 
incandescent lights and 4S0 arc lamps. The 
company was organized January 20, 1886. At 
that time the plant consisted of a three hundred 



From the day of its operation, the business of 
the company increased very rapidly. The com- 
pany made a specialty of furnishing electric 
lights in private houses and was particularly 
successful in that field. Applications became 
so large and so urgent that repeated increases 
in the plant were made. The company then 
deemed it advisable to go into the arc light 
business. A lot adjoining the incandescent 
plant was purchased, and in February, 1889, 
ground was broken for the building of the arc 
light plant. This plant was finished a few 
weeks ago. The arc light plant, which is shown 
in Fig. I, is located in a lofty, well-lighted hall 
of large dimensions. The floor is covered with 



plied by natural gas, which is maintained at a 
uniform pressure of twelve ounces. The en- 
gines are all of the Westinghouse type. The 
arc light plant has been built to admit of 
machinery for a capacity of 1,000 arc lights. 

The incandescent plant shown in Fig. 2 is 
large enough to hold si.x three thousand light 
alternating current machines and two exciters. 
The apparatus is arranged in about the same 
way as the arc light machinery. Everything is 
located on one floor, so that the entire plant 
may be seen from any point in the building. 
The advantage of this is obvious when it is 
considered that on this account the company 
only requires one engineer during the day and 




FIG. I. EAST END ELECTRIC LIOHT COMPANY OF PITTSBURGH — ARC PLANT. 



light Westinghouse direct current dynamo and a 
45 horse-power Westinghouse automatic engine. 
In June, 1887, the directors of the company de- 
cided to adopt the Westinghouse alternating 
current system. A new building for the central 
station was erected on Broad street. East End, 
and this structure was equipped with Westing- 
house alternating current apparatus of a capacity 
of 3,900 lights. Two 1,300 light dynamos were 
placed in the structure as well as two 650 light 
machines, with two one hundred and fifty horse- 
power and two seve"nty-five horse-power West- 
inghouse automatic engines. In addition, two 
AVestinghouse No. 8 e.xciters driven by twenty- 
five horse-power Westinghouse automatic stand- 
ard engines were used. Four one hundred 
horse-power Riter & Conley boilers represented 
the steam battery of the plant. The most im- 
proved electrical appliances were utilized in 
fitting up the plant, and when, in March, 1888, 
operations were commenced, it was generally 
conceded that the station was a model plant. 



asphalt. As the view shows, there are two rows 
of electric light machines; six Waterhouse arc 
light dynamos of thirty-five lights capacity each 
are arranged on each side of the room. At the 
farther end of the room is the new sixty light 
machine of the Westinghouse arc light system. 
Each machine is placed upon a platform of 
brown colored wood. 

Behind the machines runs an underground 
conduit into which all the wires from the dyna- 
mos are conducted. From this conduit, they 
run to the switch-board and then to the top of 
the building into a cupola, from which point 
they are distributed over the overhead mains 
and lines on the streets. 

A small door from the dynamo department 
leads into the boiler room. There are two 
batteries of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers each. 
Each has a capacity of two hundred and forty 
horse-power. The boilers are so piped that 
each boiler or battery can be used either inde- 
pendently or together. The boilers are sup- 



one fireman, while at night only two engineers 
are necessary. 

The company furnishes four hundred houses 
with 7,000 lights. All customers are fur- 
nished an alternating current meter. The 
company supplies fourteen churches with the 
electric current. The farthest incandescent 
lamp is situated five miles from the central 
station. 

The switch-board in the incandescent plant 
also deserves attention on account of the ease 
with which it can be operated. Its entire 
arrangements are placed in a row on one 
wall. 

The officers of the company are: A. T. Row- 
and, president; J. R. Van Wagener, vice presi- 
dent; G. P. Shane, secretary and treasurer; J. A. 
E. Hoeveler, superintendent of construction; 
A. H. Lucas, chief engineer. 



The Studebaker Wagon company has installed a new 
200 horse power dynamo in its works at South Bend, Ind. 



26 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 1890 



Western Union Building at St Louis 
Destroyed by Fire. 
The Western Union Telegraph building in St. 
I.ouis was destroyed by fire January 6th. The 
origin of the fire is attributed to a cross between 
the wires of the district messenger service which 
enter the building on the first floor and an elec- 
tric light wire. Whether this was the cause or 
not, the fire started in the messenger office, and 
the several floors were soon enveloped in flames. 
The fire spread to the adjoining buildings, the 
upper stories of which were occupied by the 
Western Union Telegraph company. It is an 
old structure, and the flames spread with such 
rapidity that the operators in the upper stories 
had a narrow escape. Some of them rushed 
down the stairways and others made use of the 
fire escape. The Western Union sustained a 
heavy loss. The entire plant was totally de- 
stroyed. All the instruments, together with a 
large amount of battery and copper wire and 



strung into the new quarters, but it was found 
impossible to operate them, owing to lack of in- 
struments. The wires leading to the cupola of 
the old building were all right, but had connec- 
tions been made, the lack of instruments would 
have prevented the working of them. A force 
of men was sent to the Relay Depot, in East St. 
Louis, where the wires which centered at that 
point were cut, connections made and business 
dispatched across the bridge by messenger. On 
the following day a large number of instruments 
from Chicago was received, and the work was 
disposed of in regular order. 



Eastern Delegates to the Kansas City 
Electric Light Convention, 

In the last number of the Western Ei.ec- 
TKici.\N it was stated that the secretary of the 
Chicago Electric club had been authorized by 
the Board of Managers to extend an invitation 



to the Kansas City convention of this association to accept 
1 he hospitality of the Chicago Electric club on Monday, 
Kebruar)- loth. I have accepted this very courteous 
in%'ilation on your behalf. \'ou will receive under separate 
cover a communication from Clarence IC. Stump, chairman 
transportation committee, giving full particulars relative to 
the ".Special Electric Limited" Pullman train, which will be 
run for the accommodation of delegates and their friends 
from New York to Kansas City, leaving New York Sun- 
day morning, remaining in Chicago on Monday, and 
arriving in Kansas City Tuesday morning. You are 
earnestly requested to promptly respond to the above 
named communication, and thereby enable the New York 
transportation committee to carry out their somewhat diffi- 
cult task, to the best advantage. Delegates from New 
England will communicate with f-red A (_iilbert, of 
Boston, who is chairman of the New England transpor- 
tation committee . 

C. E. Stump of New York, has issued a cir- 
cular relative to the special train for the Kansas 
City convention, from which the following ex- 
tract is made: 

For the benefit of delegates and others attending the 
eleventh convention of the National Electric Light associa- 




2. l-lA.S'r E.NU ELECTRIC LIGHl" COMPANV, IMT'ISUU RCIl — .M.TERNA'llNC SVS'l'li.M 



considerable paper were utterly ruined by the 
fire and water. Mr. Bohle, the local manager, 
stated that it was impossible to tell what the 
e.'cact damage would foot up. The company car- 
ried no insurance. 

Before the fire was fairly under control, the 
Western Union company began to make prepa- 
rations for temporary (|uarters where business 
might be handled. A building on Pine street 
was secured, and the work of stringing wires 
at once begun. For a long time all business 
was refused, and as a consetjuence the Postal 
company had its hamls full taking care of the 
telegraph business. The work of putting in 
batteries and transferring wires and cables was 
pushed rapidly by the Western Union people, 
and by 3:50 p. m. they had one wire working to 
Chicago. It was a very unsatisfactory wire, 
however, and no messages were received for 
transmission over it unless they were filed with 
the distinct understanding that they were sub- 
ject to delay. .Ml the books and messages re- 
ceived during the night were saved, and the 
other books and papers were in the vault and 
were saved from damage by fire or water. 

Two cables of twenty conductors each were 



to the eastern delegates to the Kansas City Elec- 
tric Light convention to lunch with the club 
Monday, February loth. This invitation has 
since been extended to the eastern delegates 
and has been accepted on their behalf by Allan 
V. Carratt, secretary of the National Electric 
Light association and Geo. F. Porter, the gen- 
eral manager of the transportation committees. 
The acceptance of this invitation will necessitate 
a change in the time at which the special train 
from the east will leave Chicago for Kansas 
City. The train will now leave Chicago for 
Kansas City with the Chicago coaches attached 
about five o'clock on the evening of February 
loth instead of in the morning, as originally 
planned. This will give the eastern delegates a 
full day in Chicago and enable them to partake 
of the Electric club's hospitality. It will also 
enable the eastern and western delegates to go 
on to Kansas City from Chicago on the same 
train. 

Secretary Garratt has sent the following cir- 
cular to eastern members of the National Elec- 
tric Light association: 

I am in receipt of an official communication from W. A. 
Kreidler. secretary, invitirg the eastern delegates t'« joh/l- 



tion, 10 be held at Kansas City, February nth- 14th, ar- 
rangements have been made with the Pennsylvania railrcad 
to provide a magnificent vestibule train lo be known as the 
"Electric Limited " to be run through without change lo 
Kansas City, via Chicago and the Chicago, Burlington Ov; 
Quincy railroad. This train will leave Jeisey City Sunday, 
February 9th, at 9:45 A. M., sharp, arriving at Chicago Mon- 
day morning at 9 A. M. Monday will be spent in Chicago, 
the Chicago f-^lectric club having kindly invited the Eastern 
delegates to enjoy its hospitality during their stay in that 
city. The "Electric Limited" will leave Chicago Monday 
evening at 5 o'clock, arriving at Kansas City early Tuesday 
morning. Passengers should be careful to take the ferry 
at foot of Cortlandt or Desbrosses streets. New York, not 
later than 9:30 A. M. .Sunday morning. No effort has been 
spared by the transportation committee in obtaining the 
very best equipment, and the committee is assured that 
this train will be the finest ever run out of New York. 

Western delegates starting from Chicago can 
secure berths on the special train by addressing 
W. VV. King, city passenger and ticket agent of 
the Chicago, Burlijigton iv Quincy railroad, 
Clark and Adams streets, Chicago. 



An effort is being made by the new street car company 
at I^ochester, N. Y'., to secure the electric railway between 
Rochester and Ontario Keach. The capital stock of this 
company is $.100,000 and it has proved a most valuable 
investment to the owners. 



January iS, [890. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



27 



Switch for Constant Potential Motors. 

The accompanying cuts illustrate a simple 
switch designed to be used in connection with 
constant potential motors. In starting the ordi- 
nary constant potential motor by means of the 
usual form of resistance box, the field circuit is 
first made, and then the current is thrown grad- 
ually upon the armature. This action leaves the 
switch lever on the bo.\ in its final position, /. <:, 
with all the resistance cut out of the armature 




FIG. I. SWITCH FOR CONSTANT TOTENTIAL MOTORS. 

circuit. In stopping, the operator first breaks 
the main circuit and then turns the switch lever 
back to its first position ready for another start. 
Very often, however, the operator forgets to 
turn the lever back, and when the time comes to 
start the motor, turns the main switch, and thus 
throws the full current into the armature before 
it has time to generate its counter electromo- 
tive force, and thus reduce the current flowing 
through it. The result of this is that either the 
armature is burned out or the fusible plugs put 
in for its protection are blown. The switch here 
described was designed to overcome this diffi- 
culty. The manner in which the device is ren- 
dered automatic, will be readily understood 
from a glance at the cuts. The contact blocks 
connecting with the resistance coils are arranged 
about the fulcrum of the switch lever as shown. 
Attached to the lever is a coiled spring which is 
so arranged that it tends to swing the lever 
around to its starting position and thus bring 
the resistance in circuit with the armature. In 
the body of the switch is set a horseshoe electro- 
magnet. The switch lever is pivoted at one 
pole of this magnet and is in reality its armature. 
The magnet is connected in the field magnet 
circuit. The action of the device will now be 
readily understood: As the lever reaches the last 
segment, the armature of the electro-magnet 
rests upon the other pole of the magnet, and is 
thus held by it against the action of the spring, 
which tends to bring the lever back. The coils 
of the electromagnet being in series with the 
field, the lever will remain in this position as 
long as the field circuit and main circuit are not 
broken. When the main circuit is broken, 
whether accidentally or, as usual, by the opera- 
tion of the main switch, the motor will gradually 
slow down, and when it has nearly stopped the 
le.er will fly back to its original position by the 
action of the spring. The switch is the inven- 
tion of H. H. Blades of Detroit, Mich. 



The Rhode Island and New Hampshire 
State Electric Lighting Associations. 

The central station companies doing business 
in the state of Rhode Island, organized a state 
association January 7th. A majority of the com- 
panies and about 75 per cent, of the capitaliza- 
tion in the state was represented at the meeting. 
Letters were read from the officers of companies 
who could not attend, expressing their approval 
of the movement, and pledging their co-opera- 
tion. The organization was effected by the 
election of the following officers:. President, 
Samuel P. Colt, Bristol Electric Light company; 
secretary, Samuel G. Stiness, Pawtucket Gas & 
Electric Light company; treasurer, Marsden J. 
Perry, Narragansett Electric Lighting company. 
The ofiicers of the association constitute its ex- 
ecutive committee. 

The central station companies of New Hamp- 
shire held a meeting to organize a state associa- 



tion Thursday, January 9th. The response to 
the call for the meeting w-as almost unanimous. 
Nearly every company in the state was repre- 
sented, either in person or by letter. A careful 
estimate showed that over 80 per cent, of the 
capital employed in central station lighting in 
the state was represented in person. The desi- 
rability of organizing a state association was 
discussed, and the proposal to organize at once 
was cordially indorsed. The organization was 
effected by the adoption of by-laws and the 
election of the following officers: President, 
Alonzo Elliott. Manchester: vice-president, F. 
W. Eastabrook, Nashua; secretary and treasurer, 
Edgar Woodman, Concord. Executive commit- 
tee: Alonzo Elliott, Manchester; F. W. Easta- 
brook, Nashua; H. W. Burgett, Dover. A reso- 
lution was adopted directing the secretary to 
send an invitation, with a blank application for 
membership, to every central station company in 
the state. After the adjournment of the meeting 
President Elliott's invitation to partake of a 
dinner, was accepted. 



Storage Battery in a Dental Off.ce. 

The accompanying cut of Dr. T. L. Gilmer's 
dental office in Chicago furnishes an interesting 
illustration of the adaptability of the storage 
battery to dental and other work of a similar 
character. About a year ago Dr. Gilmer de- 
cided to put in an electric motor to drive his 
dental engine. As no satisfactory arrangement 
with a local electric light company could be 
made, he decided to use the storage battery, and 
gave his order to the Pumpelly Storage Battery 
& Electric Motor company. This company fur- 



push buttons. These are placed on the floor 
just beneath the back of the chair, so as to be 
within easy reach of the operator's foot. One 
button throws the battery on without resistance, 
and therefore gives the highest speed at the 
motor. The other button, however, makes a 
connection between battery and motor through 
a length of comparatively fine copper wire. 
This latter arrangement gives a slower speed. 
When it is desired to change the direction of 
rotation of the engine, it is only necessary to 
move the small handle slightly at the motor 
brushes. The battery shown in the cut has been 




FIG. 2 SWITCH FOR CONSTANT POTENTIAL .MOTORS. 

running about twenty-three days. It may be 
mentioned that the performance of both the 
battery and motor has thus far proved most 
satisfactory. 



Meeting of the New York Board of Elec- 
trical Control. 

After nearly three months' inactivity during 
which time the property of the electrical com- 
panies of the city was ruthlessly destroyed by 
city employes, the New York Board of Electri- 




STORAGE 13ATTERY I.N A DENTAL OFFICE. 



nished him with two of its 23M type cells which 
were inclosed in a neat wooden case, as shown 
in the cut. The two cells together deliver cur- 
rent at a pressure of from 4 to 5 volts. The 
motor used is a }i horse power 8 volt reversible 
C. & C. machine. Power from the motor is trans- 
mitted to an Elliott suspension engine by means 
of a cord running over pulleys, as shown. The 
motor is controlled by means of two ordinary 



cal Control met last week to prepare its report 
to the governor and legislature. A truthful re- 
port of the proceedings of this body would prove 
a most interesting document, as it would show 
the dilly-dallying policy that has been followed 
and prove the inefficiency of the board to cope 
with the work in hand. But it was not the in- 
tention of this ornamental body to present a 
faithful report of its proceedings; it is merely a 



28 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 18, 1890 



continuation of a policy heretofore followed. 
It does not speak of the injustice of its action in 
cutting the wires of electric companies before 
providing conduits for them and its refusal to 
permit them to build their own conduits when 
the .Subway company acknowledged its inability 
to keep pace with the demand. Here is an e.\- 
tract from its report: 

It is fouDil that the condition of the overhead wires in the 
city is very bad. The rules and regulations of Ihe Hoard 
of Klectrical Control are violated tverjwhere. Unneces- 
sar)- and "dead" poles and wires make up from 30 to 50^^ 
of all those existing. The poles made use of and the meth- 
od of construction, as well as the way in which the wires 
are strung, are not in accordance with proper principles, 
nor in harmony with the character of the buildings along 
the sKeets. nor of a ilescription enabling the freest possible 
use of the streets for other purposes. The wires are almost 
uniformly dangerous, especially those devoted to the elec- 
tric light service. They obstruct the lire department: the 
poles arc found duplicated by other lines alongside of 
them, where one line would be ample for the business of 
l>oth. The wires cross streets anti enter building- irregu- 
larly, instead of at right angles, as they should: the poles 
are crooked, unpainled. ditTcrent in size and shape; the 
crosS-arms upon them are irregular, and the entire con- 
struction is unsighl'y and improper. As an instance of the 
utter recklessness and carelessness of the companies. Ihty 
have in every possible case, e.Kcept where they could gain 
or save something, thrown upon the city the burden and 
expense of removing the poles and wires which were un- 
necessary to them. 

Mayor Grant opposed the adoption of this re- 
port. Its statements were conflicting, he said, 
and he refused to indorse it. The other com- 
missioners, however, outvoted him. Henrv S. 
Kearney, engineer of the board, presented his 
report, in which he said the condition of the sub- 
ways was satisfactory in the main. This formed 
the subject of another spat between lite mayor 
and the commissioners. When the mayor called 
-Mr. Kearney's attention to the report presented 
by the engineer in October, 1S87, in which refer- 
ence was made to a map showing the progress 
of the work on Eighth and Third avenues, and 
which he had failed to produce. Commissioner 
(jibbens undertook Mr. Kearney's defence. The 
mayor persisted in his deinand for an explana- 
tion of the manner in which the business had 



commissioner, and he hastily withdrew a resolu- 
tion he had offered in favor of adopting Engi- 
neer Kearney's recommendations. The engineer 
was instructed to confer with the comtiiissioner 
of public works regarding the extension of the 
subways. 

The report of the electrical e.\pcrt which was 
read, is an exhaustive one. The total mileage of 
wire operated underground by the various com- 
panies is given as i 2,30s. It contiiuies: "The 
results of the use of the underground conductors 
in the subways are very satisfactory. The tests 
of the conductors used for high tension currents 
show that there is no deterioration perceptible in 
the cables by reason of such use as they have been 
subjected to, in some instances, for six months 
Whenever imperfections in the underground 
circuits have been ascertained as existing, by the 
tests furnished by the companies, they have 
proved due to bad workmanship in making 
joints and connections, or the exposure of the 
ends of cables to the weather." .\ modification 
of the subway rules is recommended in order to 
enable the Construction company to compel the 
compliance of the companies with the provisions 
for the furnishing of tests of underground con- 
ductors. 

The report states that the condition of the 
overhead wires is still very unsatisfactory and 
that an immense amount of unnecessary and im- 
proper electrical construction still remains. The 
Department of Public Works has removed to 
date 3,007 poles and 2,827 iriiles of wire, as 
against 1,765 poles and 2,788 miles of wire re- 
moved by the companies. 

A resolution was adopted requiring Kxpert 
Wheeler to report to the board the location of 
all dead wires and directing the Commissioner 
of Public Works to remove them. 



Compound High Speed Engine. 

The accompanying cut illustrates the general 
design of a new coinpound high-speed engine, 
which is being introduced by Mcintosh, Sey- 



made much heavier than for ordinary work. It 
is provided with a larger shaft and greater length 
of bearings, and the tly-wheels are made nearly 
double the weight of those furnished for ordi- 
nary purposes. We are indebted to the Stn-rf 
Railway Gazelle for the illustration. 



Sir William Thomson's Ampere Gauge. 

Sir William Thomson's new ampere gauge is 
shown in the accompanying illustration. The 
following description is taken fnmi llic London 




Slli Wll LI AM 



Electrician : The ampere gauge is of simple 
construction, having a vertical base-plate of 
paraffined marble, to which are attached a 
solenoid of special form; brass bearing piates 
supporting a balance which carries a soft iron 
plunger on its one arm and a bra.ss counterpoise 
weight on the other; a brass arc having a scale 
graduated to give direct readings in amperes: 
a hinged arm which bears a light checker. The 




been conducted, and Commissioner Gibbens 
linallysaid: "The manner in which this board 
does its business, is to be decided bv the board 
itself." 

"I called attention to it," retorted the mayor, 
"because I regarded that as a very loose and 
careless way of doing business. I want Ihe rec- 
ords .so kept that a glance will be sufficient to 
tell when work was ordered, when it was begun, 
how far it extended, and when it was finished. 
It is impo.ssible to do this in regard to the Third 
.ind Eighth avenue subways. I don't believe 
the work there was done under proper regula- 
tions, and I want to go on record as being op- 
posed to that system." 

This proved a disagreeable surprise for the 



cuMi'oiiNii inoii ii'iii-;u k.ncim;. 

mour iV- Co. of Auburn, N. Y. This engine is 
of the horizontal tandem type. Its chief pecu- 
liarity lies in the position of the valves and their 
gearing; the high pressure valve being on one 
side of the engine and the low pressure valve 
being on the other. This disposition of parts 
makes it an easy matter to reach the moving 
portions of the mechanism and avoids what 
might otherwi.se be a very complicated arrange- 
ment. The low pressure valve is moved by a 
fixed eccentric. The valves are of the piston 
type, and are all provided with adjustable seats. 
The governor is tpiite sim|)le. Without any ten- 
dency to over-sensitiveness, it will regulate the 
speed of the engine, it is claimed, within one per 
cent. For electric railway .service this engine is 



.solenoid is built up of copper plates with mica 
insulation between them, and is fixed to the 
base plate so that its core is vertical. The bal- 
ance is supported on knife edges at such a dis- 
tance below the .solenoid that the top end of the 
plunger is slightly entered into the core. The 
plunger is made from a thin soft iron wire about 
20 centimeters long, and is supported by a 
cross-bar with two hooks on it which pass over 
two knife-edge stirrups on the arm of the bal- 
ance. It has a brass weight hung on its lower 
end in order to keep it in a vertical position and 
prevent its being attracted against the side of 
the solenoid. An indicating needle, or pointer, 
formed from a strip of platinoid, pas.ses down 
from the trunnion of the balance to the brass 



January iS, 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



29 



arc bearing the graduated scale. As the plun- 
ger is attracted upward this pointer passes 
round the scale, and indicates the strength of 
current passing through the solenoid. 

Several types of the ampere gauge are made 
covering a range from .5 to 500 amperes, and 
are available as measures of electric current on 
either direct or alternating circuits. They are 
standardized by direct comparison with Sir 
William Thomson's standard electric balances, 
and when the instrument is intended for alter- 
nating currents the graduation is made to suit 
the period of alternation in use on the circuit 
for which it is desired. 



Double Carbon Arc Lamp. 

The cuts presented herewith illustrate the 
mechanism of the double carbon arc lamp of 
the Western Electric company, Chicago. The 
lamp is the invention of C. E. Scribner, of the 
Western Electric company. The object of the 
designer was, to .use his own words, "to improve 
the action of double carbon arc lamps so that a 
uniform length of arc may be maintained dur- 
ing the whole time the lamp is burning, and at 
the same time render the lamp more sensitive 
and certain in its operation." 

This is accomplished by relieving the set of 
carbons that may be burning, whether one set 
or the other, from the weight or influence of the 
idle set. By thus relieving the special regulating 
mechanism of the set that is burning from the 
influence or weight of the mechanism of the 
other set, the arcs of the different sets are kept 
practically of the same average length, at the 
same time the lamp is caused to burn, whether 
one set or the other may be in service, until 
both sets of carbons are consumed. 

-\ feature in the lamp is that the action of the 
feeding and regulating mechanism is precisely 
the same whether the arc is burning on one 
side or upon the other, and it is matter of in- 
difference determined by the accidental resist- 
ance of the two sets of carbons which set takes 
the arc when current is first closed through the 
lamp. 

Referring to the cuts, Fig. i is a side elevation 
partly in section. Fig. 2 is a diagram showing 
the circuits of the lifting magnet, MM', the car- 
bons and the retaining magnets LL'. The 
same letters designate like parts in the three 
cuts. 

The action of the lamp is as follows: When 
the current is switched on, the armature B, Fig. 
I, is pulled down and rests on the magnet MM. 




FIG. 2. DOUBLE CARBON ARC LAMP. 

As B descends it lifts, by means of rod R and 
another lever, both shown in Figs, i and 3, the 
two independent levers N. These levers carry 
the clutches C and C. The retaining magnets 
LL now come into play. These magnets are 
provided with circuits arranged, as shown in 
Fig. 2; so that when one arc is burning the re- 
taining magnet of the idle pair of carbons will 
be in circuit with it. When the lamp is first 
brought into circuit, the central lifting lever or 
yoke is raised, and with it both clutch levers, so 
as to separate at the same time the- members of 
the two sets of caibons. Now for reasons well 
understood, two arcs will not persist in different 
sides of the same parallel circuit. Therefore, 
only one persisting arc is formed, the location 
as between one set or the other being de- 
termined by the accidental resistance in the 
different sides of the parallel circuit. The 
members of the pair which do not take the arc 
are, however, separated, and the armature of the 



clutch-lever of the idle rod, say A', is brought 
within the active influence of the pole of its re- 
taining magnet. This retaining magnet, as be- 
fore stated, is now energized and is of sufficient 
force to attract its armature, thus lifting the 
clutch-lever of the idle rod from the yoke or 
central lifting lever. In this position the clutch- 
lever of the idle rod is held, until the carbons 
of the first set are practically consumed. The 
arc is shifted to the other set in the following 
manner: The rod of the pair first. to burn is 
provided with a stop, which comes against the 
frame of the lamp, preventing any further feed- 
ing of the upper carbon. The arc increases in 
length until finally it goes out. 'l"he arc being 
thus extinguished, its circuit is interrupted and 
the retaining magnet of the other set is demag- 
netized, thus permitting the clutch-lever of the 
unburned set to fall. The fresh set of carbons 




FIG. I. DOUBLE CARBON ARC LAMP. 

thus brought together, the circuit is again estab- 
lished through the lamp. The lifting magnet, 
MM', performs its function of separating the 
second set of carbons, and the new arc is es- 
tablished, while at the same time the retaining 
magnet A of the first set is brought into service. 
The armature of the clutch-lever of the first set, 
being brought within the active influence of the 
pole of its retaining magnet, is attracted and 
the weight of its clutch and rod is taken ofl:' 
from the central lifting lever. Thus the set of 
carbons last to burn is relieved from the in- 
fluence of the rod, clutch, and clutch-lever of 
the burned set. 

The automatic cut-out and feeding mechan- 
ism also serves to shift the arc from one set 
to the other when the first set of carbons is 
consumed. This shifting mechanism will be 
readily understood b)' reference to Fig. i, in 
which are shown the contact points at N. These, 
when closed, form a circuit through the resist- 
ance shown at the center of the lamp. 

In case the length of the arc is increased 
beyond the normal, more and more current is 
shunted through the feed-magnet S, Fig. i, 
until its armature F is attracted sufficiently to 
cause the central lever attached to R to descend 
below the point at which a feed would take 
place if the rod were not held by its stop, and 
when this lever is thus caused to descend, the 
contacts will be together. These points being 
closed, the lamp is shunted through the resist- 
ance and the arc extinguished. The retaining 
magnet which was included in circuit with the 
arc thus put out will thereupon lose its magnet- 
ism. The armature of this retaining magnet is 
thereupon released, and the clutch-lever which 
had been held by this armature falls and rests 
upon the central lever, and the carbon-rod is re- 
leased. The circuit is thus established through 
the second set of carbons. The retaining mag- 
net L being included in the arc thus established, 
its armature A will be raised, thereby lifting the 
rod and upper carbon of this set. The central 
levers will be thus relieved from their weight. The 



lamp will then continue to burn until the carbons 
of the second set are consumed. Then the rod 
of the second set will be held by its stop until 
finally the lamp will be again cut out, this time 
permanently, by the automatic cut-out. 



Border Land of Science. 

The following is an extract from Prof. R. H. 
Thurston's article on "The Border-Land of 
Science" which appeared in the January North 
Amcruan Review. 

"We are already familiar with the telegraph, 
transmitting messages across land and under 
sea, around the world; we have even discovered 
a method of sending over its wires \h& fae simile 
of a written, or a printed, or an engraved page; 
the hand which writes a letter at one end of the 
line is imitated at the other by the pen of the 
lightning, and his every line, curve, and dot and 
dash exactly reproduced under the eye of his 
waiting correspondent. Who knows but that 
the time may come when his portrait may go 
with his letter, or even the words of his mouth, 
sent through line of telephone, be apparently 
the issue of the familiar face speaking, like a 
voice from the Arabian Nights, across the World? 
The Morses, the Bells, and the Edisons of 
coming 3'ears may be relied on to perform no 
less wonders than those which now astonish us; 
and the phonographs and graphophones of later 
days and of future ages will record in their own 
voices and their own language, for all the etern- 
ities of earth-existence, their thoughts and their 
triumphs, in dormant, but ever-living form. 
The great electricians of to-day are teaching us 
how to convert the energy of the steam engine 
into the newer form and to apply it to the illum- 
ination of our streets and our dwellings, and to 
employ it in the operation of all the machinery 
of shop and mill and home. The time may yet 
come when, by the employment of this wonder- 
ful conveyer of power, the energy of all the 
coal mines, or of the immeasurable tons and 
tons of water pouring over that tremendous 
precipice of Niagara into the abysses of the 
whirlpool and the rushing rapids below — over 
three millions of horse-power — may be trans- 
mitted along a copper wire to distant cities to 
furnish the motive power of factories, of work- 
shops, and of innumerable home industries, 
doing its share of the great work yet to be per- 
formed, of breaking up the present factory 
system and enabling the home-worker once 
more to compete on living terms with great 
aggregations of capital in unscrupulous hands. 




I'IG. 3. DOUBLE C.-VRBON ARC LAMP. 

Great steam engines will undoubtedly become 
generally the sources of power in our larger 
cities, and will send out over the electric wire, 
into every corner of the town, their Briarean 
arms, helping the sewing woman at her machine, 
the weaver at his pattern loom, the mechanic at 
his engine lathe, giving every house the me- 
chanical aids needed in the kitchen, the laundry, 
the elevator, and, at the same time, giving light, 
and possibly even heat, in liberal quantity and 
intensity. It may become a more powerful 
genius than was ever dreamed of by Schehe- 
razade, and described in the 'Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments.' " 



The Citizens' Electric Street Railway cotnpany. Cham- 
paign, II!., has been incorporated to operate a street rail- 
way: capital stock $150,000. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Taiiuarv iS, 1890 




EVERY SATURDAY. 



l»UBI,ICJi-TIOII OKyiCES: 

6 Lakeside Building. - - CHICAGO 

Trlfplionr 17-IG. 

W. A. KKEIDLEK. Editor and Piibli(*her. 

J. \V. DICKERSON, i 

.1. B O'HARA. -Aesociftle Editors. 

h\ h. TERRV. \ 

A. C. UL'KBOKOW, JR.. Bueinese Manager. 

Eastern Office: 125 Temple Couet,Ne\vYouk. 

W. II. Teuple, Manager. 

Trade Supplied by Western News Co. 

COPYHIOHT. -Not onlv thf title, hut the er.Cir^ cofffTil-i of 
carh niiiiil>fr>r of Hn* Wbstbkn Electrician are copyrighted. 
This iiwptT If" entered at the Chicago Poatoftlce as mall matter of 
the h^econd class. 

BtlBSCKIPTlON. In advance, postage prepaid, $3-00 for a full 
year of :i2 numhers: in cluhs of four or more. ^.50. with free 
extra copy for eisht snhscripllons; foreign coantriee,S5.00ayear; 
elnelp copies, 10 centa When chance of address is requested, the 
old address as well as the new should be given. 

COKKE8PONDENCE relatinL' to electricity, or any of ite prac- 
tical applirationf. i^ conllallv inviti-il, and the co-operation of all 
eIiTtri<Hl thinkf^^ anil workers eurneetly desired. Clear, con- 
cise, well written articles ar*^ especially welcome: and communi- 
cations, views, news it«'ms, local newspaper clippings, or anv in- 
formation likelv to interest flfctricians, will be thankfully 
received and clie'erfully acknowledged. 

ADVERTISING.— The WesTKIIN ELECTRICIAN— I/i*- o*it)f (fi»- 
ernl eleftricnt paper ftiihUsliffl in »/**• ITz-j*'- thoroughly 
covers a terrilory excn/ufvi'hj itit own. This is a cladi wiiini can 

BE >IAI>E BY NO nTIIKIt El.KfTT.irAL .loLTtNAL IN THE UNITED 

States. Electrical niprchants and manufacturers tfesirinn Wfs'- 
frr, trad* will appreciate the uneqi'alei) value of this journal 
HJ> an adverlieine medium in its special field. Advertisinc: rates 
are moderate, and will he promjitly furnished on application. 



contents of this number. 

TAGS 

Kasl Knd Electric Liyht Company of Pittsburg. Illustrated. .^5, 26 

Weslerti Union Building at St. Louis Destroyed by Fire 36 

Kastcrn Delegates to the Kansas City Electric Light Convention 

26, 27, 

Switch for Constant Potential Motors. Illustrated 27 

The Rhode Island and New Hampshire Electric Light Associa- 
tions -^7 

Storage Battery in a Dental OITice. Illustrated 27 

Meeting of the New Vork Board of Electrical Control 27, 28 

Corapotind High Speed F.ngine. Illustrated 28 

^ir William Thomson's Ampere tiauge. Illustrated 28, 29 

Double Carbon Lamp. Illustrated 29 

Border I-ind of Science 29 

Editorial 30 

Underground Work at Nostell Priory. Illustrated 31 

Proposed Wiring Regulations in Boston 31 

Forming Secondary Battcr>- Plates. Illustrated 31 

Mayor Grant and the 0%-erhead Wires in New Vork 31, 32 

Investigation ofthe Electrical Industry for the Eleventh Census, 

by Allen R. Footc 32 

I >uty lui Copper 32, 33 

F.lectrical Exhibits from the United States at the Paris Exposi- 
tion, by Carl Hering : 33 

Chicago Klectric Club— Discussion of Dr. I-ouis Bell's paper on 

Compounding Dynamos for Constant Potential 33, 34 

DEPAKT.nBMIIi. 

Correspondence 34, 35 

The Electric Light 35 

The F.Iectric Motor 35, 36 

The Telegraph 36 

Electrical Patents 36 



The jireat importance of the United .States 
electrical exhibits at the Paris K.xposition is 
shown in an article by Carl Hering, presented on 
another page. 



In an article in this issue, .Mien R. l^'oute 
speaks at considerable length of the importance 
of the electrical department of the eleventh 
census, of which he has cliarge. 



St. I.oi'is has had a hard time with its wires 
during the last ten days. Kirst came a storm 
which demoralized the circuits of all the com- 
|)anies. Then the destruction by fire of the 
Western Union plant rendered useless the great 
majority of the telegraph wires. To complete 
the misery of the companies the blizzard of last 
.Sunday played havoc with all the wires in the 
city. - 

.\n article in another column dealing with the 
copper (juestion merits a careful perusal. .\s it 
is stated in the article, "If the duty on copper 
was of more than doubtful expediency' a few 
years ago. when the commercial uses of the 
metal were somewhat limited, it becomes almost 



a crime in view of the demand lor it that has 
been created by the industrial applications of 
electricity." 

In a recent issue of the Western Ei.EcrRi- 
ciAN appeared a statement to the effect that 
Prof. Pacinotti had died at his home in Pisa. 
We are glad to state that the report announcing 
his death was erroneous. The mention was made 
on the authority of an English journal. The 
mistake probably arose from the fact that the 
great electrician's father died a few weeks ago. 



The electric railway system has scored anoth- 
er great victory. Rapid transit in Minneapolis 
will be accomplished by the employment of 
electric motors. The introduction of a large 
number of cable lines was contemplated, but the 
success of electric railways has been so marked 
that all the plans have been abandoned. The 
steam motor which puffed and shrieked through 
several important thoroughfares will soon be a 
thing of the past. A decision- has just been 
reached in accordance with which all the lines 
in Minneapolis will, be equipped with electric 
motors. This determination was not made 
without a careful investigation. An experiment 
was made on one of the lines, and the new sys- 
tem satisfied the people so fully and operated so 
successfully in spite of snow and cold, that the 
owners of the road were no longer in doubt. In 
St. Paul a large part of the street railway system 
will be opera'.ed by electric motors. That the 
railway managers found the electric system 
wonderfully superior to the cable method is 
shown by the fact that they discarded the latter 
even though they had purchased considerable 
material for cable construction, and much of it 
was already on the ground, and will prove al- 
most a total loss. It is the boast of the residents 
of the Flour city that in a short time they will be 
able to ride over loo miles of electric railway. 



It seems a strange fact that during all the ex- 
citement over wires which has from time to time 
attained considerable intensity in New \oxk 
city during the last three months, the Board of 
Electrical Control has not found it necessary to 
hold a meeting. Vet such seems to be the fact. 
The meeting which is reported in this issue is 
the first session which has been held since Oc- 
tober 15th last. The commissioners had their 
usual misunderstanding with Mayor flrant, and 
the latter refused to sign the annual report to 
the legislature. This report states that ''the re- 
sponsibility for the condition of the wires in 
the city of New Vork is a dual one"; that the 
providing of subways and making of regulations 
is the duty of the lioard of Electrical Control, 
while the enforcement of such regulations is the 
duty of the mayor and commissioner of public 
works. The failure of this "division of respon- 
sibility" to prove "as successful and effective as 
was expected" is urged as an excuse for the 
delay in the burial of the wires. There have 
been constructed in New York 73 miles of trench 
and 1,007 miles of duct, sufficient for 45,000 
miles of telegraph and telephone wires and 2,000 
of electric light wires. The condition of over- 
head wires in the city is reported to be very bad, 
from 30 to 50 per cent, of them being unneces- 
sary or "dead." It is suggested by the commis- 
sioners that full power should be vested in one 
official or board to carry out the intent of the 
laws relating to electric wires. 



liosroN is now considering the (|uestion of 
appointing a commission which will have full 
control of all electric wires in the city. With 
the experience of New Vork fresh in mind the 
press of the city protests against the appointment 
of "a Hoard of I'^lectrical Control like that of 
New Vork." With the present demands for 
electrical engineers the papers see no probabili- 
ty of securing a board composed of experts, but 
one of the papers, however, recommends the ap- 
pointment of ".\ commiss on of men not strictly 
electricians, but men of honestyand practical in- 
telligence with a good general idea of the sci- 
ence of electricity." It is a satisfaction to see 
that the Hoston press views this whole question 
in a much more intelligent way than does the 
metropolitan press. The following from the 
Hoston Truiiscn'/'l is to the point; "That there 
is an element of danger in electricity is not to be 



denied, but that there is a far less degree of 
peril in this peculiar form of energy than in any 
of our other great forces is a simple truth that 
can be proved by facts and figures to any person 
of common sense. What dangers do exist can 
be so easily minimized by attention to details 
that if insteail of crying 'Down with electricity' 
those whose duty it is should set about making 
and enforcing laws compelling companies deal- 
ing in the tluid to surround it with all the safe 
guards that have been amply provided, just as 
is done with steam boilers and such things, the 
use of electricity would become as safe as the 
use of water power in a very short time." 



Chicaci) will have overhead wires after all. 
Commi.ssioner Purdy has granted the Lake \'iew 
Electric Light company a permit to erect wires 
on poles in Lake View. The council of Lake 
View, previous to that city's annexation to Chi- 
cago, had granted an ordinance to the electric 
light company allowing it to carry wires on poles 
for five years. Two years longer was also fixed 
as the time during which they were to be put 
underground. The matter has been heUl in 
abeyance for several ilays, as it was hoped that 
the ordinance granted by the Lake View council 
was invalid. The law department, however, in- 
formed the commissioner that the ordinance was 
legal, and he hail no alternative but to grant the 
permit. 



Ir is with a profound feeling of satisfaction 
and pleasure that we felicitate the ElectrU-al 
World upon its recent issue, containing in 
twenty-four copiously illustrated columns such a 
generous and appreciative description of itself 
and its surroundings on a portion of the ninth 
floor of the Nm.' York Times building. We are 
almost unprepared for the modest denial that 
the management of such an institution demands 
"more qualities than any business on earth," 
Bacon says, somewhere: "To praise a man's self 
cannot be decent, evcept it be in rare cases; but 
to praise a man's office, he may do it with good 
grace and with a kind of magnanimity." This 
admonition has been heeded in the article in 
ciuestion, and while the "office" is lavishly 
praised, we are left to judge of individuals by 
studying their portraits which are presented for 
our instruction in a series of views. The faces 
are distorted in several instances, to be sure, but 
then modest men rarely do secure good pictures 
of themselves. 

When it comes to the "office," neither writer 
nor engraver spares the magic touch, and every- 
thing is revealed. 

No single parts unequally surprise. 
All come united to admiring eyes. 

At the very outset an invitation is extended 
to the reader to journey leisurely through the 
labyrinthine departments of the establishment, 
with the author of the article acting as a guide. 
This invitation we accepted, and "as imagina- 
tion bodies forth the forms of things unknown, 
the poet's pen turns them to shapes, and gives to 
airy nothing a local habitation and a name, ' 
We saunter from the general bureau of informa- 
tion to the press room, where, we are told, the 
paper is served "hot." We are shown a consul- 
tation in the president's room, but whether the 
discussion hinges upon the failure of the paper 
to secure the Edison lamp patent decision 
or upon some other "scoop," we have no means 
of ascertaining. There is revealed to us an in- 
dustrious employe engaged in the intricate and 
delicate operation of "mapping out an ad.," and 
there is exhibited the process of wrapping up 
books in all its branches. We pass through the 
editorial sancta, "O, what a fund of genius is 
pent up in narrow spaces," catch a glimpse of 
an inventor who, as our guide tells us. is ''pale, 
big browed and glances nervously round," as- 
certain that the company publishes nine books, 
of which one is out of print, di.scover that the 
owners of the Times building will let us inspect 
their dynamo and engine if we apply to them, 
are told if we go to the right places we can see 
the firms which set up the type and print the 
paper, and then our journey is ended. We have 
tried to emphasize the fact that the chief char- 
acteristic of the article is modesty. True it is 
that "modesty is the only sure bait when you 
angle for praise." 



January i8, i5 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



31- 



Underground Work at Nostell Priory. 

The following description of an English in- 
stallation from the London Electrital Rcfiav, 
would seem to indicate that our cousins on the 
other side of the water may be able to furnish 
a few hints in underground electrical construct- 
ion : 

An electric light installation of an important 
character, and possessing some features of ex- 
ceptional interest, says our contemporary, was 
carried out rather more than two years ago at 
Nostell Priory, near A\'akefield, the well-known 
seat of Lord St. Oswald. 

When it was arranged that the Priory — a very 
large mansion, built during the last century — 
should be electrically lighted in preference to 
having gas brought in, it was decided that the 
power for doing so should be ti.\ed at the col- 
lieries owned by l^ord St. Oswald at Nostell, 
close to the Great Northern Railway, distant 
nearly half a mile from the house. The sale of 
the plant and cables at the Exhibition at South 
Kensington was an opportunity which was util- 
ized, and the large engine built by Ooodfellow 
& Matthews of Hyde, and a quantity of 
heavy cables were purchased for the purposes 
of the installation. The cables, all of 19-strand 
heavy wires, amounting to a considerable num- 
ber of various lengths, were found after exam- 
ination to be of different makes and insulation; 
some of vulcanized rubber, some of pure rubber, 
and some of gutta-percha insulation. It was 
found that, by the addition of some new cable, 
one main could be formed of wire insulated with 
pure rubber, while the other could be formed of 
vulcanized rubber, the gutta-percha portions 




I XDERc;ROU.\D work KI nostell I'KIOKY. 

being left for house mains. After a 
considerable amount of trouble the sev- 
eral cables were jointed up into four 
special lengths, and forwarded to Nostell. 

The route from the Priory to the colliery was 
through the park, b)' which the house is sur- 
rounded, to the main road, a distance of about 
250 yards, thence through a plantation and 
some fields, to the colliery, a distance of abou'. 
500 yards. The cables were so arranged that 
the only joints necessary should be made on 
the colliery side of the main road, where a 
special manhole had been built, as the cables 
came in at different levels. Under the main 
road iron pipes, well jointed, had been laid, 
through which the cables were drawn; for the 
rest of the distance earthenware pipes of novel 
construction were used. These pipes facilitated 
the work of laying in the cables, and as time 
has shown, have answered very successfully 
the favorable expectations formed of them. 

The accompanying illustration will explain 
their special construction. These pipes are 6 
inch earthenware sanitar)' pipes, with about 
one-third of the circumference nearly cut 
through before baking. When brought out for 
use, this portion of the pipe will, on being 
tapped with a hammer, come loose, and can be 
lifted off. The pipes being laid in the trough 
prepared for them, and properly jointed, it will 
be seen that throughout their length they will 
have the upper third of their circumference 
open, enabling cables to be easily deposited in- 
side, without either damage to the pipes or the 
cables. In additicn to this special arrangement, 
there was also provided in the pijies, at short 
intervals, an earMienware bridge of the form 
shown in the enlarged section, containing two 
grooves for the cables to rest in and be kept 
separate, and having the under portion cut 
away, so that any water which might get into 
the pipes would have a free pa.ssage to the near- 
est drain place. The trench in which these 
pipes were laid was cut sufficiently deep to 



allow of a bed of rough clinker and brick, and 
up to the level of the top of the pipe, to allow 
of drainage. From the house to the roadway 
there was a fall, but at the roadway the cables 
to the colliery were in consequence partly of 
the depth of the pipes under the road, and of 
the height of the bank on that side consider- 
ably higher than the others. It was necessary 
here to get down to the level of the pipes under 
the road, and a manhole of considerable dimen- 
sions, well drained and bricked all round to a 
depth of eight feet, was constructed; at the 
lower level the cables from under the road came 
in, and at the upper level the cables from the col- 
liery; this manhole was well protected with a 
stone cover, and then a large amount of earth 
put over. In here the several cables were per- 
manently jointed, and after the lapse of more 
than two years we can safely assert that 
the cables in this manhole are in excellent 
condition, and the place itself all that 
could be desired. When the operation of lay- 
ing the cables had been completed, the lid or 
loose portion of the circumference, of the pipe, 
was put in its place after some clay had been 
put on the pipe edges. When pressed home, 
the joint was complete.. The trenches were 
filled in, and have remained undisturbed ever 
since, except at one point for examination late- 
ly, when everything was found satisfactory, the 
lids being watertight. 

As regards these earthenware pipes, it may 
be mentioned that as it was only intended orig- 
inally to place two cables in them, only two 
grooves were made in the bridges. This sys- 
tem of piping for underground cables was de- 
vised early in 1887. For the service of the 
mansion there is a Crompton dynamo with an 
output of 220 amperes at 125 volts. This is 
driven by a Goodfellow & Matthew engine. 



Proposed Wiring Regulations in Boston. 

The sub committee of citizens of Boston, 
Mass., which has been investigating the question 
of insulation of electric light wires since the re- 
cent fire, has made a report in which it recom- 
mends that the legislature enact laws regulating 
electric lighting, and that the following provi- 
sions be incorporated: 

For arc light and power wires, or others designed to 
carry current of over 250 voits: 

That they shall not be placed so as to be concealed from 
view. 

That they shall not be allowed in contact with wood or 
other inflammable building material that may become car- 
bonized, but that they shall be separated from such material 
by at least i-inch airspace by use of non combustible, non- 
carbonizable insulators, p'aced near enough to prevent con- 
tact of the wires by sagging or o herwise, but not further 
than six feet apart. 

That with such construction wires of opposite polarity 
shall not approach each otrier ne irer than ten inches, except 
at the lamp and switch. 

If the wires are incased in insulating tubing that is im- 
pervious to moisture, will not support combustion, and of 
suffic ent mechanical strength to protect them from injury, 
the tubes may be laid as near as tliree inches to each other, 
and may be fastened to any building material bv use of 
staples or such other means as will not injure the tubing. 

All such wires must enter and leave the building at the 
same place in order that a non-com-iustible hana switch 
may be placed outside for the use of shu:ting off the cur- 
rent. 

All insulating covering that will support combustion will 
not be allowed. 

For incandescent light and power wires or others de- 
signed to carry currents of less than 250 volts: 

If such wires are concealed within partitions or like 
places they must not be allowed in contact with wood or 
other inflammable bu'lding material that may become car- 
bonized, nor with any conducting material such as piping 
or other wires. 

They must be rigidly separated from such material by at 
least ^-inch air space by the use of non-combustible, non 
carboniz-able insulators placed at intervals near enough to 
prevent contact by sagging of the wires or otherwise. 

The wires must be kept at least six inches apart, except 
where they enter junction boxes, cut-ouls or the like. 

Wires laid in plaster, cement or o:her similar building 
mate iai will not be allowed, no matter what insulating 
covering may be used. 

In lieu of construction by air space and non-:ombu-tib]e 
insulators, wires may be incased in insulating tubing that 
is impervious to moisture, will not support combustion, and 
of sutiicient mechanical strength to protect ihem from in- 
jury, and such tubes may be laid side by side in plaster, 
cement or similar finish, or in any concealed space where 
they will not be subjected to ir^jury, and mav be supported 
by staples, or such other means as shall not injure the 
tubing. 

No switch or safety cut-out except those made of non- 
combustible material will be allowed. 

For telegraph, telephone, me-senger service and all other 
electric wires not heretofore mentioned, except public fire 



alarm and police wires and "series" electric light wires: 

All such wires in any town or city in this Commonwealth 
where electric lights or power wires are being operated, 
must be provided at the entrance of any building, both in- 
going and outgoing wires with some safety device that 
shall instantly open the circuit or shunt the current out of 
tbe building in case the flow of current shall at any time ex- 
ceed in quantity or electiomotive force that which is nor- 
mally used on such wires. 

Such safety device must be located as near as possible to 
the place where the wires enter the building, and in some 
place easy of access. 

When the safety device is placed inside of the building, , 
the wire connecting it w-ith the outside wire must be of 
equal or greater carrying capacity. 

The device must be mounted on non-combustible ma- 
terial. 

All switches, cut-outs, insulators, insulation or tubing for 
use in electric lighting or power work, and all safety devices 
herein referred to must be approved by the committee or 
inspector in power before being used. 



Forming Secondary Battery Plates. 
In the process of constructing the plates of 
storage batteries it is the usual practice to apply 
the active material in the form of paste. In the 
following method, which is the invention of H. 
E. Dej of New York, the inventor utilizes the 
lead oxides in the form of dry powder. In car- 
rying out the process the plates or grids are first 
packed with the active material in the form of a 
dry pjwder. The material is pressed into the 
spaces in the plate with sufficient force to pre- 
vent it from falling out or becoming detached 
from the plates during the manipulation neces- 
sary to their subsequent treatment. After a 
number of plates have been prepared in this 
manner they are made into a pile, and a piece of 
some fibrous material — such as a sheet of felt 
saturated with acidulated water — is placed be- 
tween each pair of plates. This felt serves to 




FORMING SECONDARY ]!.\TTERV l'L.\rES. 

hold the powder in place in the lead plates 
w'hile being formed. A current is then passed 
through the pile of plates until the same are 
formed — that is to say, until the active material 
on one side of each plate has been converted into 
spongy lead and that on the other into peroxide 
of lead. The dry powder, by the action of the 
current, is so altered in its mechanical condition 
as to lose its tendency to dissolve or become de- 
tached from the plates. When the plates have 
been thus treated, they may be placed in the 
regular battery jars or cells, and used in the or- 
dinary way. It is preferred in certain cases to 
prepare the plates in the manner above described 
by passing a current through them in series 
while forming them, whereby one side of each 
plate wi.l be positive and the other side nega- 
tive. If, however, it is desired to inake each 
plate either positive or negative, connections are 
made from opposite poles of the charging or 
forming generator to alternate plates in the pile. 



Mayor Grant and the Overhead Wires in 
New York. 

In the annual message of Mayor Grant of 
New York, the following reference to the over- 
head wires in the metropolis appears: 

"For many years our thoroughfares have been 
obstructed and disfigured by unsightly poles and 
dangerous electrical wires. Laws have been 
enacted providing for the burial of electrical 
conductors, but until recently, no apparent effort 
had been made to enforce them. In the early 
part of the present year energetic and decisive 
measures were taken to abate this nuisance. 
From some of the leading thoroughfares these 
obstructions have been entirely removed, and it 
is the firm purpose of the local authorities to 
prosecute this reform to a speedy completion. 
By the close of next summer it is confidently be- 
lieved that every pole will be removed r' ■ m the 
streets, and that every electrical wi'e \ ill be 
operated underground in properly constit.cted 
subways. 

"Since the first of January, 1SS9, the Bureau 
of Encumbrances has removed 2,905 poles, and 
about 14,500,000 lineal feet of electrical wires. 

"The public authorities have recently fell com- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 1890 



pclled to remove from the streets wires which 
were believed to be dangerous to human life. 
Hy this action some portions of the city were de- 
prived of the use of electric lights. The inter- 
ruption of this service will, however, be but a 
temporary one. Already subways have been 
constructed in some of the leading thorough- 
fares, and it is hoped that suliHcient will be con- 
structed during the coming year to accommodate 
the electrical industry in the city. 

"By the provisionsof law now in force the offi- 
1 lal existence of the Board of Electrical Control 
will terminate during this year, and its powers 
and duties will become vested in the Commis- 
sioners of the Sinking Fund. The duties of any 
board charged with supervision of electrical con- 
ductors must necessarily be onerous and difficult. 
They should be discharged by officers who pos- 
sess some knowledge of electrical science. A 
Board of Electrical Control, composed, at least 
to some e.xtent, of electrical experts, would be a 
great assistance to the local authorities in deal- 
ing with those branches of industry which are 
compelled to maintain electrical wires in the 
streets." 



Investigation of the Electrical Industry 
for the Eleventh Census. 

Kv ..\i.1-i:n R. pill UK. 

The investigation of the electrical industry, to 
be reported in the Eleventh Census, offers an 
opportunity of great value to ascertain the true 
importance that the practical application of elec- 
tric energy has accjuired in industrial and social 
development. This opportunity should be made 
use of to the fullest e.\tent possible. In all de- 
partments of endeavor an e.xact knowledge of 
existing and antecedent coilditions is the neces- 
sary base from which to direct future action. 
Laws and actions based on assumptions, instead 
of ascertained facts, are the pitfalls of civiliza- 
tion. .\ business policy guided by ascertained 
facts, cannot fail. 

Some managers of electric lighting and power 
stations have intimated to me that there arecer- 
tam features of their business concerning which 
they do not desire to answer inquiries. They 
have acknowledged at the same time however, 
that information regarding those very points, if 
given by other companies, would be more valua- 
ble to them than any other data that can be ob- 
tained. So strong is the repugnance of some 
persons to the invasion of what they consider 
their private affairs, that sworn agents of the 
census frequently find it difficult to obtain infor- 
mation to which they are legally entitled. I be- 
lieve the policy of secretion on the part of any 
individual, to be a mistaken one, adopted either 
under a misapprehension of the facts, or an ig- 
norant view of his own interests. It may be 
stated as a fact that no person will be benefited 
more by the publication of an absolutely truth- 
ful statement, showing the operation of every 
company in the United States engaged in his 
line of business, than that person who doggedly 
refuses to answer inquiries, or retards the publi- 
cation of the information to be collected by dil- 
atory compliance with the requests sent him. A 
just punishment for his illogical selfishness 
would be to make his self-imposed isolation still 
more unpenetrable, by debarring him from re- 
ceiving any benefit whatever from the informa- 
tion given and work done by others. Such a 
person should be compelled to live where there 
are no mails, newspapers, railroads, telegraphs 
or telephones. 

Information given to an agent of the census 
cannot be used to the injury of the giver. The 
interest of the government can be served only by 
protecting the interest of the individual. Every 
agent is sworn to secrecy and is under as strict 
supervision as are the national bank examiners. 
Every publication of the information obtained 
is absolutely impersonal, so that it cannot possi- 
bly be traced to any individual or company un- 
less it sho'.ild happen that but one psr.son or 
compa. ■ is employed in the occupation dc- 
scribf . . While these regulations offer protec- 
tion to the inilividual, they at the same time offer 
him, in full and equal exchange for the informa- 
tion hecan give.all the information obtained from 
every person in his line of business. The ex- 
change is as a thousand for one. A considera- 
tion worth an hundred times more to any person 



or company than the cost of the effort they are 
required to make to obtain it. 

In no department can the benefits that a citi- 
zen may derive from a well organized and intel- 
ligently directeil governmental action be better 
exemplified than by the operations of the census 
office. The main features of the industrial in- 
formation wanted, are plain statements of facts, 
which any well regulated business concern can 
furnish easily and promptly, from the accounts 
kept by themselves for their own advisement. 
'I"o provide for the lack of uniformity in ac- 
counts and to inform all persons interested as to 
what inquiries they will be expected to answer, 
schedules are furnished months in advance of 
the date on which the information is wanted. 
This enables each concern so to keep account of 
the items, that on the day from which the infor- 
mation must bear date, an accountant can easily 
fill up the entire .schedule and mail it to the 
census office. The advantages to be gained by 
individuals and companies in doing this, are a 
most generous return for so simple and easy an 
undertaking on their part. 

The magnificent exhibition of co-operation 
with the government, that would be shown by 
simultaneously mailing a properly filled schedule 
to the census office on the same day by every 
company or person interested in the electrical 
industry, would mark the advance line of prog- 
ress in census taking. Those who are placing 
this great agent of power, electricity, at the ser- 
vice of every citizen and municipality, by doing 
so will but sustain their well merited title of 
"Lightning f^ngineers." Really it is but a sim- 
ple thing to do. It only requires that each one 
shall demonstrate himself to be the peer of the 
sun in his ability to do things on time. j\I1 
things done require time for their doing. 

It requires no more effort to do a thing at a 
proper time than to do it at any other time. Who 
so orders the doing of them that each is done 
when required, liberates himself from the law of 
necessity and makes himself master of circum- 
stances. All that is required in this case, is that 
each company shall designate an officer or em- 
ploye as the person who will furnish the informa- 
tion desired by the census office and hold him 
responsible for having it ready on the mailing 
date. 

The lack of information that may be obtained 
through the census report has been felt so keen- 
ly that no less than ten individual attempts by 
as many central station companies to gain some 
part of it, have come under my observation dur- 
ing the year 1889. These attempts have been 
expensive to their originators and troublesome 
to those to whom they have made their appeals. 
Worse than this, they have been unsatisfactory, 
because too limited in the scope of their inquir- 
ies; and dangerous, because they have not cov- 
ered all the factors necessary to a correct state- 
ment. Public or private action based on insuffi- 
cient data, can but be ill-advised and disappoint- 
ing. Such disadvantages may now be overcome 
with the greatest ease, to the injury of none and 
the advantage of all, if each person in interest 
will promptly and fully supply his own quota of 
census data. 

It is not the business of the census office to 
report, or to prove the correctness of theories. 
It is its business to report facts. No person 
should be so eager to know facts, as the man 
with a theory. If the facts are with him, he will 
be enormously benefited by their helpfulness. 
If they are against him, a knowledge of them 
may save him disastrous loss. No man ever at- 
tained a success by remaining ignorant of the 
facts pertaining to his occupation. The electri- 
cal industry is so young it is almost too soon 
to attempt to separate the experimental from 
the practical. No feature of the wonderful pro- 
gress made, which may now be recorded, is re- 
moved from its experimental stage by so much 
as a single decade. In view of this, it will be 
well to take notice of every experiment that is 
now being practically tested. Such a record 
will possess great interest for those who may be 
privileged to compare the results of the eleventh 
with those of the twelfth census. The experi- 
ments of today will furnish the best landmark 
for the progress to be recorded in 1900. 

The re|)ort o( the investigation with which 1 
am intrusted will be the first official chapter in 
the history of the practical application of elec- 



tricity to the uses of light and power. I do not 
assume the ability to write a report that shall be 
perfectly satisfactory to the 65,000,000 critics in 
ihe United States, not to mention those in for- 
eign countries, to whom my work must be sub- 
mitted. What I shall do, is to give every person 
who may criticize me adversely after my report 
has been published, a good opportunity to place 
himself on record, by making suggestions to me 
while the work is in condition to be benefited by 
them. No more time will be required to write a 
suggestion before, than to write a criticism after 
the work is finished, but much greater genius. 
The wisdom of foresight is a far more rare and 
valuable gift than the wisdom of hindsight. To 
look ahead to an objective point, and form plans 
which, if followed, will make one sure of getting 
there, is a work of immeasurablv greater value 
than to look backward and tell how present con- 
ditions came to be so. The historian of events, 
real or imaginary, can never be a leader. Who 
declines to suggest, deprives himself of the right 
to criticise. Through the courtesy of the elec- 
trical press I urge every one interested in the 
electrical industry, each from his own point of 
view, to suggest to me every item of informa- 
tion that, in his opinion, should find a place in 
my report, together with his idea as to how it 
may be most easily and correctly obtained. 

In my opinion, the facts to be reported form 
two distinct classes: 

First, Facts of present value, the full benefit 
from which will be realized at the time of publi- 
cation. 

Second, Facts having a future value, the full 
benefit from which will be realized ten years 
hence, when comparisons are made between the 
results shown by the eleventh and twelfth cen- 
suses. 

There are a multitude of facts of very great 
value to those directly interested in the indus- 
try, that have no value to the general public, ex- 
cept in a direct manner. The collection of such 
facts will be limited by the voluntary co-opera- 
tion of those to be benefited in supplying them. 
I shall be greatly disappointed if there is any 
failure in this regard, especially since Hon. 
Robert P. Porter, superintendent of the census, 
has invited such co-operation in the following 
cordial terms: 

"It is the purpose of this office, without seeking data 
which may be irrelevant or unimportant, to make the sta- 
tistics of this industry complete and accurate, so that its 
real condition and true importance may be known and un- 
derstood by the general public. It is confidently believed 
that those who are to derive the chief benefit from the re- 
sult of the inquiry viz. : manufacturers and central station 
companies engaged in the distribution of electric currents 
for the commercial uses of light and power, will lend their 
cordial aid to render that result full and reliable. A formal 
response to the questions of the schedule is all that can be 
insisted upon, but the superintendent solicits beyond this 
the hearty co-operation of all persons interested in respect 
to furnishing information promptly and accurately, in the 
procurement of additional facts, and in the suggestion of 
pertinent and useful lines of investigation, ^Vithout such 
co-operation intelligently supplied, the imiuiry must of ne- 
cessity be limited in its value. '^^ * * 

"The census of 1.SS0 makes no mention of the industry 
of generating and distributing from central stations, elec- 
tric currents for the uses of light and power. The investi- 
gation of this industry for the eleventh censu':, will be the 
first official census report made on the subject, in this or 
any other country. For this reason it is particularly desira- 
ble and essential that the investigation shall not only pre- 
sent a record of the industry as it e.\ists to-day, but that it 
shall so classify and arrange the information as to render it 
serviceable as a basis for present action and of comparison 
for all future reports. In view of these facts, the import- 
ance and value of such an investigation and the ofiicial 
publication of its results, should in itself be sufficient to 
secure from every person addressed, a special effort to an- 
swer fu'ly and promptly every inquiry. The exaltation of 
the birth of an industry and its growth, to the magnitude 
of an inlerest second to none in importance within the 
short space of a single decade, is a mirvelous record of 
progress. In no other industry and in no other country, 
lias iuch a record ever been maile." 



The Duty on Copper. 

A petition which is now in circulation, asking of Congress 
the abolition of the present duty on copper, ought to re- 
ceive the s'gnaturc of everv man to whom it is presented, 
says the /'ii'iici-r /'irss. Without considering at the outset 
the strong special reasons for placing this metal on the free 
list, it is a notoiious fact that the duty on copper has been 
productive of nothing but abuses lor many years past. 
This is one of the instances where there never was a rea- 
sonable excuse for applying the principle of protective 
duties. The copper mines of Lake Superior, the richest in 
the world, are together with those of .Montana, our principal 
source of supply. The deposits of copper are so distributed 
that the mines can be worked at little cost, and their situa- 
tion on the border of the great Northern water^route se- 



January iS, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



33 



cures cheap and easy transportation to the markets of the 
world. The United States could from the very outset have 
distanced competition any where in the world in the produc- 
tion of copper, without the assistance of any duty what- 
ever. It always happens that a duty in such a case as this 
is productive of abuse; and the proper mining business has 
furnished no exception to the rule. In the first instance, 
this duty was made use of to raise and keep the price of 
this metal abnormally high. So extravagant were the 
prices asked under this protection that it is a well-estab- 
lished fact that .\raerican copper has been exported to Eu- 
rope and ihen brought back to this country, where, after 
paying duty, it was sold in the market in competition with 
copper brought directly from the mines. It is no part of 
the protective system to foster such robbery of the consum- 
er as this. 

The natural result, of course, was to throw the business 
into the hands of a monopoly, and the trust idea was early 
adopted by those interested in copper production. The 
greatest speculation of recent times was thus encouraged, 
in the formation of the international syndicate or trust that 
used the copper market as its instrument to make immense 
fortunes out of a market artificially inflited and depressed. 
As a matter of fact, it is not certain that the duty on cop- 
per to-day is of benefit to any American citizen. The 
operations of the trust are carefully concealed; but it is un- 
derstood that contracts have been entered into for the pur- 
chase, at a stated price, of the entire product of our prin- 
cipal mines for some years ahead. This arrangement was 
made by the trust for the purpose of making its control of 
prices absolute. It ill becomes this government to become 
a party to any such agreement, by maintaining a duty that 
closes the American market to any relief that the world 
might be able to offer. If the duty on copper was of more 
than doubtful expediency a few years ago, when the commer- 
cial uses of the metal were somewhat limited, it becomes 
almost a crime in view of the demand for it that it has been 
created by the industrial applications of electricity. Owing 
to its excellence as a conductor, this metal is now in great 
demand. Indeed, it is hardly too much to say that a 
cheapening of copper would go far toward solving the 
problem of conveying electrical energy without danger to 
human life. A current of sufficient power for lighting or 
other commercial purposes can be carried with ease over a 
large copper wire, but owing to the greater cost of material 
many companies continue the use of iron wires, with a 
deadly current of high intensity. To the future develop- 
ment of electrical devices and appliances, the cheapening of 
copper, or at least a stable market value, is of the highest 
importance. It is not easy to find a single excuse for the 
existence of the duty on copper in the first place. If there 
was such, it is unworthy of consideration in opposition to 
the commercial needs of the day. Nor could the absence 
of all duty work half as much injur>' io the industry as has 
been done by the violent price fluctuations of the past, at- 
tributable to monopoly control. If Congress has the slight- 
est conception of the meaning and need of tariff reform, it 
will place copper on the free list. 



The Electrical Exhibits from the United 
States at the Paris Exposition. 

By Carl Hering. 

The following compilations will give an approximate idea 
of the relative importance and extent of the exhibits from 
the United Statfs, in Class 62, "Electricity," as compared 
with those from other countries. 

The number of exhibitors in this class were as follows: 



France, about 360 

United States 2S 

Great Britain ig 

Belgium 13 

Switzerland S 

Russia 5 

Portugal 4 

Austria 3 

Mexico 3 

Italy 2 



Chili 2 

Uruguay 2 

Germany i 

Japan i 

Luxemburg i 

Norway r 

I-'inland. ... ... i 

Argentine Confeder- 
ation I 



Total 



455 



In a total of 455. France had 360. leaving 95 foreign ex- 
hibitors. Of thtse, the United States had 28, which is. 
therefore, about one third of all the foreign exhibits. Eng- 
land comes next, having one-fifth. France had 79 per 
cent, of the total number of exhibitors; United Slates, 6.2; 
Great Britain, 4.2; Belgium, 2.S; Switzerland, i.S; Rus- 
sia, r, and the rest together, 5. per cent. 

Of the fifteen members of the electrical jury, France had 
10— Mascart (president). Potier (-eporter), Deprez, Fon- 
taine Fribourg, Huet, Postel-A^iney, Sciama, Sebert, Tro- 
tio; United States, 2— Abdank, Hering: Great Britain, i 
— Preece (vice-president); Switzerland, i — Turettini (sec- 
retary'): Belgium,! — Rousseau. Besides this, there were 
five supplemental jurors; France had 3, Great Britain and 
Belgium, each i. 

The floor space occupied by our electrical exhibits was 
967.25 square metres, or, in round numbers, about r.ooo 
square metres. That of the French section was about 2,- 
000 square metres, not including the eight or ten stations 
distributed about the grounds for lighting. We, therefore, 
had about one-half as much floor space as France itself. 

The floor space occupied by the other foreign countries 
cannot be determined with any accuracy, owing to the fact 
that the exhibits were together with numerous others, and 
were ver>' much scattered about the grounds. From a 
rouo-h estimate, however, it appears that Switzerland comes 
next, then Belgium and then Great Britain, the others be- 
ing all quite small. The space occupied by the United 
States was about equal to, if not somewhat greater, than 
that of all the other foreign countries combined. 

However, the importance of an exhibit is by no means 
proportional to the space it occupies Neither will the 
number of exhibitors represent the importance of an ex- 
hibit. These figures merely give an approximate idea of 
the extent of our exhibit as compared with that from other 
countries. 



A better comparison of the real values of the exhibits 
may, perhaps, be had from the number and nature of the 
awards made by the jury, as that eliminates entirely the 
space occupied, and in a measure, also, the number of in- 
significant exhibitors. The awards made by the jury were 
as follows, in order of their value: Grand prize, gold med- 
al, silver medal, bronze medal and honorable mention. 
Now. the mere total number of awards given to the differ- 
ent countries ^'ould by no means represent the value or 
importance of the exhibits from those countries. It is ab- 
solutely necessary, if any summation at all is to be made, to 
give the different awards some definite relative values. 
Such a relative scale is difficult to determine upon, as it is 
almost entirely a matter of opinion. Different persons have 
entirely different views regarding it, depending on what 
award they received or did not receive, as well as on the 
award which their neighbor received It is certain, how- 
ever, that aa arithmetic scale of relative va'uesof 5. 4. .i> 2. 
r, does not express the relative values of the different 
awards. The importance of the higher awards increases 
much more rapidly. A geometric scale of values, would 
give a much truer value and, therefore, the following scale 
will be assumed here, as representing a fair average value: 
Grand prize, 20; gold, 10; silver. 5. bronze, 2; honorable 
mention, i. By multiplying the number of the awards by 
their respective values on this basis, the totals obtained can 
then be assumed to give fair relative values. 

The awards made to electrical exhibitors in the different 
countries, arid their relative values on this basis, were as 
follows: 



France 

United States 
Great Britain. . 
Belgium 
Switzerland. . 
Russia .... 

Germany 

Luxumburg ... 

Japan 

Uruguay . . 

Italy 

Finland 

Austria 

Portugal 

Norway 



Total . 











c 




3 
















c 


^ "r 


1 


1 


c 


> 


>| 




_ > 




,1 


,l 


2S = 






c t: 


? 


c 


XI 


"k;^ 






u c 












s 


■- 


fX 


2= 


r. 




-- c 


^ 








^ 




:^ 






























I 


6^ 


D,8 


S8 


'*7 


841 


6=;. 2 


2 


4 


' 1 






I6O 


.2. a 


3 




4 4 


3 


^ 


88 


b.7 


4 




=5 "> 


J 




■ 70 


■> -1 


b 


I 


'i ■! 


2 


' 




50 






2 . 






2^ 


i.r 


7 










10 


t; 


a 










10 


1- 












^ 




10 






2 




•1 


m 


12 






i 




.1 


j= 
































1 


^ 


bo 


15 








] 




:2 


12I5 


262 


7.1 


78 


.294 


100 



It will also be seen from the above thatthe United States 
has one-fifth as much as France, twice as much as England, 
and about two and a half times as much as Switzerland and 
Belgium. It had four times as many grand prizes as any 
other foreign country, more gold medals, and as many sil- 
ver, as any other. It received one-third of all the grand 
prizes, and about 12 per cent, of all the gold medals. 

As far as awards are concerned, there were nineteen ex- 
hibits from the United States. Eighteen of these exhibits, 
orgs P^r cent., were awarded, as in the above table; 21 
per cent received grand prizes, 32 per cent, gold medals 
and 21 per cent, silver medals. 

The awards were as follows (in alphabetical order): 

Grand prize: American Bell Telephone company, Edi- 
son, Elihu Thomson, Elisha Gray. 

Gold medals: American Graphophone company, Cobb 
Vulcanite Wire company, Heisler Electric Light company, 
Okonite company, Sprague Electric Railrway & Motor com- 
pany. Western Electric company. 

Silver medals: Commercial Cable company. Consoli- 
dated Telegraph & Electrical Subway company, Elektron 
Manufacturing company, Sperry Electric company. 

Bronze medals: Electrical Supply company, Solar Carbon 
company. 

Honorable mention; American Nickel Works (Wharton), 
Munson Lightning Conductor company. 

Some idea as to the importance of the electrical exhibits, 
in comparison with the other exhibits from the United 
States, may be had from the number of grand prizes award- 
ed in the other classes. There were in all fifty-three grand 
prizes awarded to United States exhibits; four of these, oa 
7.6;^ were for electrical exhibits. One class received nine; 
two classes, four; one class, three; five classes, two; twen- 
ty-three classes, one. But this is not a fair comparison, as 
twenty-seven (over half) of the grand prizes were for public 
institutions and government exhibits. Eliminating these, 
there remain twenty-six grand prizes to companies, manu- 
facturers and inventors. Out of these, electricity was the 
only class receiving four, or 15.4 per cent. Four other 
classes received two each, and fourteen classes, one each. 

Among the great successful inventions in the practical 
application of electricity, the United States may claim the 
telegraph, the telephone, the incandescent light and, un- 
questionably, the microphone^ also; France, the accumula- 
tor and the Gramme ring; Italy, the battery and the Pa- 
cinotliring; England, the self-exciting dynamo; Germany, 
the drum armature; Russia, the commercial arc lamp. — 
Joinnal FiankUn Institute. 



Chicago Electric Club. 

At the conclusion of Dr. Louis Bell's paper read before 
the Chicago Electric club on "Compounding Dynamos for 
Constant Potential" published in the last issue of the West- 
ern Electrician, the following discussion took place: 

Pr(1I"£SSOR Baut: If I understood Professor Bell cor- 
rectly he s^id that the electromotive force should be kept 
constant at the terminals of the machine, and his formula 
were worked out on that basis. As a matter of fact we do 

I Althodgh Hughes made the invention in England, he had Jived the 
greater part of his life in the United Statesand had obtained his whole 
education there, which led him to the invention. 



not compound dynamos to keep constant potential at the 
binding posts of the machine, but we compound dynamos 
in order to keep a constant potential at the lamps. If, for 
instance, a 200 light, 100 volt machine should be so built 
as to keep a constant potential at the binding posts of the 
machine and we lose, let us say five volts in our con- 
ductors. It can readily be seen that in order to get 100 
volts at our lamps we must run the dynamo at an electro- 
motive force of 105 volts. If we now switch out 100 of 
the 200 lamps the loss in the conductors will not be five 
vol»s, but it will be two and a half volts. Therefore, it 
can be very easily seen that in compounding a dynamo for 
constant potential at the lamps we must know what is the 
percentage of loss, or the number of volts' loss in the con- 
tuctors between the dynamos and the lamps, and the ma- 
chioe should be compounded for constant potential at the 
lamps, and a certain loss in the conductors. That is prac- 
dically the way it is done. Now you can very easily see, 
that this introduces a new factor in the construction of the 
dynamo. We mu-t know beforehand within very narrow- 
limits, what the loss will be. Supposing a machine is 
compounded for the characteristic loss, say of five volts, 
and on the wire ten volts loss; that machine won't regulate. 
Or again, if we calculate on 2 54 per cent, loss that machine 
won't regulate. The loss or the drop of volts in the con- 
ductor must coincide with the characteristic which we had 
in view when we compounded the machine. Now the- 
oretically of course that thing looks very nicely but practi- 
cally other elements come in. Suppose we have a perfectly 
compounded machine ihat will regulate, that will be auto- 
matic; that is to say, any number of lamps can be switched 
on and off and it will keep an even potential at the lamps 
with a 5 per cent, loss in the wire. Suppose now our wire 
man does not follow instructions very closely; they never 
do — and we find by actual testing we have 7 per cent. loss. 
Well, that machine will be out of place; what must 
we do? We must do something in order to get 
that percentage down to five volts, in order to 
make the machine run smoothly and regulate prop- 
erly. In order to overcome that the early machines 
were always over- compounded; that is to say, if they wanted 
to run them for 5 per cent, loss, they were compounded for 
seven or eight, or even a higher loss. Then with the 
rheostat we cut down the eflect of the series winding to a 
degree to make the compounding just harmonize with the 
loss on the wires, which we actually have — not that on 
which we calculate. That of course makes the thing a 
little complicated, and besides, of course, the rheostat 
causes an actual loss of energy and power; and after all, 
we don't get quite all the benefits of the compound wound 
machine that we should get. There is another point to be 
taken into consideration in a shunt and compound wound 
machine. We ail know that the electromotive force of a 
machine depends upon the speed of the armature, all the 
other properties of the machine of course being the same; 
and in the shunt machine we have the rheostat iii the field, 
an automatic regulator, and then must make up with the 
rheostat for the variations of speed in the steam engine, 
the water power or what ever power is employed. In other 
words if the speed increases the electromotive force in- 
creases and vice versa. Unfortunately we have no perfect 
power; that is to say there is no power which will give a 
uniform speed under varying loads. If the load on the 
engine is changed, the speed will change too. Now in 
that event, it has been found that compound machines are . 
very much more sensitive to changes of speed than shunt 
raachiDes. I know that compound machines are largely 
sold by va' ious companies today, and I think it a benefit 
to a great extent, but people who buy them really don't 
get the full benefit of those wonderful theoretical demon- 
strations which agents will make to their customers. Com- 
pound machines are more complicated than shunt wound 
machines. When we send out laborers to set upplanis 
they get along first rate with a shunt wound machine- 
But when they set up the compound machine thty require 
assistance to get it right. It is much easier to connect 
shunt wound dynamos in multiple arc than to connect 
compound machines, and any man who has connected 
both will agree with me. So I have come to the conclu- 
sion from the theory of compound and shunt machines, 
and from practical experience as well, that I prefer the 
bhunt machines 'f they arereasonably good. There has been 
a class of shunt machines which Professor Bell mentions, 
which are so bad that they won't regulate at all. They 
are compounded by their makers in order to make them 
regulate. That is a bad compound machine; it simply 
does not do what a well built shunt machine should do. It 
is merely a make shift. It is simply compounded because 
the man who made it didn't know how to make a good 
shunt machine. 

Professur Bell: In reference to two or three points 
that were called out I hardly agree with Prof. Badt, I do 
not think it is either practical or desirable to make a bad 
shunt machine into a compound, but I think a good shunt 
may sonretimes be made into a better compound machine. 
Regarding one point, the trouble with loss and leakage, I 
don't know whether it is the proper n:ethod ornot but it is 
very clear that if we are working with no loss in leakage, 
with the dynamo going up two or three revolutions, or 
lowering two or three revolutions, it will do precisely the 
same thing that is done with the various shunt parts, and 
probably will do it just as well. If the shunt coils have a 
rheostat, as is the casein very many machines, and we are 
not able to shift the compounding by that means, and if, 
for instance, a little more loss in the leads must be ac- 
counted for, a change of revolutions, because compound 
machines are sensitive to a change of a vtry few revolu- 
tions, will make up for the loss in the leads, and the 
lowering of the speed by a very few revolutions would 
make up for the decreased loss, if it was less than was ex- 
pected. But I am not sure but that would be a very good 
practical way of doing it. 

Professor Badt: Vou can make up for the loss, of 
course, but you don't get any more straight lines for varj-- 
ing current; you get a curve there. 

Professor Bell: I should think you could get very 



34 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 1890 



fairly gooU regulation provided you did not have two lines 
to work over, say a change of from 2) to 5 per cent. 
I'here is just one point I would like to call attention to 
now, and that is whec the changes are so rapid: I have 
seen shunt machines in railway work go from 4S5 vultsilown 
to 405, and back again, before you could count ten That 
is one place where the compound wound machine has a 
very decided advantage. 

SIr. Kammf.ver; 1 heard Professor Kidt and Professor 
Hell state that a variation of speed of compound machine 
would alTcct the compounding. Now that is totally at 
variance with my experience. Some lime ago I saw the 
(|uestion asked in some periodical why a compound ma- 
chine will compound tolerably well at various speed<:. That 
statement seemed to me to be remarkable, so I thought 1 
would tr>Mt, and I did; I changed the speed of the machine 
that was compounded fairly well. It didn't change over 
two and a half to three volts between full load and no 
load. The full lojd was intended to be 125 to 130 amperes. 
I ran it at a speed of 1,150. then ran it at 1,200, and found 
instead of 104 volts that the machine had been compounded 
for. it ran up to 107. and throwing on and off the load, the 
variation in the voltage was only two or three volts, the 
same as it had been with its proper speed of i . i 50. 1 then 
ran the speed down to 1,100. 10 1.050 ami to 1,000, and 
with 1.000 it only gave S5 volts, when with full load it 
would give for instance S5 volts, and with no load it would 
give S7 to SS volts. There was a little trouble as the speed 
was not quite constant, but otherwise it compounded just 
.IS well at any of those speeds as it did at its proper speed. 
Now if any of you gentlemen will explain that, I will be 
very thankful. 

I'rofessor Bell: Of course it is a machine that had 
not been compounded very well :o start with. I don't 
know* whit the actual nature of the variation was; that is 
to say, whether the machine gave an equal potential at no 
load aid at full load, rising between, or whether it dropped 
off. 

Mr. Kammkver: With full load the potential was say 
two and a half or even three volts less than what it should 
have been, which would indicate that it didn't have quite 
enough series turns. 

Pkckkssok I!kli,: It probably fell down about three or 
four volts; I should say that the place to look for the ex- 
planation of that sort of a performance was in the change 
of the saturation of the magnets. I think if the magnets 
were nearly sat">raled, it might be possible, for instance, 
that at any rising speed you would not have the same 
trouble with the compounding that you would if the mag- 
nets bad not been nearly saturated. T should look first for 
the effect on the magnetic qualities of the machine. 

Mr. Kammeyf.r: That brings me to the point that I 
was going to ask ab^ut when Professor Hadt asked a ques- 
tion; that is to accurate'y determine the quantities, t] x 
and q. Ifyju will give tho;e two quintities I think we 
could compound it all right. 

Proikssor Dell: Those two quantities can be obtainel 
very readily if you know approximately even the quality of 
the iron. At the same time you could get a sufticiently 
dose idea, I think, by a knowledge of the published char- 
acteristic. After you have tried a numbar of experiments 
with the irrn you can hit close enough tlie average values 
to arrive at the total induction. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

New York Notes. 

New Vokk. Jan. u — The Hoard of i'Jectncal Control 
continues to drop lower and lower in public favor. Mayor 
(Irant has lost all confidence in the commission and lits 
disgust was evi lent at the meetit.g of the board a few days 
ago. In his message he p:)inis to the fact that electrical 
experts should occupy the positions mw held by the po- 
litical bos5ei who are associated with him in the commis- 
sion. Of the work of the board, the mayor says: "Since the 
first of January. 1SS9. the bureau of incumbrances has re- 
move J 2.495 poles, and about 14.500.000 linear feet of * 
electricil wires. The public authorities have recently felt 
compelled to remove from the streets wires which were be- 
lieved to be din»erous to human life. IJy this action some 
portions of the c ty were deprived of the use of electric 
lights. The interruption of this service will, however, be 
but a temporary one. Already subArajs have been con- 
siructeJ in somL* of the leading thoroughfares, and it is 
hoped ihnt sufficient will be constructed during the coming 
year to acco.iimodate the entire electrical industry in the 
city." In order to do this, however, it will be nccessarv to 
take the exclusive franchise for the construction of con- 
duits away from the subway company which has proved 
utterly incapable of performing the work. 

The uHer failure of the Hoard of Electrical Control of 
N'c'v York to solve the question of disposing of the elec- 
tric wires in the metropolis has aroused the press ami pub 
lie to call upon the legislature to repeil the act under 
which the board was organized and wipe out that institu- 
tion entirely. AH who have followed the course of the 
board will .igree that there ii sufiicient cause for this out- 
burst of popular indignation. The New York ff^('//(/says: 
"Kor over four and a half years New York has been pay- 
ing three commissioners iJs.ooo a year each for supervising 
technical work of which they possess no knowledge, and 
regarding which they have made no effort to actjuirc any 
practical information. These commissioners comprise the 
Hoard of I^lcctrical Control. They obtained iheir posi- 



tions through a 'deal,' and have devoted their time and 
such talents as they possesess to showing how not to bury 
the electric wires. But they have devoted considerable 
energy to efforts to persuade the public that they are anx- 
ious to bury the wires and lose their $5 000 jobs, but have 
been prevented by bad men from carrying out their plans." 
The law under which the board is acting was passed Nov. 
14. 1S84, by the New \'ork legislature. Neither the sub- 
w.iy commissioners who were first appointed nor the Board 
of Kleclrical Control which succeeded them have performed 
the work intrusted to them, and this leads to the follow- 
ing comparison of results: "This law is practically the 
same as the one under which the wires were buried in 
Chicago, the only city in this country where they are really 
buried. Not only are they buried in Chicago, but they are 
so well buried that the president of the Chicago Arc Light 
^: Power company has voluntarily made an afi'idavit in 
which he takes issu; with a suggestion that 'no commer- 
cially practical method' has been devised for burying high 
tension circuits. Ue says his experience 'indicates that 
it is possible to furnish electric light service by this method, 
both from a commercial and scienlifics'andpoint.' In fact, 
the work of burying the wires in Chicago has apparently 
been accomplished to the entire satisfaction of all parties 
concerned. Chicago had no Sub.vay Commission or Board 
of Electrical Control at .^15,000 a year, but the work was 
done under the supervision of Prof. John P. Barrett, city 
electrician, whose salary scarcely exceeds that paid by the 
New \'ork Board of Electrical Control to its alleged expert 
adviser." 

The work has progressed very slowly indeed and when, 
in order to mislead the public, the commissioners ordered 
the w'.res cut there was no way of conducting the business 
of the electric companies, as there were no conduits in 
which to place the wires. It is a curious fact that when 
the wire cutting and pole chopping was begun there was 
not a conduit accessible to any electric light or power sta- 
tion in New York, yet the work of destruction was com- 
menced at the very doors of these companies. A review of 
its work is certainly anything but edifying. The New 
York l^orlti ssLys: "The Board of Electrical Control in- 
stead of doing the work for which it has been paid has dele- 
gated it to others and sought to silence public clamor by 
making buncombe pretenses of seeking to bury the wires. 
In Chicago an experienced electrician, unhampered by a 
Board of Electiical Control, buried the wires so satisfac- 
torily that even the electric light companies avail themselves 
of every opportunity of praising bis work, and his salary is 
not one-fifth of that paid the three Subway commissioners 
and only a fraction of the sum New York pays for engin- 
eers, experts and others to assist its ornamental board of 
wire-pulling politicians." 

As has been already stated in the Western Electri- 
"lAN, changes have been made in the Sprague Electric 
Railway and Motor cmpany, E. H. Johi s)n resigns the 
presidency and J. H. Herrick has been selected to fill the 
vacancy. Samuel Insull is elected vice-president. Acting 
Manager Sprague continues as executive officer and chit f 
elictrician As before stated, the entire stork of the 
Sprague company is purchased by the Ceneral Edison 
Electric comoany. 

The Electric Gas lighting company has removed to more 
spacious quarters at 195 Devonshire street and occupies 
the large store and basement extending through to Arch 
street. Mr. Hjrnham reports excellent business. 

K. J. Stcen has been appointed general agent for the 
Cobb X'ulcanite Wire company with offices at 45 Broadway, 
New York. 

The horse race in the last act of the "County Fair" now 
playing at the Union Square theater is ingeniously devised 
and the effect truly realistic. The fence in front of the 
race track moves at the rate of 2[> miles an hour and the 
horses are running like mad behind the fence on a tread- 
mill reduced to a level. This device is kept in operation 
by electric motors underneath the stage. 

This city is in a bad way to handle crowds, and should 
the World's P'air be held here it is probable there will be a 
repetition of the experience at the Paris Exposition, due to 
lack of rapid transit facilities. It is now too late to build 
elevated roids. and the present system is overtaxed with the 
ordinary demands upon it. The only hope left is in the 
adoption of the electric system on surf.ice road*^, and largely 
increasing the rolling slock. W. II. T. 



Minnedpolis, Minn. 

MiNNKAi-oi.is, Jan. 13.— All the street cars in Min-ieap- 
olis and St. Paul are to beopera'ed by electricity with the 
exception of the Selby avenue line in St, Paul. The cable 
system which was projected, will be abandoned, although 
construction had commenced and material was on hand. 
This decision was practically reached by Mr. I.owry on 



Thursday night after conference with Mr. Goodrich and 
others, but it was not until Saturday that he definitely an- 
nounced his intention. The consideration that led to the 
decision was the satisfaction which the Fouith avenue elec- 
tric line has given in Minneapolis. A strong pressure was 
broughtto bear upon the street railway p-esident by citizens 
who saw in the new motive power the greatest possible 
merit. Ever since the line began to work smoothly they 
have overrun Mr. I.owry 's ollice to tell him how greatly 
pleased they were, and what a mistake he would make 
should he put ia cable power instead of electricity on the 
other lines. 

The Eourth avenue line has worked splendedly in cold 
weather and in a heavy snowstorm. Mr, Eowrj' is quoted 
as saying: "We have come to this decision because we be- 
lieve it to be for the best. The people seem to be thor- 
oughly pleased with the electric line on Fourth avenue. 
We have given it a fair test and believe it to be the very 
best motive power we can put into our system. We stand 
ready to pu: in whatever system the public wants, and we 
believe the electric system will fill the bill better than any 
other. I did not believe that it would be successful when 
first put in. but I have been obliged to change my mind. If 
we thought the public would rather have the cable lines we 
would put them in, but we believe the public prefers elec- 
tric lines and would be benefited by them. Then, too, it 
would be belter to go ahead with the change now, before 
any further expense is incurred fur the cables. We shall 
sink a good deal of money in the work already begun, but 
there is no use crying over spilt milk. It seems to be for 
the best. The change of the whole street railway system 
to an electric one would not conllict with the proposed 
tra .sfer system, and one may ride from one end of the city 
to the other without e.^ctra cost, just as was originally con- 
templated. Provided the Minneapolis council gives us 
consent, we shall push the work as fast as we possibly can 
All the cab'e line work which was mapped out for this year 
will be finished at the cime agreed upon, but with electrici- 
ty. Then we shall also do as much work on the other lines 
as we can, and get them in shape in the speediest manner 
possible." Mr. Lowry said that the loss to the street rail- 
way company, should it abandon the cable lines, would be 
about !j!4oo,ooD. The two power houses and some of the 
track have already been put in, and a great amount of 
material is already on the ground. 

Regarding St. Paul, Mr. Lowry said that the mat- 
ter of a char ge in motive power there was a very simple 
one. The Sr. Paul council had given him the privilege of 
using whatever power he pleased, electric or cable, on the 
lines so specified ia the ordinance lately passed. Accord- 
ingly he had selecteJ the former power, and it would be 
put in as soon as possible. General Manager Goodrich is 
also quite enthusiastic on the subject of electricity as a mo- 
tive power. He believes it will be a big success. lie said: 
"The people like the electric line. It is much less noisy 
than tlie cable; it is smooth runningand rapid. We hand- 
led the last big snow on the line better than we ever hand- 
led snow with horse cats." 

It is estimated that there will be about one hundred miles 
of electric street railway in Minneapolis should Mr. I.owry "s 
proposition be acted upon favorably, and nearly the same 
amoint in St. Paul. D. 



St. Louis, Mo. 

St. Louis. Jan. 1 1. — The people of this city had an im- 
portant fact impressed upon their minds this week. It was 
the necessity of a thorough overh ullng of electric wires 
in this city, the cutting down of improperly insulated wires 
and the removal of the nu;iierous dead wires from build- 
ings and poies about the city. The havoc created among 
the wires by the heavy sleet storm of this week opened the 
eyes of the electric companies. .-Vs a matter of protection 
to iheir business interests they cannot disregard public 
sentiment so much as to neglect to place their wires in good 
condition at the earliest possible moment. The network 
of wires sagged under the weight of ice and snow that fell 
Monday and Tuesday, and in many instances proved too 
heavy, breaking the lighter wires and leaving them dang- 
ling in the streets. Pedestrians kept clear of these wires, 
but an unlucky team came in contact with one of these 
wires which crossed an electric light wire, and they were 
instantly stricken dov/n. The report of this accident in- 
creaseti the fears of the people and they clamored all day 
to have the dynamos in the electric light stations shut 
down. This was done in the cise of the plant that sup- 
plies current to the incandescent lamps which illuminate the 
alleys and public buildings, but the commercial lamps were 
continued and no accidents were reported The messen- 
ger, telegraph and telephone companies were great suffer- 
ers. Their wires were burned out by contact with the 
electric light companies' lines with which they came in con- 
tact, and of course the service was gieatly cripp'ed. But 



January i8, 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



35 



the greatest damage was that sustained by the Fire Alarm 
and Police Telegraph department. It was estimated that 
at least 150 fire alarm boxes were made entirely useless be- 
tween midnight Tuesday night and noon Wednesday. 
The blame partly rests with the electric light companies, 
but a large share of the damage was caused by the circuits 
being broken by the sagging of the wires resulting from 
the heavy sleet. The fire alarm linemen are compelled to 
work like beavers to keep the bo.\es and wires in condition. 
On several occasions arc light circuits crossed fire alarm 
wires, and as soon as the electric lights were turned on, 
considerable trouble was entailed on the fire alarm de- 
partment. The present condition of the fire alarm is a 
serious matter indeed. A fire may originate in a large 
business block and the fire-alarm box would refuse to carry 
in an alarm, thus delaying the arrival of the Fire Depart- 
ment. 

The machinery and all appurtenances of the new electric 
railway over the big bridge were for the first time fully 
tested by the storm Wednesday. The snow was removed 
from the grade on the eist approach to the bridge, and the 
car then moved along nicely. Passengers were accommo- 
dated with very little inconvenience. JNIany have contended 
that the first storm, if it did not directly retard the progress 
of the car, would interfere with the wire to such an extent 
that a total suspension of business would be necessary, but 
such was not the case, although the storm was as severe as 
mav be expected in this section. 

Not only the telegraph but also the telephone service to 
towns near by was cut out temporarily after the fire in the 
Western Union office. At 8:30 a. m., Wednesday, the 
manager of the Western Union office at Belleville, III., 
published a bulletin that the Western Union building in 
St. Louis had been burned out, and that telegraphic com- 
munication with St. Louis was interrupted. The dispatch 
came by way of Kansas City to Chicago, then to Cairo and 
to Du Quoin by Illinois Central wires, and then by West- 
ern Union to Belleville. It was the first time since the 
telephone service had been established in Belleville, six 
years ago, that both the telegraph and telephone service 
were out of order at the same time. At i:i6 P. M. by 
strenuous labors a connection was made with St. Louis. 

An order has been issued directing the Board of Public 
Improvements to remove all dead wires within the city 
limits. F. 

Council Bluffs. 

CouN'CiL Bluffs, Jan. 11. — The motor company made 
extensive improvements during 1SS9. During the past year 
the company has extended its line to the head of Broadway, 
with lateral branches to Fairmount park, the local depots 
and the Union Pacific transfer. Regular and frequent 
service is given in connection with the main line, bringing 
residence property in neighborhoods heretofore inconveni- 
ent to reach, within easy access of business. 

The cD.Tipiny now his between eighteen and twenty 
miles of road in operation. The capacity of the boiler, 
engine, and dynamo plant his been more than doubled, and 
the equipmsnt of cars and motors of Pullman's latest de- 
sign, handsomely upholstered, lighted by electricity and 
heated, has also been nearly doubled. 

Another electric line is projected for iSgo. This will be 
practically a belt line giving first-class service to rapidly 
populating sections of the city. The line will extend to 
the city limits on the south and east. A charter has been 
granted, and as enterprising and energetic citizens are 
behind the scheme it may be relied upon that another year 
will see the line completed and inactive operation. H. 



Boston, Mass. 
Boston, Mass., January 10. — Mayor Hart has awarded 
the contract for lighting the streets of Boston by electricity 
for a period of five years to the Suburban Light & Power 
company, at the following rates: For the city proper. 
South Boston. West Roxbury and Dorchester, 39 74-100 
cents per lamp per night; for Ro.xbary, 37 gg-ico cents per 
lamp. This award was made yesterday afternoon and has 
been the favorite topic of discussion by electric light men 
to day. This morning the Charlestown Gas company put 
in a bid of 40 cents per light for the Charlestown district 
and the contract for five years was at once awarded to that 
company. Its last bid. on Nov, 29. was 50 cents per hght. 
Early in the week the contract for the Brighton district was 
awarded to the BrookUne Gis Light company for a period 
of five years at 40 cents per light per night. The cost to 
the city at these prices is estimated to be about $73,000 
less per year than at the old contract price paid to the 
Boaton Electric Light company. Although the city's con- 
tract with the company expired at noon on Tuesday, ar- 
rangements were made by the mayor whereby it will con- 
tinue to furnish lights at the same price as heretofore, until 
the city can be provided for in some other way. The Su- 
burban Light iS: Power company has neither phn": nor lo- 



cation, but it has agreed to have its lights burning in Rox- 
bury, West Roxburj- and Dorchester in six weeks, in South 
Boston in twelve weeks, and in the city proper in sixteen 
weeks. It is expected, however, that the Boston Electric 
Light company will contest the right of the Suburban 
Light & Power company to do business in the city, al- 
though Mayor Hart asserts that both the corporation 
counsel and the state gas commissioners have assured him 
that the company does possess that right. The directors 
of the Suburban company are C. H. Clapp, A C. Burrage, 
Hon. A. W. Tufts, W. A. Paine and Frank Ferdinand, all 
well-known Boston business men. The company has a 
paid-up capital of 175,000, which it proposes to increase 
at once to $250,000. It is now stated that P. H. Alexan- 
der, the general manager of the Sawyer-Man Electric com- 
pany, has largely aided the company in its efforts to secure 
the contract, and that George Westinghouse, Jr., will 
lend his personal and financial aid to the work of estab- 
lishing the necessary plants. In fact, it is asserted that it 
will be a Westinghouse plant, and that special attention 
will be given to incandescent lighting. 

It is now an open secret that Mayor Hart would like to 
try an experiment with a municipal plant of about 100 
lights capacity. In the common council last night an order 
was offered and passed requesting the superintendent of 
lamps to submit to the city council an estimate of the 
cost of establishing and maintaining an electric light plant 
in the city, and a report on the expediency of maintaining 
such a plant at the city's expense. 

Under the head of street lighting the mayor of Lynn, 
Mass., in his inaugural address this week says that the 
present lighting service of that city comprises 151 arc and 
about 950 incandescent lights, and he recommends that 
both should be burned all night, in order to add not only 
to the public convenience and safety, but to the efiiciency 
of the police service. 

In the Massachusetts House of Representatives yester- 
day a petition was received from the Gloucester, Mass., 
street railway for permission to operate its road by elec- 
tricity. 

Pending the action of the legislature and the aldermen in 
providing for the control of the overhead electric wires, the 
Boston Board of Fire Underwriters has concluded to make a 
series of tests of various stj-Ies of safety fuses and the board 
announces that any device of this character sent to its office 
at 55 Kilby street will be carefully tested. It is probable 
that those which pass the best tests will be recommended 
for general adoption n overhead circuits at the points of 
entrance to buildings. 

Treasurer Weld of the Edison Phonograph Toy Manu- 
facturing company, has just returned from Mr. Edison's 
laboratory at Orange, N. J. He is reported as saying that 
affairs there in connection with the doll industry look more 
like business than at any previous time. The factory is 
stocked with parts of the doll, and these will be put together 
at once. Mr. Edison made a delivery of fifty dolls to the 
company on-Jan. 3, and Mr. Weld asserts that within two 
months there will ba a large stock of dolls on the market. 
The Ne;v England Electric company. New England 
agents for the Sprague motors, has established an agency at 
Lynn, Mass., at No. 2 Sea street. J. W. Upp, formerly 
with the Robinson-Foster Mo::or company, is the agent. 

E. W. Rice, Jr., superintendent of the Thomson-Hous- 
ton Electric company's factory at Lynn, has been a victim 
of "la grippe" this week. He was not alone, how- 
ever, as about 250 of his employes were off duty from the 
same cause, and at the works of the the Thomson Welding 
company fifty employes were similarly affected. 

At a meeting on Wednesday of this week the executive 
committee of the Thomson European Welding company 
voted to send Elmer Howe, a patent lawyer, to Eng- 
land to close up the contracts in that country and receive 
payment. He will be accompanied by Mr. Boland, an 
officer of the company. 

The West End company's snow sweepers, one of which 
was well illustrated in the last issue of the Western Elec- 
trician, are out again to-day doing good work keeping the 
tracks clear after the light snow which kept falling all the 
forenoon to-day. 

The inauguration dinner of the Boston Electric club 
took place at Young's Hotel last Monday evening, over 
fifty members taking part in the proceedings. Count 
Zuboff, James F. Meech, European agent of the Thomson- 
Houston Electric company; Dr. A. De Bausset, of air-ship 
fame; Col. B. S. Lovell, Arthur Lord and others, were 
present as guests of the club. O. H. M. 



the public lighting contract for a number of years, secured 
an injunction to prevent the council from taking action, 
but the president refused to notice the document, declar- 
ing that he would pay no attention to papers served upon 
him while the council was in session. The injunction was 
temporary, and restrained the council from entering into a 
contract with the Detroit Electric Light &, Power company 
to furnish the public lighting, and was issued by Judge 
Hosmer on the affidavit of the Brush Electric Light com- 
pany, James L. Edson, Clarence A. Black. Allan Bourn, 
David O. Paige, William H. Elliott and Wells W. Leg- 
gett, which set forth that the bids of the Detroit company 
were illegal because not accompanied by drawings and 
specifications; that the Brush company owned letters patent 
for the double carbon lights which the former purposes to 
use, and that if the bid was accepted the city would be 
sued for infringement on rights of the Brush company. 

The Detroit company's bid was about $9,000 under that 
of the Brush company. The matter promises to give rise 
to a long and bitter fight. B. 



Detroit. 

Detroit, Mich., Jan. ii. — The city council on Mon- 
day awarded to the De.roit Electric Light & Power 
company th^ contract for lighting the city for three years 
from July i next. The Brush company, which has held 



THE ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

The Burlington, la., Gas company has just installed a 
35 light Thomson-Houston dynamo. 

Arrangements are being made to supply Laredo, Tex., 
with 100 arc lights and 2,000 incandescent lamps in addi- 
tion to the 1,500 electric lights already in use. 

H. M. Sciple & Co. are just starting a loo-horse power 
tandem compound Ball engine at the station of ihe Edison 
Electric Illuminating company of Lebanon, Pa. 

The Sperry Electric company of Chicago, has completed 
its installation at Council Bluffs, la., and the plant has 
been accepted by the Gas &; Electric Light company of 
that city. 

The California Electric Light company of San Francisco, 
Cal., recently purchased a loo-horse power tandem com- 
pound engine from the Ball Engine company of Erie, Pa., 
for its station. 

The town of Tecumseh, Nebraska, has ordered through 
the Omaha Engineering company, of Omaha, Neb., agents 
of the Ball Engine company of Erie. Pa., a Ball engine to 
run its electric light plant. 

The Minonk, 111. Electric Light & Power company, has 
been incorporated to furnish light, heat and power; capital 
stock, $15,000; incorporators, M. L. Newell, A. B. 
Knipp, and G. W. Weber. 

The Macomb Electric Light & Gas company at Macomb, 
III., has been organized to furnish light, heat and power; 
capital stock, $25,000; incorporators, Charles Ketteron, 
H. W. Cummings and J. N. Rume. 

In Cincinnati last week the question of putting arc wires 
underground was referred to a committee of five from the 
councilraen. five from the aldermen, the five members of 
the Board of Public Affairs and the city solicitor. 

In the House of Representatives last week Representa- 
tive McComas made an effort to have a resolution adopted 
ordering all electric light companies in Washington to put 
their wires underground. The measure was not passed. 

The Allegheny County Light company of Pittsburg, Pa.. 
has ordered two arc light machines, Westinghouse new 
system, 60 lights each, of the Westinghouse Electric com- 
pany. This gives the Allegheny County Light company a 
total capacity of Soo arc lights. 

A writer in the New York Jl'orld speaking of under- 
ground systems says: In London the practice has been to 
lay the cables directly in the earth or in iron boxes situated 
about twenty inches below the surface of the sidewalk, it 
being considered preferable to break up the sidewalk than 
to disturb the surface of the street. Jn Paris the cables 
are likewise stretched beneath the sidewalk in a single duct 
provided for them. The cables commonly employed are 
known as those of the manufacture of Siemens, of Berlin, 
and Berthoud & Borel, of Switzerland. In various Conti- 
nental cities I noted the cables were placed in conduits of 
Beton, the practice being to stretch the cables on a 
form and subsequently construct the conduits around the 
cables by tamping the cement. By this arrangement no 
gas can find its way around the cables, the danger from 
explosion of accumulated gas is thus avoided, and the 
cables themselves are protected from mechanical injur}'. 



THE ELECTRIC MOTOR. 

An extensive street railroad system is contemplated by 
capitalists at Oakland. Cal. It has been decided to intro- 
duce electricity as the motive power. 

The Citizens' Horse Railroad company of Belleville. III., 
has been granted a franchise to change its motive power 
to electricity. The mayor has approved the action of the 
city council and work will be begun immediately. 

The Sprague Motor line, at Laredo, Tex., which 
commenced operations four weeks ago with four 
miles of track and six passenger coaches, has been 
crowded with business to such an extent that the company 
has found it necessary to double its plant and lay increased 
mileage of track. 

The Consolidated Street Railway company of Toledo, 
O., has decided to substitute electricity for horses on all 
its lines. The company is anxious to secure an economical 
storage battery system, and is now experimenting in that 
direction. Should it fail to meet with the desired results, 
an overhead system will be introduced. At any rate, the 



30 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 1890 



company promises to have all it's lines operated by elec- 
tricity within a year, and to extend the system to East 
Toledo. 

San Francisco. Cal., capitalists arc looking for a fran- 
chise to build an electric street railroad on the following 
streets of that city: Commencing at Seventeenth^ street, 
where crossed by the Northern Railroad company, to 
Center street, to Sixteenth, to drove, to Thirteenth, to 
Oak, to Twelfth, to East Twelfth, to Thirteenth avenue, 
to East Fourteenth s'.rcct, to Fifteenth avenue, to East 
Fifteenth street, to Twenty ihitd avenue, also commenc- 
ing on Eighth street at Cedar street, easterly to Grove 
street, to Thirteenth street. 

The Wcstinghouse Electric company has entered the 
field of supplying electric machinerj* for mining purposes. 
A few days ago the company secured a contract from the 
Hercules Mining Machine company of Pittsburg, I'a., for 
a large number of motor generators and Tesla motors. 
The apparatus is to be used to operate the Hercules coal 
mining machine, a new device, which has lately been 
brought out by the Hercules Mining Machine company. 
The Hercules is said to jwssess the ability of producing 
coal on a most economical plan. The Hercules is being 
introduced in the coal mines of the Monongahela valley, 
and a Tesla motor goes with each Hercules. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 

An action for :f 10.000 damages has been begun by 
Joseph E. Carle of Petroleum, Pa., against the Western 
L'nion Telegraph company for non-deliver)' of a message. 

The South Brunswick, Ga , Telegraph, Telephone, 
Electric Light A: Water company has been incorporated to 
construct and operate telegraph and telephone lines, water 
works and electric light plants. The capital stock is $50,- 
000. 

The Chicago Board of Trade practically suspended 
business last Monday owing to the havoc caused by the 
wind storm Sunday night. Wires were down in all direc- 
tions and connection with many important points was 
temporarily cut off. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 

The ofiicial report of the eleventh meeting of the National 
Telephone Exchange association at Minneapolis, has just 
been published in pamphlet form. 

The Anaconda mine which had been closed since the 
great tire Nov. 23d, was reopened Jan. 8th and as soon as 
possible operations will be begun. 

Secretary Pope of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, reports that since the publication of the revised 
catalogue last November, 29 associate members have been 
elected. 

The ColumbiaElectriccoropany, at Chicago, has been or- 
ganized to do a general electrical business; capital stock, 
:gi, 500,000; incorporators, A. P. Willoughby, N. H. 
Hanchelt and N. O. Hunsberger. 



Business Mention. 

The Holtzer-Cabot Electric company of in Arch street, 
has issued a calendar for iSgo of an unusually handsome 
design. 

The Electrical Supply company of Chicago has just is- 
sued a complete list of fuse wire. The company is sell- 
ing large quantities, and it is giving splendid satisfaction. 

The Spraguc Electric Equipment company, Chicago, 
has just issued an interesting catalogue descriptive of elec- 
tric railway supplies. It also contains considerable val- 
uable information in this important department. 

J. H. Shay of the Munson Helling company, has just 
closed a contract with the Central Electric Railway com- 
pany of Ptona, III., to furnish it a 42-inch belt to run ils 
main shaft, and 312 feet of 12-inch belt to run its generat- 
ors. 

J. W. Marsh, secretary of the Standard Underground Ca- 
ble company of Pittsburg, will shortly assume the entire 
management of the business of the company, it is under- 
stood. It is well known that Mr. Marsh has, been the lead 
ingspirit in this successful enterprise, and to his untiring 
effoits may be attributed the remarkable progress that has 
been made. The success which has thus far attended his 
efforts warrants the confidence placed in him by his asso- 
ciates. Mr. Marsh's friends wish him continuance of the 
good fortune he has thus far enjoyed. 

The year which has just closed has been the most event- 
ful in the history of the Wcstinghouse Electric company. 
The business done during 18S9 surpassed anything ever 
anticipated. The company has now 266 central stations 
distributed throughout the country and abroad, which are 
fitted with Wcstinghouse alternating current apparatus. 
The contracts for 134 central stations were secured during 
last year, making the business of that period exceed the 
cDmbined amount of the previous years since the organiza- 
tion of the company in 1 886. These 134 central stations 
represent an aggregate capacity of 234,250 incandescent 
lamps. This docs not include the various increases, which 
were also contracted for by various companies already es- 
tablished. To ^how the enormous growth of the concern, 
the following comparative facts may be interesting: In Jan- 
uary. iSSg, the company employed 650 men in its works 
on Garrison alley, Pittsburg, Pa. During this year, how- 
ever, many improvements were necessitated, and to-day the 
company employs 1,300 men in Pittsburg alone. A new 
building of five stories was built during the year for the 
detail department, a pottery and a laboratory. In the de- 
tail department the alternating current meters are made. 
The production of that article has increased 400 per cent, 
during the year. In the pottery, which, by the way, is a 



complete factory, switches, cut-outs and other devices are 
made. The laboratory has been titttd up with all those 
requisites which make a place of that kind perfect, and the 
Westinghouse laboratory is now considered by those who 
have visited it the finest and most complete in the country. 
The machine shop has been repeatedly enlarged to meet 
the demand made upon it by the increased number of con- 
tracts. Several new engines were put into the building, 
and a new battery of boilers consisting of two Habcock tS: 
Wilcox boilers, 500 hor^e power each. The lamp factory 
of the company was removed during the year to New York 
to give more room to the converter department. In March. 
1SS9, the comjiany started in the arc lighting business by 
absorbing the Waterhouse Electric Ov Manufacturing com- 
pany of Hartford, Conn. They gave a fresh impetus to 
that business, and the number of Waterhouse machines 
sold since then has been large. During the year the com- 
pany also established a br?nch in London, Eng., for the 
purpose of taking care of the European business, and the 
accounts received from there are verj- promising. 



Personal Paragraphs. 

E. S. Ilewson of the Wcstinghouse ofBce, Chicago, is 
seriously ill. 

J. W. Marsh, secretary of t>ie Standard Underground 
Cable company. Pittsbu'-g. was in Chicago last week. 

C. D. Shain of the United Edison company of New 
York, vvas a visitor at the Chicago Electric club this week. 

II. O. Woodruff, general agent of the Hawkeye Electric 
Manufacturing company of Davenport, la., was in Chicago 
last week. 

F. G. Beach, president of the Chicago Electric club, who 
has been seriously ill, has sufficiently recovered to attend to 
his business duties. 

The committee formed at Manchester, England, has de- 
cided to erect a white marble statue of the late Dr. Jamfs 
Prescott Joule as a companion to that of the late Dr. 
Dalton by Sir Francis Chantrey, and also a replica in 
bronze to occupy some public place in the city. A large 
number of subscriptions have been already promised. 



Electrical Patents. 



41S, 



41S, 
41^. 

4>^. 

418, 



41S 



Issued Jan. 7, 1889. 

,678. Electric Switch for Motors. Harry H. Blades, 
Detroit, Mich. 

,682. Ear Phone Rest. George E. Christie, Pater- 
sor, N. J. 

,685. Brush Holder for Dynamos. Peter Claus and 
Eugene Gengenbach, New York, N. Y. 

,700. Secondary Battery. Harry E. Dey, New York, 
N. Y. 

,701. Cut-Oul for Secondary Batteries. Harpy E. 
V^zy, New York, N. Y. 

702. Cut-Out for Secondary Batteries. Harry E Dey, 
New York, N. Y. 

,703. Method of Forming Secondary Battery Plates. 
Harry E. Dey, New York, N Y. 

,704. Bracket for Supporting Electric Conductors. 
John A. Duggan, Quincy, Mass. 

,718. Syritem of Transportation. Benjamin S. Ilen- 
ning, New York, N. Y. 

,748. Distribution of Electricity by Secondary Batter- 
ies George B. Prescott, Jr., Newark, N. J. 

The invention contemplates the use of a primar\' 
generator of electricity located at a central station, and 
one or more sub-stations, at each of which there is lo- 
cated a secondary battery and a working circuit to be 
supplied thereby. The main and sub-stations are to 
be connected by two or more main leads, called the 
' charging circuit." 

,757. Electric Arc Lamp. Charles E. Scribner, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Claims seven and eleven read: 

"7. In a double carbon arc lamp a support for the 
lower carbons, consisting of two insuhted sections, one 
section for each of the carbon*:. 

"11. In a double carbon electric "arc lamp, two car- 
bon rods, each provided with clutch mechanism for 
lifting and feeding the same, and electro-magnetic de- 
vices in the main circuit and in the shunt of the arc, in 
combination with retaining mechanism to carry and 
hold out of use one of said carbon rods and its clutch 
mechanism while the other carbon rod and its clutch 
mechanism are carried and fed by the said electro-mag- 
netic devices." 

,758. Electric Arc Lamp Charles E. Scribner, Chi- 
cago, III. 

,706. Support for Electric Conductors Jo eph B. 
Smith, Manchester, N. H. 

,775. Belt Gearing. Charies W. Wall. Buffalo, N.Y. 

,778. District Telegraph Alarm Box. Charles G. 
Armstrong, Englewood, 111. 
The claim follows; 

"In a district telegraph signal box, the combination, 
with a revolublc commutator wheel having a series of 
recesses in its periphery, of a brush and the wires of a 
divided circuit, cneof said wires being connected to 
the brush and the other of said wires consisting of sev- 
eral separate sections and suitable circuit closers con- 
necting said sections, which are normally disconnected 
from the commutator wheel, but are engaged by the 
same in the course of its rotation." 
B24. Lightning Arrester. Elmer A Sperry, Chicago, 
111. 

The inventor says: 
'The 'word' circuit is thought preferable in connec- 



tion with this case, inasmuch as it is always used to in- 
dicate the path of a current. It is herein used for 
this identical purpose and to indicate that path of the 
current which includes also the open space between the 
discharge plates." 

Of the fifteen claims the twelfth is given: 
"In a lightning arrester, the combination of a piv- 
oted movable discharge plate with a piece which nor- 
mally holds the same away from the fixed discharge 
plate, a fusible conductor which engages such piece, 
and a series of circuits, one including such fusible con- 
ductor and another such pivoted discharge plate." 

418,837. Battery Carbon. Charles G. Armstrong, Chica- 
go. 111. 

Claim one reads as follows: 

"The combination, with the circuit wire and the 
carbon, consisting of a cup and a cover integral there- 
with, of the knob or extension on said carbon cover 
and a surrounding band to which the circuit wire is at- 
tached." 

418,843. Means for the Electrical Propulsion of Vehicles. 
Delbert E. Johnson, Atlanta, Ga. 

418.850. Cable Railway Signal. ' John H. Pendleton, 
Brooklyn, and Andrew Bryson, Jr., and Cornelius 
Tiers. New York, N. Y. 

418,853 Electric Motor or Generator. Imie E. Storey, 
Boulder, Colo. 

The field magnets are included in a laminated ring. 
They consist of four spools radiating from the center 
and bolted to the inside of the ring. 

418.855. Incandescent Lamp Holder. Imle E Storey 
Boulder, Colo. 

418.856. Carrier System. Imle E. Storey, Boulder, Colo. 
The fourth claim is: 

"In a carrier system a tube divided into sections, 
an electric motor for and adapted to drive each sec- 
tion, an electric circuit including each motor and 
switching devices, whereby each motor may be cut in 
and out of circuit." 
41S 868. Annunc'ator. Julius Finck, San Krancisco, 
Cal. 

418,871. Electrical Indicating Apparatus. George A. 
Holt, Oakland, Cal. 

The object of the invention is to provide for the 
electrical transmission of the readings or record of one 
indicator located in a given position to one or more 
indicators located or distributed at convenient points, 
whereby the condition of the first named indicator 
may be readily seen without examining it directly. 

418,889. Electric Deep Sea Sounder. Alfred J. Cooper 
and Eustace E. Wigzell, London, England. 

418.893. Electrically Propelled Vehicle. Rudolph M. 
tlunter, Philadelphia, Pa. 

418.910. Electrical Signal Operating Device. Charles A. 
Cox and Joseph F. Cox, Louisville, Ky. 

418.911. Electric Heating Apparatus for Electric Railway 
Systems. Mark W. Dewey, Syracuse, N. Y. 

The dynamo is located on a vehicle or car or one of 
the cars of a train, and is driven or operated by the 
same source of energy that moves the car. In some 
cases a separate motor from the propelling motor 
drives the dynamo. In other cases the propelling mo- 
tor drives it. The heating circuit leading from the 
dynamo is of very low resistance and includes one or 
more electric heating devices. 

418.912. Method of Transforming and Utilizing Electri- 
cal I'Znergy. Mark W. Dewey, Syracuse, N. V. 

The tenth claim reads: 

"The method of transformation or conversion of 
electrical energy, consisting in charging a member of a 
condenser with electricity, and simultaneously there- 
with and thereby charging a member of a condenser 
with electricity of (.lifferent tension, and then discharg- 
ing both members." 

418,987. Electric Arc Lamp. Edwin C. Russell, Skow- 
hegan, Me. 
The last claim is appended : 

"5. In an arc lamp, the combination of a magnet, 
an armature, a weighted arm supporting said armature 
and operating to automatically maintain it in its rela- 
tive attractive position to said magnet, a rotatable disk 
of carbon, and pawUand-ratchet devices operating 
through the medium of said magnet and armature to 
cause a rotation of said disk." 

419,013. Electric Bdt. Charles H. Grimley, New York, 
N. V. 

419.032. Method of Welding by Electricity. Charles L. 
Coffin. Detroit, Mich. 

The process consists in electrically welding metals 
together in a non-oxidizing medium. 

419.033. Method of I'.lectric Welding. Charles L. Cof- 
lin, r>etroit, Mich. 

The method consists in pressing together the two 
pieces to be welded, traversing the point between the 
two pieces by an electrical current, and submitting the 
joint to the influence of a magnet acting across the 
line of the current. 

419. 0S9. Electric Motor. Harry B. Niles, Union Springs, 
N. Y. 

4r9 o63. Electro-Mechanical Time Stamp. Charles A. 
Randall, London. I-lngland. 

419,094. Apparatus for Propelling Vehicles by Electrici- 
ty. Frank Wynne, Westminster, England. 

419.111. Insulated Nippers. Firmin ^L Casey, Mount 
Vernon, N. Y. 

419,166. Electro-Magnetic Transmitter. John T. Wil- 
liams, Mount \'ernon. N. V. 

11,053. Electric Pen Holder. Charles W. Reitler, Den- 
ver, Colo. 



January iS 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Eugene E. Philups, President. 



W. H. Sawyer, ESec'y and Electrician. 



AMEHICAIT ELECTRICAL WOUKS, 



PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Manufacturers of Patent Finished 

ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, Office and Annunciator Wire, Rubber Covered 

Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Telephone and 

Incandescent Cords. 

FARADAY CABLES. 

New York Office. 18 Cortlandt Street, 

p. C. ACKEB:nAN, Agent. 




EuGESE F. Phillips, President. 



Jons C.\EKOLL, Sec'y. Treasurer. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS ELECTRICAL WORKS, 



(LIMITED.) 

TaltoVy"!^ : St. Gabriel Locks, Montreal, Canada. 

— MAXt'FACTUBERS OF — 

ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, OflBce and Annunciator Wire, Rubber 

Covered Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Telephone 

and Incandescent Cords. 




THE E. S. GREELEY ^ CO., 




GENERAL ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES, 

5 and 7 DKY ST.. XEW YORK. 

ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT 

Instruments and Batteries of 
ths Very Highest Grade, 

Precision and Conaiancy. Quality and Finish, the 



Beat In the World. 

Cataloeae of StaDdard Tept Inetroments 

farniflied upon lipplicatlon. 



Illustrated Circular 

of Lamps and 

Lamp 

Novelties 

upon 

Application . 




MINIATURE INCANDESCENT LAMPS. 



I 







FARADAY CABLES. 



cc 



99 



Insulation Guaranteed Wherever Used, Aerial, Underground or Submarine, 





In a letter from the Inspectoh of the Boston Fire Underwriters* Union, under date of March 
"K^y 1SS6, be says : "A Thorouglily Keliable and Desirable Wire in Every Respect." 

The mbber used In Insulating onr wires and cables Is specially chemically prepared, and is guaranteed 
to be waterproof, and icill not deteriorate, oxidize or cracky and will remain flexible In extreme cold weather 
and not affected by heat. The Insulation is protected from mechanical Injury by one or more braids and the 
whole Bllcked with Clark's Patent Compound, which is water, oil, acid and, to a very great extent, fire proof. 
Our insulation will prove durable ichen all others fail. We are prepared to furnish Single Wires of all 
gauges and diameter of Insulation for Telegraph, Telephone and Electric Lights from stocK. Cables made 
W order. 

^EASTERN ELECTRIC CABLE COMPANY, 

61 and 63 Hampsbire Street, Boston, Mass. 



JAMES W. QUEEN & CO., 



Ayrton and Perry Ammeters and Voltmeters. 
Carpentier Ammeters and Voltmeters. 
Cardew Voltmeters. Electro-diramometers, 
Queen's New Standard Laboratory Resistarce Boxes. 
Queen's New Portable Combination Testing Set. 
Complete Outfits f jr Insulation Testing. 
Special attention paid to recalirrating Ammeters 
and Voltmeters. 

924 Ckstnat Street, PhJlidelpMa. 



FRANCIS W. PARKER, 

SOLICITOR of ELECTRICAL PATENTS 

THE ONXT" COMPLETE SET OF IT, S. 
ELEOTKICAL PATENTS IN CHZCAQO. 

1001-3-5-7 Opera House Block. CHICAGO. 



„*s;i«''T OFF ENGINE 



HKBTRT A_ CLARK. General Manager. 



HEEBEHT H. EUSTIS. Electrician 




FRICTION CLUTCH PULLEYS 

AKB CUT-OFF COUPIilXGS. 

Vise-like grip of clutches ootionaHy gradual or sudden. 
Large friction suffices prevent undue u/ezr. 

Disengagement of clutches is positive. 
Pulley shaft automatically oiled. 
They haue a giod lecotd running through five years. 

Experts are invited to examine peculiarities. 
Mend forl8§9 Catalogne. 

ECMPSE WIXDEXGIXE CO., Beloit, Wis. 



LEONARD <fe IZARD COMPANY, 

COKSULTIHG AHD COHTRACTIIG ELICTRICAL EHGIHEERS, 

For any or all Systems of Electric Street Railwaj's, Electric Motors of all Kinds, Incandescent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Electric Lio-ht 

Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Electric Transmission of Power, Train Lighting Plants. '^ 

A. full line of Commercial Supplies carried at all times for Plants described above. Plans and Specifications for all Kinds of Electrical Construction Work. 

Sherman and Van Buren Sts.-RIALTO BUILDING, CHICAGO. ILL. 

Brancb (Iffices: TheX-umbPr Fxcliaoee. Rooms 5 and 6, Hinnespolis.-Minn. : IVorth^reHtern Slniual I-ifp Insurance Block. Room 115, Telephonp l-2'6. Mil-wan k'-p. TTis 



vLO/V/^ 



INSULATED WIRES AND CABLES, 

Electric Light, Telephone, and Telegraph, 

I"ox- .^ex-lal, S'u.lsxxxax-lzi.e, azid. XJaica.orsro-u.n.ca. XTso. 

CANDEE AERIAL WIRES, OKONITE WATER-PROOF TAPE, MANSON PROTECTING TAPE. 
AWARDED A GOLD MEDAL AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION. 

THE OKONITE COmPANY, - - ■ 1 3 Park Row, NEW YORK. 

BRANCHES: Chicago. Boston, Philadelphia. Omaha, Minneapolis, Cincinnati Louisville. St. Louis. Kansas Ci ty, and San Francisco. 

Automatic Electric Motors 

In all Sizes from One-half H. P. Upward. 




High Efficiency, Perfect Megulation, Superior Workmanship, Ease of 
^ ^/^^^ Management, Memarkable Simplicity, Etc., Etc. 

r^^ DYNAIKEO « EHiZZCTRIC « 1¥[ ACHIATEIS 

For Electroplating, Eleotrotyping, Copper Kefining, Etc. 

RRJNnHnPPTP.PS" "C" yORK, S3 Church St.: BOSTON, 111 Arch St.: PHILADELPHIA, 506 Ccmmerce St.: CHICAGO, 42 La Salle St 
DHanbn UrilUIiO. KANSAS Cny, Rlalto SullHing: NEW ORLEAnS, lOeCarondeletSt. ^Laoaneat 

THE EDDY ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO., WINDSOR, CONN. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January i8 1S90 











-^ 







Established in 1861. 

E. BT^GGOT, 

WHOLESALE HUD RETAIL DEALER IN 

ELECTROLIERS, 

COMBINATION 

GAS AHD ELSCTEIC 

FIXTURES. 

ELECTRIC AND GAS GLOBES, 
SHADES, Etc., Etc., 

Madison Street and Fiftli Avenne, 

CHICAGO. 

BIUNcn STORE 

2134 Michigan Avenue, 



THE SPERRY ELECTRIC CO., 

D. P. PERRY, Yice-President and General Manager, 

MANDFACTOHEKS OF THE 

SPERRY IMPROVED SYSTEM 

.^EC LIC3-I^:TI3^Ta-, 

HIGH OR LOW TENSION. 

1. The new Sperry apparatus free from repairs for twelve montbe. 

2. That the new ^pe^^y improved Uynamoacan be coupled in aeries with perfect safety. 

3. Thbt any number of lamps from oae to capacity of dynamo can be cut In or out of circuit, 
singly or in croups, with perfect eafety, and without sparking at the bruBhee. 

4. To absorb power in exact proportion to number of lights burning. 



W^] 



1. The new Automatic Sperry Dynamos and Lamps surpass in eRiciency those of any ottier 
make. 

■J. That there ie greater economy in operating the new Sperry Syelem than any other, 

3. That our automatic regulation ha^ no equal; no rheostat, no wall boxes, no eolenold or 
daeh-pot. 

4. That if you will visit cor factory we can show you the best arc lighting apparatus in existence. 



Stilwell's Patent Live Steam-Feed Water Purifier. 




Removes all Impurities. 

Entirely prevents SCALE in Steata 
Boilers. Catalogue on application. 

SmWELL&BIERCEMFG. CO., 

DAYTON, OHIO. 



GEORGE CUTTER, 

CONSULTING ELECTRICIAN, 
80 Adams Street^ - CHICAGO. 



BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO., 

Orford Rosette Pendant "E,™!™?- 



THE lUNKENHEIMER BRASS MFC, CO., - Cincinnati, Ohio, 




Write for June, 1S89, Catalosne of (S) Cilobts Valves, Pop Safety Valves, 

Jjabricators, Oil and G^rcaso Cups, fingrlne Bnlfders' Brass liloofls, 

and Grlass Oil Caps for Dynamos. 



I 2 Pearl Street, Room 6, 



We invite correspondence with electrical engineers. Intending buyers, and Interested 

people everywliere. 

iBE mm mm co,, isi, iss, m m\ :iinton st,, Chicago, ill 

YV* Office and Factory ''/ff 

2134 to 2140 DeKalb St., - Sr. LOUIS, MO, 

Maunfactnrers of ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS aM CARBON SPECIALTIES, 

OUR 

■BLiCK DIAMOND" 

POINTS 

— iinsiiiM: — 

THEM ALL. 

^VRITE FOR, SAMPLES AND PRICES 



Lone Life, 

Uniform Size, 

AND- 




Guaranteed Second 
to None. 




EUREKA CONSTRUCTION. 



BOSTOSr, MASS. 

Improved PatcEteil Material for Street 
Railway Roail-tieds. 

BEST MATERIAL. LOWEST PRICES. CORRES- 
PONDENCE SOLICITED. 

THOMAS ASHBURNER, Western Agent, Kamas Citj, Mo. 

Rolled any weight deelred. Patent allowed. Sample 
Chair and Section of Rail Sent, Express Prepaid, to 
Prospeciive Pnrchfisers. 



Sioux City Corliss Engine. 

so to soo n. r». 

BUILT ]iY TUU 

ENGINE WORKS 

Sioux City, Iowa. 

BOILERS 

— AND— 

Steam rower Otitfilft 

for Liglitiiiy; Slsitltiiis 

anil Kirviitor.s 

ASPECIALTY. 

^ S»)ihI i'tiv <'ircvilar 1''. 
JOST'Stato liusinuds. 




LARGEST ENCINE WORKS 

■■■ ;L of t ho i>lississ;i|i|ii 



GENl WESTERN AGTSIIfra^i^Si^h.'w^?- 1™^^;^ 



Ana 



J. F. PORTER. Pros. & GcnI. Manager. E. RUEBEL, Superintendent. 

CENTRAL ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, 



919 LOCUST STREET, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

BRANCH: NASHVILLE, TENN. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

For any syBtem of Incandeecent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Street Railway Plants, Electric Power 
Plants, Electric Light Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Train Lighting Plants, Pole Line Construction. A full line of supplies 
carried at all times for plants described above. Flans and specifications for al l kinds of Electrical Construction. 

THE STANDimiMMNTOMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO, 



IVIazi.'U.fa.ot'urex-iHi of 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS AND BATTERY MATERIAL. 



January iS, 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 




VICTOR TURBINE WATER WHEEL 

The attention of ELECTRIC COMPANIES is called lo this CEL.!:- 
BRAXED "WATER WHEEL, as particularly adapted to their use. 
on account of its remarkably steady motion, hisrb. Speed 
and fjreat Efficiency, and lar^e Capacity, for its diameter, 
being double the Power of most wheels of same diameter. It is used by a 
number of the leading electric companies with great satisfaction. In the econom- 
ical use of water it is without an an equal, producing the highest ppi cent, of use- 
fill effect £■ II ara 11 teed. 

SK\'D FOB CATALO^rE AXO PARTIf'UI.ARS. 

Our Horizontal' 'Victor" is highly recommended, as no geai:: are required, 
and it can be belted directly to dynamo. 

The accompanying engraving represents a pair of 12-inch VICXOR 
Xl'RBl^'ES arranged on a horizontal shait, with Cast-iron Flume, Draft 
Tubes, End Bearings for Shaft, and Driving Pulleys complete, all mounted upon 
a substantial cast-iron bed plate. The entire arrangement is very complete and 
strictly first-class in every particular. We are now prepared to furnish Victor 
Turbines, either single or in pairs on horizontal shafts, and where the situation 
admits of their use. we recommend them. 

STILWELL & BIERCE MFG. CO., - DAYTON, OHIO. 

HOLIklES, BOOTH <& HJLYUEKS, 

FACIOBIES: WATEBBURT, CONN. 

MABfUFACTUREBS OF 

BARE AND INSUIiATZSD ^UITIRZ:. 

Underwriters' Copper Electric Light Line Wire, handsomely finished, highest conductivity. Copper Magrnet Wire, Flexible Silk, Cotton and 
Worsted Cords for, Incandescent Lightine' Round and Flat Copper Bars for Station Work. Insulated Iron Pressure Wire. 

PATENT "K K" OnE^WIRE 

For Electric Light, Electric Railways, Motors, Telegraph and Telephone Use. 

AGENTS FOR THE WASHINGTON CARBON CO., CARBONS FOR ARC LIGHTING. 

TH OS. L. SCOVILL, New York Agent, 

25 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK. 



GLQM£«5i46:<^l"S:3 



BELDING MOTOR & MFG. COMPANY, 






OFFICE 144 Adams Street, The Rookery, 1 
FACTORY 128-130 So, Clinton Street, I 



CHICAGO, ILL, U.S.A. 



aLAJSTrFACTTJE.ERS OF THE 



BELDINB ELECTRIC MOTORS 



P 



Perfect Automatic Regulation, 

Highest Efficiency Guaranteed. 

^ THE STRONGEST ARIATORE MADE. PERFECTLY BALANCED, ABSOLOTELT NO HEATING. 

All Parts Interchang^eable Even to Commutator. 

Correspondence Solicited. - Agents Wanted in all the Principal Cities. 




Telepliones and Electrical Sup- 
plies of Every Description. 

Elgla Telephone and Electrical ^oppij Co. 
ELGIN, ILL., U.S. A. 



l^^^rimm 



Af^«^ aNJ), |NCftNJ)c,SCENT ^Uy^iC 
tlGHflNa ^1,'ecTR0-PI.AT1N6.,ANJ) 
fOREXpCRlM£NrALUSE. AUJO MOTORS. 



THE STANDARD OPEN CIRCUIT 



BATTERIES OF THE WORLD. 




N0V.i6,t88Q. Wl'^l 
j!|N. t-'54. JA^ 






PARIS 
HIGHEST AWARD! 

THE ONLY 

GOLDMEDAL 



EXPOSITiaN 
: 1889 



eOKDA. 

THE LECLANCHEIBATTERY COMPANY, 




149 West 18th Street NEW YORK. 



WESTERN ELECTutlCIAN. 



January i8, 1S90 



THE BUTLER HARD RUBBER CO 

33 Mercer Street, NEAV' YORK, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Of every description, including the celebrated HARD RUBBER BATTERY CELLS, manufactured under 
Kiel's Patents for Primary and Storage Batteries. The cheapest and best Cells in the market. Also 

Sheet, Rod and Tubing (Kiel's Patent) for electrical purposes, at reduced prices. Standard quality Sheet, Rod, 
Tubincr, Insulator Hooks, Key Knobs, Switch Handles, Telephone Receivers and Battery Syringes, constantly on hand. 

HARD RUBBER SPECIALTIES OF ALL KINDS MADE TO ORDER. SEND FOR PRICES AND ESTIMATES. 

For Sale by CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., Chicago, 111. 




THE SCHUYLER ELECTRIC CO., "'"i!!"*'' 




January i8, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



JOHN W. MASON, Manager. 
8FECIAI1 AGENTS 



:^L0^'/> 



TRADE MARK. 
WLRES AND CABIiES. 



GATE CITY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Have a FULiL, STOCK of 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES! 

And will make liOW Prices and PK03EPT Shipments. 

522 DELAWARE STREET, - - KANSAS CITY, WIO. 



WHEN YOU BUY A MOTOR 

From ANY Manufacturer or Dealer, 

state that you WANT IT SUPPLIED 
WITH the 

Whittingham 

Automatic 

Switch. 

Send for Catalogue. 

Automatic Switch Co.. 

No. 8 Keyser Building, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 




B. D. BRAIDED WIRE. 

THE POPULAR WIRR FOR INCANDESCENT WORK. 

Safe and Reliable. 

NEW YORK INSULATED fIRE CO,, 

1 1 Central St., Boston, Mass. 649 & 661 Broalway. 

W. B. DOWSE, R. E. GALLAHER, Secy. 

Gen'l Supt . J. W. GODFREY, Gen'l Mgr. 




DJLF 

ELECTRIC LIGHT CO 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

STREET OR TRUNK LINES. 

ELEVATED OR UNDERGROUND. 



Central Stations for Power Distriliution. 



STATIONARY MOTORS. 

STORAGE BATTERIES. 




Executive Offices: 115 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

AGENCIES, 1 3 South Fourth St. , Philadelphia; 11 9 La Salle St. , Chicago. 

Factory: JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



NEBRASKA ELECTRIC CO. 

A. H. ZENNER, Manager. 
CONTRACTORS AND JOBBERS. 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL CONSTRDCTION AND SUPPLIES. 

1521 FARNAM ST., OMAHA, NEB. 

Pumpelly Storage Batteries, Standard Underground Cable Go.'s Wires, Celebrated 
Waring Cables and Conduit^, Paiste Switches, Stoddard Cut-Outs, Thomson-Houston 
Motors and Dynamos, Sawyer-Man Lamps and Specialties, Combination Fixtures 
and Electroliers, Gleason & Bailey Mfg. Co.'s Supplies, Wing's Disc Fans and B5- 
hausts. Electric Lighting and Supplies, Electric House Furnishings, Bell Hangers, 
Sundries, Complete Steam Plants. 



ELECTRIC HEAT REGULATOR 

Saves Coal, Saves Doctor's Bills, Saves Laboi; 

Automatic, Simple and Durable ; insures uniform temperature 
throughout the house; no heater complete without it; can be 
applied to any kind of heating apparatus. Try one, and be con- 
vinced. 
If not Bold in your town write DB for Illnstrated circular and pricea. 

CONSOLIDATED TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING CO., 



C. F. AilNETT. Prest. 



S. F. FENTON, Ylce-Preat. and Treaa. 



CHAS. SrDTJTET SMITH, Seo^ 



Hotel and House Annunciators. 
Electric GaB Lighting. 
Fire and Burglar AlanuB. 
Electro-Medical Apparataa, 
Electric Lighting. 
Telegraph Instruments. 
Wire and Batteries. 



The United Electric Go. 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies, 
SALT LAKE CITY, ■ UTAH. 



HOUSE ANNUNCIATORS, 



Style 2. 




s S S c 

I- ?i " & tE 

5 S 5 "^ tei 

s* „ ^ m o 

^ a ts ^ 

a ^ t> a 

S w o is 

- S g o 

<» 5- g. ^ 

S ^ o 

,-. CO _- 






^ M. 



PKANKLIN S. CARTER. 



- a 



CHAS. M. WILKINS. 




E. WARD WILKINS. 



Partrick & Carter, 

MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS IN EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES. 



SOLE PKOPRIETOBS OF THE 



PATENT NEEDLE ANNUNtlATORS AND BURGLAR ALARMS. 



114 S. Second St, 

ESTABI^ISILED 18G7. 



Philadelphia, Pa, 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January iS, 18S9 



a 



C. £ G." ELECTRIC MOTOR COMPANY, 

402 $t 404 GREENWICH STREET, NEW YORK. 

ALL STANDARD SIZES 



ELECTRIC MOTORS 

— F1101.1 — 

1-8 H. P. TO 40 H. P, 



Chicago Office. Piioenix Building. 
Cincinnati Office. 99 West Fouiili Street. 




OYsr 6,000 Mow in Us9 

— i:n the — 

UNITED STATES, 

Running Sewing Machines, Elevatois, 
Printing PreBses, Ventilating Fans, Blow 
ers, Coffee MUls, Polishing and Grinding 
Tools, Etc. 



New England Office, 32 Oliver Street, Boston. 
Philadelpliia Office, 301 Arch Street. 



JOHN STEPHENSON CO., 



i_iis^nrE:rD, 

NEW YORK. 



STREET CARS 



-FOR- 



ELECTRIC MOTORS 



CARS ADAPTED TO ALL SYSTEMS. 




BERGKLJLN']^ <& CO., 

ELECTRIC LIGHT, COMBINATION 





ADAPTED TO KNY SYSTEM OP INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 



ALL APPLIANCES FOR THE EDISOI ELECTRIC LIGHT, 



Illustrated Catalogues, Designs and Estimates Furnished on Application. Correspondence Solicited. 



Office and Works, \ lUTfir -xTr^-wyTT i Show Rooms, 

292-298 Avenue B, j -W-t-W XUHli. | 65 Fifth Avenue. 



T. W. WILMARTH & CO., 227 State Street, CHICAGO, ILL 

AGENTS FOR OUR FIXTURES IN THE NORTHWEST. 



January iS, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



SOUTHERN ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO. 



Of Every Description at Bottom Prices. Prompt Shipments and Intelligent £xecation of Orders, Our Specialties. 




310 North Third Street, 



TRADE MARK* 
AGEXTS. 





THE PERKINS 
ELECTRIC LAMP 
COMPANY, 

Chicago Office, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN ST. 



XBONABD PAGET. 



CHABLES J. KINTNEB. 



PAGET <£ KIIffTIVXSR^ 

Gbemical and Electrical Experts and Eiectrical Engineers. 

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENTS. 




PATENT 
DOUBLE 



LIFT-OVER 



PENDANT BURNER 



igniting Gas or Gasoline by Electricity. 



Tliis PENDANT BURNER has the Double Lift- 
Over Electrode, wliich saves two-thirds of Batlery Power and 
avoids SliortCirculling, which is liable to occur in many others. 

The Double Lift-Over Electrode is a very important feat- 
ture no other Pendant has. 

Electric Spark or Connection only when Gas is Ignited. 



Electric Gas Lighting Apparatus. 
Electric Bells and Annunciators. 
General Electrical Supplies. 

Electrical Specialties to Contract. 




]D3rxiamo aja.<± Cylincier Oils. 

Second to none. Free from gum or acids. Especially adapted for all fast runnning 

machinery. By refiltering can be used continually. Adopted by the largest 

Electric Plants of the West. 

8. TAUSSIG, Agent, - 43 River St., CHICAGO. 

WRITE FOR PRICES AND SAMPLES. 




THE MATHER ELECTRIC CO., 

Chicago Office, I I Metropolitan Block. 

N. Y. Office, 35 Broadway. Boston, 105 Summer St. Cincinnati, Carlisle Bldg. 

THE MATHER INCANDESCENT SYSTEM. 

Superior to all others in efficiency and reliability of Lamps and Dynamos. 



ki>laflifli(i)fiu>U'U'tii<Ii'ti *\A*\AfStff 



» ■ »' » »< I i ■» «»*<"1 « >» ."I «"H^ ^ («». 



From one-half horse-power upward, for conBtant potential circuits, perfectly self- 
regulating without special mechanism. Motors also for constant current circuits. Motors 
wound for any desired potential. 

THE HEISLER PATENT LONB DISTANCE 

INaXDESCeilT ELECTNC LIGHT SYSTEM. 

UNEQUALED FORIDISTRIBUTION OVER WIDE AREAS. 

'"Awarded the Highest Distinction, a Gold Medal, by the Internat'onal 
Jury at the Universal Exposition, Paris, 1889." 




Specially adapted for Street, Commercial, and Domestic Illumination frrm Central Sta- 
tions. Plant may be located where Power can be secured Cheapest, even If mil^s dittant from 
the Lighting. Safety, Reliability, and Financial Success fully detnonetrati d. Plan of Wiiirg 
the Simplest, Cheapest, and most ElBcient. Strictly Series. Noted fcr the Brillianry ana 
Beauty of the Light. Lamps, 10 to 100 Cahdle Power; Long Life without Blaclierirg. 
Greatest Produc'lon of Candle Power per Horse Power. Dynamo SelfContalned and Per- 
fectly Automatic. 

SEND FOB CIBCITI'AB. COBREISPOIIIDEKCE SOI/ICITED. 

HEISLER ELECTRIC LIGHT CO., 

SOO'Sl? South 7th Sheet, « SX. LOUIS, iUO' 




StreetPole ail Fixture 

-FOR- 

Helsier Loog Dislance 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 18 1S90 



THE BEST or ALL 



THE WHLTER K. FREEMHN 

TRANSFORMER SYSTEM 

OF INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 




ALTERNATING CURRENT DYNAMO— CAPACITY, 500 16-CANDLE-POWER lAWPS. 

We Gtiarantee 12 16-C. P. Limps for each Mechanical M. P. applied to Dynamo. We Guarantee our Trans- 
formers and Dynamos for two years, and sell our Apparatus upon its Satisfactory Performance. 

Our Apparatus is of the Highest Efficiency, Mechanically and Electrically. 

WE GUARANTEE ITS OPERATION, AND 



CORR-ESFOKTIDEITCE SOIvICITEC 



NATIONAL ELECTRIC MFG. CO., 

EAU QI^AIRE, WIB. 

GEO. B. SHAW, - General Manag^er. 

EASTERN ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION CO., Gen'l Eastern Agents, 

33 COLD STREET, NEW YORK. 

BAKER, BALCH & CO., General Agents, 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



THOMAS WOLFE, Southwestern Agent. 

UNION DEPOT HOTEL, 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 



January i8, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 





ELECTRIC RMLWA7 S7STEM 

BY THE VERDICT OF OVER FIFTY RAILWAY COM- 
PANIES HAS BEEN DECLARED 

A PRACTICAL A ND COMME RCIAL SUCCESS. 

Schedule Time Regularly Maintained, 

No Destruction of Apparatus, 

Slight Cost for Repairs, 

ARE THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE 



Ibonison-Ioiisloii Sailwaif Sysb 



I 



FIFTY ROADS IN OPERATION. 

THIRTY ROADS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 

TWENTY CONTRACTS JUST CLOSED, 

MAKING A GRAND TOTAL OF 

ONE HUNDRED ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANIES 

USING THE THOMSON-HOUSTON SYSTEM. 



Illustrated and Descriptive Pamphlets Furnished to Prospective 

Purchasers. 



THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 

MAIN OFFICE: 620 ATLANTIC AYE., BOSTON, MASS. 



148 Michigan Ave , Chicago, 111. fall and Lloyd Sts., Atlanta, Ga. 403 and 408 Sibley St., St. Paul, Minn. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January i8, 1890 



THE ELEGTRIGAL SUPPLY CO, 

Manufacturers of Electrical Goods. 



ELLIS OIL FILTER. 




Current and Pole Indicator. 




Arc Globe Protector. 



Returns the oil as pure as when 
originally drawn. 



HABIRSHAW 
RUBBER COVERED 



WIRE. 



Acknowledged to be the best Rubber 
Covered Wire on the market. 



Fletcher's Arc Light Windlass. 





Indispensable to any one engaged 
in electrical work. 



INCANDESCENT 

LAMPS. 



Unsurpassed Brilliancy. 

Strength of Filament. 
Long Life. 
Undiminished Candle Power. 



ELECTRIC PORTABLES. 



r\ 



Thoroughly protects Arc Globes, and saves 
its cost in a short time. 




Will easily 'wind up the heaviest lamp. 



Made of Polished Brass. 



171 Randolpli Street, 

CHICJ^OO 



FACTORIES, 



ANSONIA, CONN. 



January i8, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



IMPORTANT. 

^%^ PA Ttjjf^ 

SUSTAINED. 



The broad right to the use of Double Carbon Electric Arc Lamps 

declared to belong to the Brush Electric Company, under 

U. S. Letters Patent to Charles F. Brush, No. 219,208. 

In the suit of The Brush Electric Company vs. The Fort Wayne Electric 

Light Company, decided at Indianapolis, Dec. 24, 1889, 

JI7DGE GRESBAM SOLDS: 

1 That Brush was the Pioneer Inventor in Commercial Arc 

Lighting. 

2 That the Brush Patent in suit is the Pioneer Patent for 

Double Carbon Arc Lamps. 

3 That the Patent is Broad and Fundamental. 
4: That all its Claims (six in number) are valid. 

5 That the claims of the Patent are all infringed by the Defendant. 

The Court says: "The separation of the two pair of Carbons, so that the Are is established between one 
pair and maintained between the Carbons of that pair until they have bsan consumed and then automatically es- 
tablished between the Carbons of the other pair and maintained betwaen them until they have baen consumed, is 
a dissimultaneous and successive arc-forming separation, and it is this feature which distinguishes the Liamp in suit 
from all prior lamps." 

The Brush Electric Company is assured by the most competent legal advisers 
that Tinder this Brush Patent, as interpreted by the TJ. S. Circuit Court, practically 
all Double Carbon Electric Arc Lamps now offered for sale are 




and notice is hereby given that Infringers, whether manufacturers or users, will be 
prosecuted and held for damages to the fall extent of the Law. 

THE BRUSH ELECTRIC CO., 

CLEVELAND, - - OHIO. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 18. 1890 



FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC COMPANY, 



f ox>t 'V\7'ei>rx3.e, XzidlAXXA. 



Manutaclurers of the 

SLATTERY INDUCTION SYSTEM 

—OF 

IHCAHDESCEBT LIGHTING. 

ANIi THE 

WOOD SYSTEM 

OF 

LIGHTING. 




The Most Garefolly Work«d< 
out and Complete Altematiiic 
System of Electric Lightinff la 
Existence. 

Armatures and Oonverter* 
Guaranteed. 12-16 Candle Feir«T 
Lamps to the Mechanical Hovm 
Power Quaranteed. 




SLATTERY DYJAMO, LAMP AHD COHYERTEP. 



CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 

115 BROADWAY, 

Boreel BIdg. 




MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS. 

FORT WAYNE, IND. PHILADELPHIA OFFICE, 

907 Filbert Street. 
CHICAGO OFFICE, 1^ Dearborn St., First Floor, ^ ^ WILBUR, Manager. 

W. J. BUCKLEY, Manager. 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE. 21 7 Sansome St. I CiTY OF MEXICO OFFICE, F. ADAMS, SUCCESSOR. 




DETROIT 

Electrical Works, 

MANUFACTURERS. 



In our Annunciators our aim has been that 
nothing should be wanting in style, workman- 
ship or material to make them the BUST ever 
put on the market. 

Dealers who wish to identify themselves with 
the best goods and the safest policy, should 
handle the products of the DETROIT ELEC- 
TRICAL WORKS, which have the highest in- 
dorsement of both dealers and consumers through- 
out the country. 

Write us for Illustrated Annunciator Chart. 



RESPECTFULLY, 



Standard Hotel Xecille Annnnciator, 

WIfh eve T CALL and FIRC ALARM ATTACHMCNTS. 



Detroit Electrical Works, 



i:>x3a7JE«.oxT, BCTora:. 



$S per Annum. 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



1 O cents per Copy, 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 25, 1890. 



No. 4. 



Ireson's Self-Adjusting Leather-Link Belting. 



Patd. Nov. 10. '86. 

fispeclally sdapted for 
all Electric ptuposes and 
otberhlgh-speedmachLQ' 
ery. 




Send for Ireson'e Illus- 
trated Treaties on Self- 
Adjnstlng Leather Link 
Belting, farnlsbed gra- 
tultonely. 



Wanf'd by CHARLES L. IRESON. 97 High St.. Boston. Mass. 

^ ^^ Standard Underground Cable Co., 

^^3\ WESTraGHOnSE BHa., PITTSBURGH, PA, 

^~"~^i^^ ^^1/^^ G. L.WILEY. 18 Cor 

COMBINES %^4 lil^'" 

IN A HIGH GRADE ^— -^ ^ M /^^9^t 

Weatherproof Wire-^ '^^^i at 

SAFETYIDURABILITY. 



G. L. WILEY, 18 Corllandt St , New Yoik. 

F. E. DEGENHARDT, 

Room 542 'Rookery," 
Chicago. 




TlB Hollzer-Caliot BlBctric Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS IN 

EVERYTHING ELECTRICAL 

BBITD FOR ^6 FAC^E CATAL.Oei;E, 

1 11 Arch Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

ROOT'S WATER-TUBE BOILEK.^'Wnonap^. 



Dvurabls' 




AN EXCELLENT 



ELECTRIC - PLANT - BOILER. 

Adopted by ttie £dlBOn JBlectric JAsM, Com- 
panies at Fhiladelptila, Detroit, St. Paul, Colambns 
and Cincinnaii ; also the Bmsh Electric Light Co.t %t 

LonlBville, and others. 

ABENDROTH & ROOT MFG. CO., 

28 Cliff Street, New York. 

ROOT SECTIONAL SAFETY BOILER. 
BRANCHES: CHICAGO, BOSTON, PHILADELPHIA & NEW ORLEANS. 



(2121) 



ELECTRIC 
LIGHT, 

HIGH OR LOW 
VOLTAGE. 



»lDilia-Bnl)lier it UMm\i \iiMm Co 



Vulcanized India-Rueeer Cables, to any 
specification up to 8,000 Megohms per mile. 

Absolutely Pure Rubber Cables, 

CONXENTRic Cables, any millage, Flexible 
Cords, Silk, Hemp, Cotton, Dynamo 
Wires and Cables, very pliable. Every 
varietv of Incandescent Cores. 



UNDER WATER 

AND 

UNDERGROUND. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Three and Two-wire Ca- 
bles, to any specification 
up to 8,000 Megohms per 
knot. 

Cables of High insulation 
and Long Liie, all millage. 



WNI. M. HABIRSHAW, F.C. S. 

General Manager. 



Offices: f 59 Front Street, 

NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



MARINE 

ELECTRIC 

LIGHT 

Installations 



Standard Marine 
Cores to any Millage 
or Specification up to 
9,000 Megohms per knot. 

Two -Circuit Concen- 
tric Cables, both cir- 
cu ts, 9,000 Megohms per 
knot. 

Na\^ Portables, Silk, 
Cotton and Hemp. 

Bell Wire, rubber cov- 
ered, for Marine Work. 

Pliable Cables, for 
Search Lights. 




DAY'S KERITE INSULATION. 

The acknowledged Standard for durable and higrh 
Insulation. Its nr>erits proved by a record of over 
quarter of a century. Adapted to all electrical purposes. 



El*etric Light and Power. . 

Telegraph and Telephone, All Sizes 



Aerial Use, 

Subterranean Use, 
Submarine Use 

Concealed Wiring in all Locationt. 



E. B. McCLEES, General Manager, I6 Dey St. NEW YORK. 

Western Electric Co., Chicago, m., Sole Agents for the West. 



ANSONIA BRASS & COPPER COMPANY, 

Sola Manufacturers of COWLES' PATENTED 

Fire -Proof and Weather - Proof 

ELECTRIC LIGHT LINE WIRE. 

C B B A 



<2<$$i^*J^^ 



g— BwMedClf. 



CUT SHOWING STV1.H OF INSULATIOK. 

X— Copper Wire. B. .&.— Two Braids, saturated with Fire-Proof Insulation 
■aturated with a £ICfCft, Wrather-Proof Composition. . ^ ., , « ^ n 

Approved by New York Board of Fire Undenvntere. Samples fimusbed upon application. Ra« 
trie Copper Wire, bare and covered, of every description. 



niARrRnnMc- i '9 a>«l 21 Cliff St.. New York. 
WAKtKuuMs. ^j33 ^^^ ^3g Wabash Ave., Chicago, III. 



FACTORIES: 

ANSONIA, CONN. 



THE EDISON MACHINE WORKS, 

MANVFACTUBEBS OF 

Weatherproof Wire. Insulated Iron Wire. Magnet Wire, Rubber Covered House Wire. 
Annunciator Wire. . German Silver Wire. Oflace Wire. Flexible Brush Holder Cable. 
Gas Fixture Wire. Arc Lamp Cords. Tinsel Cords. Flexible Cords. 

Telephone, Telegraph and Electric Light Cables. 
PARAGON TAPE. 

JAMES F. KELLY, General Sales Asent. - 19 Dey Street, NEW YORK. 

WOBBIS: SCHENECTADY, N. T. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1S90 



THE THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 



Arc and Incandescent 

£lectric 
liighting Apparatus. 



G20 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

148 Michigan Ave., Cuicago, III. 

115 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
315 W. 4th St., Ci.NCiNNATi, Ohio. 

116 Gravier St., New Orlean.s, La. 

503 Delaware St., Kansas City, Mo. 
319 N. 3d St., St. Louis, Mo. 
234 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Electric Railway 

Equipment. 
Electric Motors. 




Ai-c Wynaiuo. 



No better proof of the superiority of our arc apparatus 
can be offered than the fact that of the 21,000 arc lamps 
operated by Gas Companies in this country, over 11,000, or 
52 per cent., are Thomson-Houston. The dynamo is entirely 
automatic in its regulation, perfect in mechanical construc- 
tion, and economical in operation. The lamps burn steadily 
and uniformly, and hold their adjustment better than any 
other lamps on the market. 




Our direct current incandescent dynamo is rapidly gain- 
ing favor with practical electric lighting men, as its many 
features of excellence are recognized. Like the arc dynamo 
its regulation is automatic, permitting any number of lamps 
to be thrown on or off without in the least affecting the 
others in service. Our incandescent lamps have an un- 
equaled record for long life. 



Direct Cnrrrnt Incandescent Dynamo. 




The problem of long distance incandescent lighting is 
practically solved by the alternating current dynamo, and to 
meet the demand for a machine of this character we have 
constructed what is unquestionably the most perfect alterna- 
tor offered the public to-day, embracing as it does, all the 
features that combine to make a perfect dynamo — automatic 
regulation, perfect mechanical construction, highest efl&ci- 
ency, and economy of operation. 



Alternating Cnrrent Dynamo. 




Motor. 



The employment of electric motors for driving small ma- 
chinery is becoming so common, and its advantages so well 
known, that it is unnecessary to elaborate in this direction. 
In the construction of our motors we feel that we have reached 
a point where their superiority cannot but be admitted. 



LIGHTNING ABBESTEK. —AH of our installations are 
protected from destruction and injury by our lightning arrester, which 
we will fully guarantee to operate successfully in every instance. The 
Company guarantees to repair or replace apparatus injured by light- 
ning where these arresters fail to operate. 



January 25, i8go 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



CHAS. D. JENNEY & CO., 




One H. P. Constant Potential aiotor. 

AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC MOTORS 



-^z* "r^n- 



HIGHEST EFFICIENCY 

For both Arc and Incandescent Oircuits, from 1-2 to 100 
H. P. All of our Motors have 8elf-Oiling Boxes. 

224 S. ILLINOIS ST., - INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



STORED ELECTRICITY, 



Electrical Accumulators or 
Storage Batteries, 

ESPECIALLY ADAPTED TO 

STREET CAR PROPULSION. 

Central Station Liglitiiig, 
Isfllatei LiiMii, 
Railroafl Car Wm, 
LonOistaDceLiElitiiis. 

IBS ONLir SYSTEM 7HICB COMFLETELy DISPLACES GAS, 




THE ELECTRICAL ACCUMULATOR COMP'Y 

44 Broadway, New York. 

CHICAGO OFFICE, DETROIT OFFICE, 

502 Phenix Building. 30 Atwater St., East. 

T.^^ San Francisco Office, 220 Sutter St- 



THE HAWKEYE 



ELECTRIC MFG. CO., 

DAVENPORT, ■ - IOWA. 



Complete Central Station 



lINTJCS 



ISOLATED PLANTS, 
ARC AND INCANDESCENT APPARATDS. 



OUR D'VITADIOS are unsurpassed by any made for efficiency, 
automatic regulation, and general workmanship. 



Licensee o£ the Renowned Perkins Incandescent Lamps, 

Famous for long life without discoloration. 



EL£CTRIC MOTORS for Railway Circuits and Central 
Stations; any voltage, highest efficiency, all sizes. 



Prices Reasonable. - Write us for Catalogue and Price List. 





COMPANY, 

DYNAMOS. NEW YORK. MOTORS. 

C. SCHUMACHER, Pres't. VICTOR SCHALLER, Treas. P. CLAUS, Gen'l Manager. 

OfBce: 63 Broadway. Factory: 162 and 164 W. 27tli St. 




Our Dynamo is cast in one piece, and combines inde- 
structible solidity with the greatest simplicity of design and 
compactness; the highest efficiency 'with a total absence of 
the many objectionable features of the machines heretofore 
in use. No outside magnetism. Current generated without 
sparking, therefore steady light, and small wear of brushes 
and commutator. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 35, 1S90 



TTHE iVAmcy 



CleTrela-rLd., 01:i.io. 

-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS and BATTERY MATERIAL. 



JARVIS 



ENGINEERINE CO, 

61 OLIVER STREET, 



^OSTFOI«r. 



CONTRACTING ENGINEERS FOR ERECTING 
COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS FOR 

ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER STATIONS. 

NATIONAL FEED WATER HEATER. 

JARVIS BOILER SETTING, to Burn Anthracite Coal and Coke 

Screenings. 
NATIONAL ROCKING AND SHEFFIELD GRATE BARS 

SEND FOR NEW CATALOGUE. 



ECONOMICAL ARC LAMPS 

M FOR INCANDESCENT CIRCUITS 




f' j ^ Theaelamps, burning in series, require about 30 volts and 8 amperes of current. 
I J Electrical contractors can make money by acting as our agents. When writing please state voltage and system used. For 



\ 



Si- 



KI»MM.\>' LAMP. 



prices and Information regarding our new and improved Multiple Arc, Multiple Series and Search Lamps, address 



■Jm-v 



THE ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION &. SUPPLY CO.. ■ 18 Cortlandt Street. New York City. 



Dynamo Belts Carried in Stock. 


KNAPP ELECTRICAL WORKS 


Viin lirO CORLISS OR HIGH SPEED WITH BOILERS, Etc. 

TNu Ntu For Driving Dynamos. 

1 ■ Complete Steam Plants Furnished and Erected. 

LNGLISH, MORSE & co.'"::rr,r„. 


MANUFACTURERS OF 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES, 

Anil M'esterii Agentiii 

Perkins Incandescent Lamp Company, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 


SEND FOR SPECIAL CIRCULARS. 



EDISON M ANUFACT URING CO., 

EDISOH'LALANDE BAHERY. 

(UNDER AUTHORITY OF THOMAS A. EDISON.) 

— -MANUFACTURERS OF 

PRIMARY BATTERIES for TELEGRAPH "MAINS" and "LOCALS," 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, TELEPHONE TRANSMITTERS, 
ELECTRO-PLATING, ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

ANNUNCIATORS AND BURGLAR ALARMS 
AND ALL CLASSES OF CLOSED AND OPEN CIRCUIT WORK. 



COISISE3S^03^ID^3SrCE: SOX_ICITEE)- 



JAMES F. KELLY 



General Sales 
I Ae:ent, 



19 Dey St., NEW YORK. 



January 25, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



THE REYNOLDS 

iMPROVE D Corliss Engine 

Is especially adapted for electric plants 

of all kinds, and has made a record in 

tiiis field which cannot be excelled. 

rr IS UlffiQTJAIiED POB ECOTffOMY OF FUEL, XLEQULABIT? Off 
MOTION, AMD DTTRABTT.TTY IN USE. 




SOUB BUIL.DBRS 



EDW. P. ALUS & CO.. 



RELIANCE WORKS. 



MILWAUKEE, WIS, 



tv rite ror onr Catalo^nes. 



ManufactnrerB of and Dealers in 

Pulleys, Gears, Shafting, Hangers, Leather, Rubber 

and Cetton Belting, Lubricants, and Mill and 

Engine Supplies of Every Description. 

CHICAGO BRANCH, 41 ail 43 SOUTH JEFFERSON ST, 



BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO. 



INCANDESCENT LAMPS 

FOR 

ARC-LIGHT CIRGDITS. 




SIMPLE . RETTATtLE. DITRABLE. 

The only sale socket for series lamps, and the only 
socket having insulating material for the outside 
parts. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

620 ATLANTIC AVENUE, 

CHICAGO OFFICE. 80 Adams Street, GEORGE CUTTER, Agent. 




EXCELSIOR ELECTRIC CO. 




MOTORS 

FOE 

Arc § Incandescent Circuits 

PERFECT AUTOMATIC REGDLATM. 



Highly Efficient and Economical. 



CONSTANT SPEED UNDER ALL LOADS. 

F. VJ". HOBNE, Manager 

WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES. 

1 1 EAST ADAMS STREET, - - CHICAGO. 



COMPnilMn CONDENSING OR 
VrVm r't/UIMIJ. NON-CONDENSING. 

16 Sizes, 6 to 600 H. P. Hot yet equaled by any form of Engine fop 

HIGH FUEL DUTY AND SIMPLICITY. 



STANDARD. ^IISIT" 

3,000 in nse in all parts of the Civilized World. 

JUNIOR. 

AM AFIOIIATIO EHS: 
Well Built, Economical, 



6 Sizes in Stock, 5 to 50 H. P. 

AS AFIOIIATIO EHSIHE CHEAPEE THAN A SLIDE VALVE. 
Reliable. Over 300 sold the first year. 



TTi 



UUT 



i 



i 



Alltiie above built stnctly to Gangg with Interchangeable Parts. 
Hepairs Gamed in Stock. Send for IIlti^tTated Oataloeues. 



TheWestinghousBMachinGCo. 

PITTSBURGH, PA.U.S.A. 



SELLING DEPARTMENTIN THE UNITED STATES, 

17 Cortlandt Street, I w«=«„„i,„.,™ 
Hathaway BuUding, !^!±S?''Sf^ 

156, 158Xaie Street, J '^ '^■ 

608 Chestnut St., M. R. MucklS, Jr. & Co. 

302, 30i Washingtoo Ave. 

312 TJiuon Avenue. 

1830 Seventeenth Street, , 

1619 Capitol Avenue, F. C. Aver. 

Geo. M. Wiley & Sons. 



NEW YORK, 

BOSTON, 

PITTSBURGH, 

CHICAGO, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

ST. LOUIS, 

KANSAS CITY, 

DENVER, 

OMAHA, 

PINE BLUFFS, Ark. 



Fairbanks 
&0o. 



SALT LAKE CITY, 259 S. Main St. I Utah & Montana 
BUTTE, MONT. E. GraniteSt. f Machinery Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO, 21 and 23 Fremont St., Parke & Lacy Co. 
PORTLAND, OR. *!, 35 N. Front St., Parke & Lacy Mch. Co. 

CHARLOTTE, N.C. 86 CoUege St., !-,,„„ , „ w„„r.„ 

ATLANTA, GA. 4S S. Prior St. [The D. A. Tompkms Co. 
DALLAS.TEX. Keating Imp. & Mch. Co. 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN. C. E.James i Co. 



W. D. SARGENT, Pres. JOHN A. BARRETT, Vicc-Pres. and Cons Elec. E. H. CUTLER, Treas. and Mgr. FRANK A. PERRET, El(c. 

THE ELEKTRON MANUFACTURING CO., 

MANrFACTUEERS OF THE 

PERRET ELECTRIC MOTORS AND DYNAMOS. 

AUTOMATICALLY REGULATED, UNEXCELLED IN SIMPLICITY 

AND DURABILITY. 



The Only Machines Having Laminated Field Magnets of Softest Charcoal Iron 

By Means of Which Higher Efficiency, Closer Replatlon and Slower Speed 

ARE OBTAIKED THAN IS POSSIBLE OTHERWISE. 1^-CAREFUL INVESTIGATION INVITED. 




;^ 1 — 1 — -m 




TUBING ALL.-Sfz 



L Purposes 



Pure Sheet Tfubber Etc. «s 



Sarriple-s and prices upon application. 
Address JHE Br.CoODRICH Co. 



AKRON RUB BE ft WORKS 

AKRON, OHIO. 







l^iUQiilUiBBIIII 



(Specialties OF all kinds to order 

—z^^ Send for Qtai-ogue. -^ — 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, iJ 



SEND DS A SAMPLE ORDER! 

If You Want Anything Electrical, Write to Us. Lowest Prices. 
Most Complete Stock. Quickest Shipment. 



Wire. 


All kinds from bare to highest grade of insulation made. 
We always carry a full stock of wire of all the best makes. 


Flexible Cord. 


Of all sizes, and every finish. 


Sockets. 


Key sockets, keyless sockets, push button sockets, receptacle sockets, porcelain sockets. 
Absolutely water-proof and vapor-proof. 


Cut-Outs. 


Porcelain cut-outs, having plug or link fuses. Every size and style for two or three- 
wire system. 


Incandescent Lamps. 


To fit any socket. All candle powers, any voltage, and any efficiency up to twenty 
lamps to horse power. 


Switches. 


All mounted on porcelain. Absolutely incombustible. 
Any size. No heating or arcing. 


Ampere Meters. 


Accurate, constant, any range desired. 


Vo t Meters. 


Very sensitive. Shielded from magnetic influence. Constant. Never need recalibra- 
tion. Any reading desired. 


Dynamos. 


Any voltage, from one volt to 1,200. Any current from two amperes to 3,000. 
Self-oiling bearings, highest efficiency, compound wound or shunt wound. No Epaik 
ing. Perfect in every detail. 


Kinds of Plants. 


Central stations on two-wire, three-wire, double three-wire, seiies srd converter eys- 
tems. Isolated plants, two-wire or three -wire. 

Train lighting plants, having special dynamo and engine, and all perfected special 
devices and methods. 

Steamship plants, best plants afloat, special devices perfected in every way, and ap- 
proved by government. 

Transmission of power plants. Electro-deposition plants; wide experience, perfected 
methods and devices. 

Arc lighting plants. Every good and economical kind of plants. 

Send for information and estimate to nearest District office. 

Construction for all kinds of electric light, electric power and electric railway, and 
electro-metallurgical plants. 


M scellaneous Articles. 


Such as tape, rubber tubing, insulators, pins, cross-arms, solder, cleats, screws, insulat- 
ing hooks, insulating compound, always in stock, and sold at best prices. 


Supp ies. 


Of every kind in stock at New York, Chicago, Denver and San Francisco. 


Agents. 


Can be had anywhere within twenty-four hours. 


Contracts tor Installation. 


We make contracts for complete installation, construction and all, ard are diiectly re- 
sponsible for everything about the plant. 
No sub-contractors. No division of responsibility. 



UNITED EDISON MFG. CO. 



9IAIN DISTRICT OFFIOEiS: 

Eastern States, 65 Fifth Avenue. New York City. 
Central " Rialto Building, Chicago, III. 
Mountain " 730 Seventeenth St., Denver, Col. 
Pacific " Chronicle Building, San Franciico, Cat. 



January 25, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



REMOVAL. 



^BHkiHa 



We Invite Our Friends and the Trade 

generally to call upon us in 

our new quarters, 

116 & 118 FRANKLIN ST., 

WHERE WE ARE NOW LOCATED AND DOING BUSINESS. 



Our very much increased facilities en- 
able us to carry a larger stock, a more 
diversified line, and to make ship- 
ments promptly and with better 
care, than formerly. 

We invite all to give us a call and if this 

cannot be done in person, send us 

your orders instead, which 

will be appreciated. 



CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., 



H ELESGTRIGAI. SUPPLIBS^h 



116 & 118 Franklin St., - Chicago, 111. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 





For Central Lighting, Isolated Plants, Running Stationary Motors and Street Car Trac- 
tion. Specially adapted for Physicians' Cautery Purposes. Send for Circulars and 
Prices. Correspondence Solicited. 

PUMPELLY STORAGE BATTERY AND ELECTRIC MOTOR CO., '^ <-'"'■> »"-• 



• J o:^roja.ca-c», - iXjiX^. 




LOCKWOOD AMMETER 
»• POLARITY INDICATOR 

For Arc an d Incandesce nt Circuits. 
Lockwood Instrument Co., 

'.il Griswold Street, 



POND 



ENGINEERING CO. 

707 and 709 Market St., St. Louis. 
427 "The Rookery," Chicago. 
31 Waterworks Building, Kansas City. 
319 Ramge Building, Omaha. 
ENGINES, BOILERS, ETC., FOR DRIVING DYNAMOS. 

COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS CONTRACTED FOR. 

Erected Ready for Service. 

BPECIAXTIE8 :-The ArmlDgton & Sims Engine, Steel Boilers, Ireson LIsk Belt, Stand- 
ard RocklDg and Sheffield Grates, Lowe Heater, Hyatt Filter, BlakePamp, EortingZnjector, etc. 

BKltP FOB I.A.TBgT CATAI^OeUKB. 

WM, ». TUKNKR. J . LBSTfcK WOOUBK[UUE. 

ITirOODBRIDGZS & TURIffEIR, 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 

COnPIiETE E4(VIPnE»IT OF ELECTRIC RAIIiWATS. 

Staini Planli lor Electric Light and Power. Arc and Incandtscent Lights Installed. 

Oe.lffna and KHtlmates Sabmltt«fl. 

"74 OortlAxi.ca.t street, »a"e-\^7- 'Voi-'^.. 



O. E. Maddex, President. 



E. T. GiLLiLAND, Vice-President. 



WESTERN ELECTRIC CO. 



DISP LeCLANCHE BATTERY. 



The Empire City Electric Co., 

15 Dey Street, New York, 

EIiEGlHlGJlIiSUPPliIES 



OP AL,L, KIXDS FOB 



ELECTRIC LIGHT. TELEPHONE, TELEGRAPH 

AND 

ALL BRANCHES OF ELECTRICAL WORK . 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE AND PRICES. 



A NEW BOOK 

Will be issued as soon as the Revisionarj work is completed. 
ELECTRIC LAW, 

Edited by Fued H. Whipple Price, handsomely printed and bound, $10.00. 

The Electric Railway. Municipal Lighting. 

In paper, |1.00, Leather, $2.00, 

Whipple's National Electrical Directory. 

Price, #10 00. 

Whipple's Electrical Reports. 

Pabllshed Monthly. |3 00 per year. 



Address 



The FRED H. WHIPPLE CO., 

Or any Sleotrlcal Journal or leading Book Store. 

New York Office, 1 8 Cortlandt Street. 




We; are continually 
increasiBg the efficien- 
cy of our 

DISQUE LeCLANCHE 

BATTERY, 

And Ouarantee It 

IN THE MABKET. 



AMES, CREHAR &. CO,, 

N. W. Aqbntb, 

ST. PAUL, - MINN. 

Write for Revined Prices. 



Western Agent, 

I. n. COLBURH & CO. 

Dynamos, Motors, Etc. 



Western Agent, 

A. F. MOORE S 

Wires and Cablet. 



6. A. HARMOUNT 

3I5--32I Wabash Ave.. CHICAGO, ILL 



W1«»I.ESAI.E DEALER IIV 



General ^ * Electrical ^ * Supplies, 

Manufacturer and Owner of the NEW PATENT 

MESSENGER and fire ALARM 
SIGNAL BOXES, 

WITH PUSH BUTTON CALLS. 



ells, Batteifies, Buzzers, Buttons, Breakwheels, Burners. 
Brackets, Burglar Alarms. 



Write 



lectToliers, Eccentric Clamps, Electricians' 
Tools, Extension Bells, Elevator Cables, 



For I 



pring Jacks, Signal Boxes, 
Silk Cord, Single Relays, 
Spark Coils, Switc hes, Splicing Tools. 

I Catalogue | T-'-'Z:*,,.,.. 

Thermostats, Ticket Cases, Telephone Tools, Tin Foil. 



January 25, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



IX 



LIGHTING SYSTEM 



-O^^ 



The Westlnghouse Electric Co. 



BY ALTERNATE CURRENTS 

ASSURES EQUITY, SAFETY, ECONOMY. 




n 



A PERFECT MEASURING APPARATUS, 

THE SHALLENBERGE R ALTERNA TE CURRENT METER 

Over 1 1 ,000 of These Meters in Actual Use. 

COMPLETE CENTRAL STATION MACHINERY. 



Dynamos for 500 to 5,000 Sixtscn Candls-Fower Lamps. 



THE WESTINGHODSE ELECTRIC COMFANZ 



7 



T>ITTS1BTJRG. PA., XT. S. A,. 



BOSTON. 



NEW YORK. CHICAGO. 

SAN FRANCISCa. PO^TUAND. 



ST. LOUIS. 
CHARLOTTE. 



CINCINNATI. 



DALLAS. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 




GENERHU OFFICES: 

510 West 23d Street, 



January 25, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



WESTIHGHOUSE ELECTRIC 



PITTSBURGH, PA., U. S. A, 

Safety in Electric Ligliting. 

All systems having the main wires connected directly with 
wires on premises are dangerous. 

With an alternating system, the lighting may be done without 
any electrical connection between the house wires and the main 
wires. A converter in an alternating system separates the mains 
from the house wires and constitutes an impassable barrier between 
the current in the high tension street wires and that used for 
lighting the lamps in the houses. 

A perfect converter requires two coils separately wound, sep- 
arately insulated, and separated from each other and the core. The 
converter of The Westinghouse Electric Company is the only 
device which fills this requirement. 

A converter not only separates the street mains from the house 
wires, but it limits the quantity of current that can be transferred 
from the street mains to the house. 

In an experience of 265 central stations, employing 25,000 con- 
verters, there has been no case in which any connection has been 
established between the current carried on the street mains and 
the wires in the houses, by lightning or otherwise, and there has 
been no case of accident to any consumer or upon the premises. 



GeneratlDg Apparatus for over 300,000 Lamps sold this year. 

Manufactured under Patents of Stanley, Wallace and Others. 



BRKNCH OF=FICES: 
Boston. New York. Chicago. St. Louis. Cincinnati. San Francisco. 
' Portland. Charlotte. Dallas. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, iSgo 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM. 

The Pioneer of Successful Electric Railways. 

The only Award given for Electric Railways at the Paris Exposition of 1889 was a 
GOLD MEDA.L presented to the Sprague Eleccric Railway and Motor Company, for the 
most perfect systom of Electric Railway Equipment. 



What are the Essential Features in any Comprehensive 
Electric Railway System? 

Main Feeders from Power Station. 

Main Conductor Feeding in Trolley Wire. 

Uniform Size of Trolley Wire, Independent of Length of 
Line, or Number of Cars Operated. 

AND WHY? 

BECAUSE, Thereby only can be secured Uniform Electrical Pres- 
sure. 

Absolute Reliability of Service. 

Non-interference with one section by interruptions upon any 
other. 



The Sprague Company will guarantee to operate a ten mile 
Thirty Car, Double Track System with 

Less Engine Power; 

Less Dynamo Capacity; 

Less Weight of Conductors; 

Less Loss in Distribution; 

Less Loss in Motors; 

OR IN WORDS THAT ARE UNDERSTOOD BY ALL, WITH 

More Car Miles per Ton of Coal Consumed; 

More Miles of Line with a Given Loss; 

More Territory Covered by a Given Outlay; 

More Reserve Capacity in a Given Plant; 

THAN CAN BE DONE WITH ANY OTHER SYSTEM. 

FEATURES OF A CORRECT MECHANICAL DESIGN OWNED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE SPRAGUE CO: 



Centering the Motor on the Driven Axle; 

Flexible Yielding Support for Relief of Strains; 
TJniversal Movement of the Trolley Pole; 

Single Lever Movement for Motor Control; 



NO COMPETITOR OF THE SPRAGUE 
COMPANY CAN MAKE A SIMILAR 
GUARANTEE, AND ACCOMPLISH 
IT TO THE LETTER. 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY & MOTOR COMPANY, 

Nos. 1 6 and 18 Broad St.. Kew York. ;; ; Rialto Building, Chicago. 

The Interior E lectrica l Conduit Co. 

A New and Improved aiethod of Kqnlppins Bnildlnss with an Insulated Tnbe Condalt for any t^yfcteni of Electric Wlrlne. 

OOlVX^BXZU'XfffOs 

SAFETY— -^^sfl'ite immunity from electric fires. 
AC' ESSIBlLITV— P^r^f^ct access to concfaled wires. 
ECONOMY— ^ii»»II fost ot infetallution, and freedom from fntore espenee. 
OUR AB'L*Tl^— Absolutely moisture-proof tube and appliances, insurinR longevity of wires. 

CONVENIENCE— Syeteme of electric wiring may be laid out on original plane In a manner eimilar to that employed for gas, water and steam piping; the conductors may be drawn in at pleasure. 

FOR CIRCULARS, PRICE LIST AXD IKSTRVCTIOXH, ADDBKS8, 



THE INTERIOR ELECTRICAL CONDUIT CO., 



15+ N D 156 WEST 27TH ST.. NEW YORK CITY. 




-THE- 



uiioi umm Eo. 

PUSH-BUTTON 
SHELLS. 



TORRINGTON, CONN., 

AND 

95 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK. 



CHARLES MUNSON, Prejt. 
FRftNKGMOSSfSECV Mbeas. 




^VSH-^ 



,^Gi 



-MANL'FACTUREH OK- 



The Paiste Switchp.s, Cut -Outs, Gas 
Attachments, Etc., 

HAS REMOVED 

FROM 1206 CHESTNUT STREET, 

TO 

Twelfth and IKEarket Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Pittsbuf^g'h . 

New York 



K E/vuLc ana 
^^NAMo BELTING • 



. y n 1 1 n H y '1 




TRAD E MARK. 



% 



SanFf(angisgo. 
New Orleans. 



28,30,32.34 & 36. S. CANAL SL 



STANDARD PAINT CO. 



Manufacturers of the 



Celebrated P. &B. Insulation, 

59 Maiden Lane, NEW YORK, 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, JANUARY 25, 1890. 



No. 4 



Electric Light Plant in the New York Life 
Insurance Building, Kansas City, Mo. 

One of the handsomest and most costly struct- 
ures in Kansas City is that which has recently 
been erected by the New York Life Insurance 
company. This building is located at Ninth and 
Wall streets. It is ten stories high and contains 
324 rooms without counting those in the base- 
ment and sub-basement. The electric light 
plant is located in the sub-basement. The ac- 
companying cuts show the dynamo room and a 
special marble-faced switch-board from which 
the vaiious circuits throughout the building are 
controlled. The steam plant consists of four 
Babcock & Wilco.x boilers and two Watts-Camp- 



out will be appreciated. Referring to Fig. 2, it 
will hi seen that the board is divided into as 
many sections as there are machines, i. e. six. 
Now the building is wired in six sections; in 
other words, there are six sets of feeders all of 
which terminate in regular order at the top of 
the board. The row of switches placed along 
the upper edge of the board indicates this ar- 
rangement. Each set of feeders is independent 
of the other — in fact, is a separate system. In 
order thoroughly to understand the manner in 
which the dynamos are connected in relation to 
the several circuits, it will be necessary to ex- 
plain, somewhat in detail, the construction of the 
main switches. These are six in number — one 



pulling it out and moving it into the desired po- 
sition and pushing it back again into place, 
where it is once more locked by the catch. 

It will now be readily seen that to throw the 
machine marked "B" on to all of the six 
sets, assuming for illustration that the load is 
light but well distributed — it will only be neces- 
sary to quickly change the position of the five 
remaining switches. Assume, again, that it is 
desired to change the dynamo on a given set of 
feeders. It is evident then that only one move- 
ment is required. By this arrangement the ma- 
chines are never run in parallel. The ammeters 
being connected with feeder "bus" bars indicate 
when it is necessary to throw on or off the dif- 




-ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANT IN THE NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE DUILDING AT KANSA, CITY, MO. 



bell engines. The boilers have a capacity of 
500 horse power, and the engines together fur- 
nish 350 horse powe- These latter are belted 
to a main shaft which is in turn connected, as 
shown in the illustration, with the Brush dyna- 
mos. The plant supplies current to all the cir- 
cuits in the building. The building is wired for 
3,000 lights. 

The dynamos are six in number and each has 
a capacity of 400 i6-candle power lights. The 
machines are all compound wound to deliver 
current at a pressure of 100 volts and the arma- 
ture of each is of the open coil type. One of 
the most interesting features about the plant is 
the arrangement of the circuits at the switch- 
board. In designing this plant the engineers 
aimed to avoid the necessity of running the ma- 
chines in multiple arc. As the disadvantages 
of connecting compound wound constant poten- 
tial machines in parallel are well understood, the 
ingenuity with which this problem was worked 



for each system — and are shown prominently in 
the illustration just above the ammeters. The 
design of this special switch is somewhat pecu- 
liar. The cont:.cts are constructed in a similar 
manner to those of the ordinary cleaver switch 
which is now so largely used. They are ar- 
ranged about the center of the switch as shown 
in sets of four. The two inside contacts of each 
set connect respectively with the -f and — 
"bus" barsbelongingto that particular one-sixth 
of the system of feeders. The two outside con- 
tacts of each set connect respectively with the 
six dynamos. In other words, each of the six 
dynamos is represented by two contacts in each 
switch. A given set of feeders, however, con- 
nects only with its respective switch. Connec- 
tion from contacts to contacts is made by two 
metal bars or strips, which are carried by the 
hand wheel as shown. The switch is operated 
by simply loosening with the thumb a small 
catch which holds the wheel down in place; 



ferent dynamos. The smaller switches, already 
referred to as being ranged along the top edge 
of the board, are of the pull or push type; the 
act of pulling opens the circuit and pushing 
closes it. 



Electric Motor in a Printing Office. 

The printing department of the John Morris 
Printing company, Chicago, was started up as 
usual Monday morning, Jan. 13th, despite the 
fact that the engine and boiler had been complete- 
ly wrecked in the explosion of the previous Friday. 
The company found that it would be impossible 
to replace the engine and boiler within a month, 
and as this would cripple the concern and en- 
tail a loss through failure to fill contracts and 
necessitate shutting down the printing office, 
it was decided to look about for other means of 
securing power. The Thomson-Houston Elec- 
tee company was appealed to and it immediately 
undertook the relief of the company. A 40- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 35, 1S90 



horse power motor was installed, connection was 
made with the Edison circuit and within 
twenty-four hours everything was in readiness 
to begin work. The' company was highly 
pleased with the arrangement as it was relieved 
from the necessity of closing its establishment 
pending the replacement of its steam plant. 



Illinois State Electric Light Association. 
A meeting of representatives of the central 
station electric lighting companies of Illinois was 
held at the Chicago Electric club's headquarters 
January i8th, for the purpose of forming a state 
organization. C. H. Wilmerding, superintend- 
ent of the Chicago .\rc Light iS: Power com- 
pany, presided, and Charles E. C.regory of the 
Sun Electric company, Chicago, acted as secre- 
tar>-. Allen R. Foote', chairman of the National 
Committee on State and Municipal Legislation 
of the National Electric Light association, stated 
the benefits to be derived from the proposed or- 
ganization. He also outlined the course pur- 



B. Beal, Rockford, were chosen members of the 
e.vecutive committee. 

Mr. Foote announced that this was the seventh 
state organization of the kind formed since last 
October, when the work was begun. It was 
hoped that much good would arise from the 
organization. Everywhere the plan of the or- 
ganization had been received with favor, and 
much good was anticipated by the members. 



Prof. Von Siemens' Opinion of the Dan 
gers of Electric Lighting. 
In a recent issue of the New York World ap- 
pears a special cable dispatch giving the details 
of an interview with Prof. Werner Von Siemens 
on the use of electric light in Berlin the corres- 
pondent says: "All the theaters are lighted 
with it; in fact a law has just been passed com- 
pelling all theaters capable of seating eight 
hundred or more people to use electric lights. 
The palace of the emperor is now being fitted 
with electric lamps from cellar to garret. Dang- 



FtC. 2. — ELECTRIC LIGHT PLANT IN THE NEW VOI 

sued by the several similar organizations that 
have already been formed. 

It was decided to call the organization the Il- 
linois Electric Lighting association, and a con- 
stitution was adopted. The objects of the organi- 
zation are to promote, protect and harmonize the 
interests of the manufacturers of electricity for 
commercial purposes in the state, the securing of 
uniformity in regulations for inspection of con- 
struction and inside wiring, also of underwriters' 
rules for insurance, and to give such assistance 
and advice to the companies in its meml)ership 
as may not be inconsistent with the general in. 
terestsof the industry and to co-operate with the 
state associations already organized for the same 
objects. 

Central station companies, firms and indivi- 
duals engaged in Illinois in the manufacture of 
electricity for the commercial uses of light, 
power or heat are eligible for membership. 

The annual election of officers will be held 
next May, and temporary officers were chosen at 
the first meeting to officiate until that time. The 
names of the officers chosen follow; 

President, C. H. Wilmerding, Chicago; first 
vice-president, A. L. Ide, Springfield; second 
vice-president, Douglas Hapemen, Ottawa; 
secretary and treasurer, Charles E. Gregory, 
Chicago. Charles I. Page, Englewood, and M. 




K LIFE INSURANCE IlUII.niNG AT KANSAS CITY. 

er to life or property is never for a moment 
considered." 

Prof. Von Siemens was found at his home in 
Charlottenberg. When asked his opinion he 
said all dangers of electric lighting could be 
easily avoided. He continued: "Py well con- 
structed underground conduits the danger of 
electric light wires can be totally abolished if 
low pressure currents are used, and the dangers 
resulting from very high pressure can be re- 
duced to a minimum in the same manner. 
There is no doubt at all that the greatest pro- 
portion of such accidents as have happened in 
New Vork will cease on the day when the last 
overhead wire is buried. Gas and water pipes," 
Herr von Siemens continued, "can never act as 
conductors of dangerous electric currents from 
the underground wires into dwelling houses. 
These pipes, if crossed by such a current, would 
at once divert it into the ground. It is just so 
with lightning rods, which electricians frequent- 
ly connect with the water pipes because they 
make the easiest and most perfect distributors 
of electricity, diffusing the current over so wide 
an area as to make it harmless. 

"The insulated wires for street lamps should 
be placed inside of hollow lamp-posts. P'or inter- 
ior lighting (houses, stores, etc.) no high pres- 
sure currents should be used unless the con- 



struction is such that every possible danger 
from contact with conductors and lamps is 
obviated. Electric light conductors will never 
cause a fire unless they are carelessly con- 
structed. A well planned and properly con- 
structed conductor, supplied with the necessary 
safeguards, is entirely harmless. No death 
caused by contact with electric wires has ever 
happened here in Perlin. A few accidents by 
fire have happened in isolated plants, but always 
because of faulty construction. Overhead wires 
should never have more'tthan 500 volts pressure. 
Underground conductors, with transformers, no 
more than 2,000 volts. The transformers and 
conductors should, however, be tested up to 
5,000 volts. My system of insulated conductors, 
protected by lead cover, asphaltum and sheet 
iron, has proved successful wherever it has been 
used — in Perlin, Munich, Rome, Milan and 
other Continental cities. Some of these cables 
have been in use (partly for high pressure and 
transformers) for six years and are apparently 
good for a long time to come. Their exact du- 
ration cannot be fixed. Time only can solve 
that question. This system, or a similar one, 
will overcome all the difficulties you Americans 
have to contend with. In conclusion I will say 
that high pressure should never be used, except 
where for pecuniary or technical reasons, it is 
impossible to introduce low pressure." 



Electric Light in the Windsor Theater, 
Chicago. 

Chicago theaters have attained considerable 
distinction through the superiority of their 
illumination. Every theater of any consequence 
in the city is lighted by electricity and in many 
instances the houses are provided withtheirown 
plants. The Chicago Edison company which 
has made a specialty of this class of work, has 
brought theater lighting to a great state of per- 
fection. It has just added another to its list of 
installations of this kind. The Windsor theater 
on North Clark street, Chicago, which was 
burned recently, has been rebuilt and one of 
the new features of this attractive place of 
amusement is its electric light plant. It is one 
of the best lighted theaters in the city. The 
power plant is located in an excavation in the 
rear of the theater, and is entirely separated 
from the building' A 90-horse power Russell 
engine drives two compound Edison dynamos 
in multiple arc. The capacity of these machines 
is 900 lights. The lights are all controlled 
from the stage switch-board underneath which 
8 fire proof resistmce boxes are arranged. 

In the main entrance to the house there are 
61 lights and 75 are arranged about the portico. 
A ball cluster at the entrance, containing 14 
lamps, forms an attractive feature. The audi- 
torium and galleries are lighted by 210 lamps. 
This does not include the sun light which con- 
tains 50 lamps, or the proscenium arch in which 
there are 124. The boxes have 36 lights and 
50 more are used to illuminate the painter's 
bridge and ground row. 

The stage is brilliantly illuminated. There 
are 50 lamps in the foot row; and 120 in the 
borders. There are also 8 movable bunches or 
clusters of 6 lamps each. These are arranged 
on stands in front of reflectors, and can be 
placed in any position desired. Attached to 
each of these is a flexible conductor at the end 
of which is a brass plug. There are a number 
of "pockets" in the stage floor arranged at 
convenient distances in which these plugs are 
placed, thereby completing the circuit. These 
bunch lights are of great convenience in pro- 
ducing brilliant effects in stage setting. They 
are far superior to any other form of illuniina- • 
tion for this class of work. 

The management of the house is thoroughly 
satisfied with the operation of the plant, and has 
good reason to be proud of it. 

The Rockford, III., Electric company finds the present 
capacity of its works scarcely sufficient to supply the de- 
mands for apparatus. It is therefore necessary to run 
nights as well as days. At present it is engaged in tilling 
an order of fifty electric motors for Jones,\: Bros., Phila- 
delphia. These motors will be used to operate spice and 
coffee mills and will be one-half horse-power each. An 
order for three 73^ horse-power and one live horse-power 
motor for Blomgren Bros., & Co., Chicago, has also been 
received by this company. 



January 25. 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



39 



The Short Electric Railway System. 

The accompanying cuts illustrate a few of the 
details of the Short electric railway system. 
There are also presented two views of the cars 
in operation at Ensign, W. Va., and at Cleve- 
land, O. 

Fig. I represents the general design of 
of the station switch-board. This is a most sub- 



wires should the current increase so as to en- 
danger the generators; controlling switches for 
the incandescent lamps used in the station; and 
ammeters and voltmeters for each machine, a 
glance at which will show the amount of power 
consumed on the line at any moment. Wires 
leading from the generators to the switch-board 
pass under the floor of the station. Those lead- 



ered with insulating material. The system of 
lighting extends to the power station, car sheds 
and cit)' streets. The necessary current is taken 
from the wires at any convenient point. One of 
the electroliers, with three lamps, for the center 
of the car, is represented in the illustration. In 
Fig. 2, besides the lighting system, there is 
shown the general design of the switches which 




stantial piece of apparatus. It is made of high- 
ly polished oak or mahogany, nicely paneled 
and is set out from the wall to admit of easy ad- 
justment of wires and connections from be- 
hind. 



3 — SHORT ELECTRIC- RAILWAY SYSTEM — ROAD AT ENSIGN, 

ing from the switch-board to the line pass out 
through the roof. 

In connection with its system of electric trac- 
tion, the Short Electric Railway company is ex- 
ploiting a method of lighting its cars. There 



are used in connection with the power equip- 
ment. The small figure to the left in the cut 
represents the fuse bo.xes. These are introduced 
when the constant potential system is used. 
When an abnormal increase of current from any 




The large "bus" bars arranged to receive the 
current from the generators, and all connectors, 
are highly polished and lacquered. On the 
board are all necessary switches for the main 
line and feed wires; lightning arresters with 
choking coils; fuses to act as safeguards to the 
generators; automatic cut-outs for the main 



I — SHORT ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM- 

are placed in a car five incandescent lamps of 
i6-candle power each. The wires which con- 
nect with the lamps are concealed behind the 
woodwork of the ceiling as shown in Fig. 2, and 
each car has its own lamp switch. The current 
is carried from the motor to the trail cars by 
means of a flexible conducting cord, heavily cov- 



cause melts a fuse, another is immediately con- 
nected by removing a plug from one hole to the 
next. The time necessary to replace the melted 
fuse is thus saved, and with five fuses a series of 
accidents would still leave the car protected. 
This feature of the system will be appreciated 
by street car men. 



4° 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 



Special Train for the Kansas City Elec- 
tric Light Convention. 
It was stated in the last issue of the Wkstkkn 
Klkctrician that the eastern delegates to the 
Kansas City convention of the National Electric 
Light association, would reach Chicago on the 



should be addressed to W. W. King, City Pas- 
senger and Ticliet .Vgent, C. B. &: Q. R. R., 21 1 
Clark Street, Chicago. 

Electric Light for China. 

The introduction of electric lighting in China 



disposed of. As soon as the company was 
formed representatives went to China and' made 
arrangements with the government, to light the 
cities of the Canton province. The franchise 
which they secured is to run 50 years. They 
have since been devoting their attention to the 




special train February loth, and would be en- 
tertained by the Chicago Electric club at lunch. 
The board of managers of the club has appoint- 
ed the following committee to arrange for the 



SHORT ELECTRIC RAILWAY —ROAD AT CLEVELAND. 



has marked an important epoch in the history 
of that country. The announcement that per- 
mission had been gained to introduce the new 
light, created considerable excitement in electri- 



study of the several systems in operation in 
this country. The first shipment was made a 
few weeks ago and another will follow shortly. 
The extent of this enterprise has not been fully 




SHORT ELECTRIC RAILWAY — METHOD OK CAR I.I..HTIMi — SvMICHES 



entertainment of the guests: W. A. Kreidler, 
chairman; F. E. Degenhardt, Alex. Kempt, F. 
O, Beach and F. I!. Badt, The special train for 
Kansas City will leave Chicago at 5 p. m, Feb- 
ruary loth. Application for sleeping car space 
in the special cars which are added at Chicago 



cal circles and the accuracy of the report was 
questioned until it became apparent that such 
was really the case. A syndicate of wealthy 
Chinese merchants at San Francisco was formed 
for the purpo.se of introducing the light, and 
stock amounting to $500,000 was immediately 



realized in this country as the promoters though 
they have been engaged in the enterprise fully 
six months, have worked very quietly and did 
not reveal their plans until they had secured 
their franchise from the Chinese government. 
The illumination of the public buildings and 



January 25, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



41 



offices of Canton will first occupy the attention 
of the company, and afterward street lighting 
will be attended to. At present gloomy little 
coal-oil lamps at long distances furnish the only 
light that can be found on the streets of Canton. 
The Chinese have taken kindly to electric 
lighting. It has already obtained a footing and 
the highest praise is extended to it by the Chi- 



circuits as local conditions render necessary. It 
is most desirable that there should be no e.x- 
tinguishment of the lights while these changes 
are being made, and that the construction of the 
board be such as to insure the operator against 
receiving a shock while so doing. The switch- 
board, illustrated in the accompanying cut, 
meets these requirements, as it is incombustible, 




FIG. 2. — THOMSON-HOUSTON ARC 

nese officials in Shanghai, where the electric 
light franchise is controlled by an English syn- 
dicate. The Canton officials, however, report 
a preference for American machinery and they 
also favor dealing with Americans. It is ex- 
pected that as soon as the Canton province is 
supplied with electric light the company will 



LIGHT SWITCH-BOARD — REAR VIEW. 

and is of such construction that additions can 
be readily made without necessitating any 
changes in the part of the board having the cir- 
cuits already in position. Fig. i is a front view. 
Fig. 2 a rear view, and Fig. 3 a side view. The 
board is made of two rectangular slate slabs, 
placed about five inches apart, into which are 



respectively of the front board, and the circuits 
on the rear board in a like manner, the left be- 
ing positive and the right negative, the bushings 
for the dynamos being numbered vertically i, z, 
3, 4, while those for the circuits are numbered 
horizontally i, 2, 3, 4. To connect a machine 
to a circuit the plugs are pushed through the 
holes on both positive and negative sides of the 
board corresponding to the dynamo and circuit 
desired. To connect any two circuits in series 
on one dynamo, before the machine is started 
the plugs are pushed through the holes corre- 
sponding to positive of one machine and one cir- 
cuit, and then by means of the transfer cable 
and plugs at the bottom of the rear board the 
negative of this same circuit is connected with 
the positive of the second circuit which it is de- 
sired to place in series with the first, the final 
connection being made by pushing the plug 
through the hole corresponding to the negative 
of the second dynamo and negative of second cir- 
cuit. To transfer circuits from one dynamo to 
another when the machines are in operation 
without disturbing the lights, as for instance, 
transferring circuit No. i from No. i to No. 2 
dynamo. No. i d5'namo is connected to No. 2 
circuit by the plug, and No. 2 dynamo to No. i 
circuit. The circuit can then be broken between 
the dynamos and circuits No. i and No. 2, per- 
mitting No. I dynamo to be shut down, and the 
positive of circuit No. 2 connected to negative 
of circuit No. i, by means of the transfer cables 
and plugs. The wall space required for a four- 
circuit board is 19x25 inches, and that for six- 
circuit board 24x35 inches. 



Chicago Electric Club. 

In the absence of President Beach who was 








p^@^ 





FIG. I — FRONT VIEW. 



extend its field of operations to other parts of 
the empire. 



Thiomson-Houston Arc Light Switch- 
Board. 

Of all the appliances used in the operation of 
arc light machines none is of greater importance 
than a well-designed switch-board. There are 
few central lighting stations in which commercial 
and street lights are not operated, making it 
necessary for convenience and economy to place 
two or more circuits in series on one dynamo to 
transfer circuits from one machine to another, 
and to make such combinations of djmamos and 



THOMSON-HOUSTON ARC LIGHT SWITCH-BOARD. 

fitted rows of metal bushings. Those arranged 
horizontally on the front board are connectea to 
the dynamos, while the vertical rows on the back 
are connected to each other and the circuits. 
On the back there is one more row of bushings 
than on the front; the extra row being used to 
connect one circuit with another by means of 
the transfer cables and plugs. 

The switch-board is made for four and six 
circuits, and is so arranged that additions may 
be easily made by which the number of dynamos 
and circuits will be a multiple of four and six. 
The positive and negative terminals of the dy- 
namos are connected to the left and right side 



FIG. 3 — SIDE VIEW. 

unavoidably detained out of town, F. B. Badt 
presided at the meeting of the Chicago Electric 
club, last Monday evening. The treasurer 
reported a balance of §180.93 in the treas- 
ury. 

The secretary reported that the eastern dele- 
gates had accepted the invitation of the club, 
and would be entertained at the club rooms 
Monday, February loth, before proceeding to 
Kansas' City to attend the convention of the 
National Electric Light association. Force 
Bain read an interesting paper which is present- 
ed elsewhere in this issue, and was tendered a 
vote of thanks bv the club. 



4 = 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Jaiiuarv 



1C90 




EVERY SATURDAY. 



Editor and Piibllt«her. 



Fu:si,iCJi.TioH offices: 
6 Lakeside Building. - - CHICAGO 

T»lci>lion«> 1740. 

W. A. KREIDLER. 

J. W. DICKERSON, 

J. B. O'HARA, J-ABBOclnte Editors 

P. L. PERRY. \ 

A. C. DURBOROW.JR.. Buslnena Manager. 

Eastern Office: 125 Temple Court,NewYork. 

W. II. Temple, Manager. 

Trade Supplied by Western News Co. 

COPTBIOHT. — Not onlv the title, hot the entire contents of 
each namber of thp Western Electbicias are copyrighted. 
This paper Is entered at the Chicago Poatoftlce as mall matter of 
the t>econd clasa. 

SUBSCBIPTIOItr, In advance, postage prepaid, S3.00 for a full 
year of 52 nombere: In clnbs of four or more. $2.50, with free 
extra copr for i-iirht Bab^rripitons; forelcn countries, $5.00 a vear; 
single copies, 111 rt-nta. Wht^n chant'e of address le requested, the 
old address as well as the new should be given. 

COBRESPONUENCE relatinc to electricity, or any of Its prac- 
tical applications, is cordially Invited, and the co-operation of all 
electrical thinkers and workers earnestly desired. Clear, con- 
cise, well written articles are especially welcome; and communi- 
cation;', views, news items, local newspaper clippings, or anv In- 
formation likely to interest electricians, will be thankfully 
received and cheerfully acknowledged. 

ADVERTISING.— Tbb Western Electriclan— f/*e onlff ff''"- 
rral eUctrieat paper ptihtished <n the jr«*f— thoroughly 
covers a territorv excl>i4iri^!i, iis own. Tuis is a cl.mm which can 

BE MADE BY Nu oTIIZn ELECTRICAL JfifRNAL IN THE UNITED 

States. Electrical merchants and manufacturers lic^irinn West- 
err, trade will appreciate the uxequaled value of this journal 
as an advertleini: medium in its special Held. Advertising rates 
are moderate, and will be promptly furnished on application. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

PAGE. 

Electric Light Plant in the New York Life Insurance Building in 

Kansas City. Illustrated 37,' 38 

Electric Motor in a Printing Office 37, 38 

Illinois State Electric Light Association 38 

Prof. Von Siemens' Opinion of the Dangers of Electric Lighting. 38 

Electric Lights in the Windsor Theater, Chicago 58 

Short Electric Railway System. Illustrated 39, 40 

Special Train for the Kansas City Electric Light Convention — 40 

Electric Light for China 40, 41 

Maine Electric Light Association 41 

Thomson-Houston Arc Light Switch-board. Illustrated 41 

Editorial 4a 

Experience as a Teacher in Electrical Engineering. By Force 

Bain. Illustrated. (Chicago Electric Club) 43, 44 

Primary Batter>'. Illustrated 44 

High Tension Currents and Electrical Distribution Underground. 

By H. S. Cobb 44, 45 

Pcckham Cantilever Motor Truck. Illustrated.. 45 

New York Electrical Society 45 

DBPABTMBN FS. 

Correspondence 45-4^. 47 

The Electric Light 47 

The Electric Motor 47, 48 

The Telegraph 48 

Electrical Patents 48 



At the last meeting of tiie Chicago Electric 
Club, Force Bain read a paper on "E.vperience 
as a Teacher in Electrical Engineering." The 
article is presented elsewhere in this issue. It 
merits a careful perusal, as it is full of practical 
suggestions. 

Manufacti'RERS who use mica insulation 
will be interested to learn that the ways and 
means committee of the House of Representa- 
tives has been asked to recommend the protec- 
tion of mica. The producers think that a tariff 
of about $2,000 per ton would perhaps be suffi- 
cient. Fortunately the stove men of the coun- 
try may be depended upon to oppose the adop- 
tion of such a measure. 



Governor Campbell of Ohio devoted n few 
lines to the subject of electricity in his inaugural 
address. This portion of his speech we repro- 
duce, not because we agree with what the gov- 
ernor says, but simply as a matter of news. 
The extract is as follows: "The application of 
electricity is rapidly opening new fields of legis- 
lation. Unless something be done to prevent 
the sacrifice of life daily resulting from defective 
electric wires, the companies which put up and 
control them will have grown so rich and power- 
ful that the passage and enforcement of proper 
laws will be difficult. Municipalities have at- 
tempted to enforce regulations for protection 
from such dangers, but without satisfactory re- 
sult. The duty of investigating the generation 
and distribution of electrical currents is one 



which presses upon you. The investigation 
should be prompt and thorough; the result 
thereof made public; and such action taken as 
may in your judgment throttle this evil in its in- 
fancy." The statements which the governor 
makes are not borne out by the facts, we think; 
neither do we consider that this matter of legis- 
lating on the subject of electric wires is presented 
in the proper spirit. 



Cincinnati, O., seems to have a city council 
with fair-minded business men in it. At a re- 
cent meeting, when the subject of underground 
wires was considered, the council agreed that it 
would be well to wait si.\ months or a year before 
taking steps toward retiuiring the electric com- 
panies to go underground. .At that time it is 
hoped the city will be able to take advantage of 
the experience of other cities, and build its own 
subways. The council has retained the services 
of an e.xpert to look into the matter and consult 
with the local companies. 



The committee appointed by the National 
Electric Light association to memorialize con- 
gress to abolish the copper tariff has just taken 
an important step. Ceorge M. Phelps of New 
York, representing the committee, appeared be- 
fore the House of Representatives' Committee 
on Ways and Means last week, and presented 
the arguments in favor of the abolishment of the 
duty. The United States not only produces, he 
said, more copper than it consumes, and there- 
fore exports it, but it possesses the richest and 
most easily worked mines in the world, .\meri- 
can copper mine owners produce copper, and can 
put It on the market at lower cost than the Span- 
iards or Chilians, and consequently no duty is 
needed. The duty is of no value to the treas- 
ury, and is not needed for protection, because it 
is not imported in any considerable quantities, 
while considerable is exported. It is to be hoped 
that the committee will earnestly consider the 
matter. No valid argument, it seems to us, can 
be framed for the continuance of the duty. 
Major McKinley, the chairman of the committee, 
is an ardent protectionist, but several influential 
papers in Ohio, which support him most enthu- 
siastically, have recently printed strong editorials 
in favor of the removal of the copper tariff. 



Explosions in the subways in New York city 
are becoming rather frequent. The gas com- 
panies are not compelled to maintain their mains 
in any sort of repair, and until some action is 
taken to force them to prevent leakage a con- 
tinuance of these explosions may be expected. 
.\ New York paper, in commenting on the fre- 
quency of these explosions, says: "If the gas 
mains were properly constructed the gas could 
not escape from them. They are not properly 
constructed, and the gas companies should be 
compelled to place and keep them in order. It 
is an axiom that he who maintains any structure 
for his own profit must be althe charge of mak- 
ing it safe. There may be faults also in the 
construction of the subways. They ought ap- 
parently to be gas-tight, and they are not so. 
For that the Subway Construction company is 
responsible. But the primary source of danger 
is in the dilapidated condition of the gas mains, 
and that has long been a source of injury to the 
public health. Gas is so cheap a product that 
the companies prefer — as one of their officers 
has admitted — to suffer the loss incident to leak- 
age rather than spend the money necessary to 
keep the mains tight. Our soil is saturated with 
gas and the atmosphere poisoned with it. Now 
that the danger of explosion is added, it is time 
for some systematic effort to be made to compel 
the gas companies to put their pipes in proper 
condition." In view of the fact that so many 
companies are now considering the problem of 
burying their wires, the escape of gas from de- 
fective mains in the streets of all large cities as- 
sumes great importance. New York should lead 
in the matter, and force the gas companies to 
take some action in the premises. 

Here is a note from an English electrical pa- 
per, which is interesting in this connection: 
"We recommend electrical engineers to consider 
this question seriously, for while it is quite pos- 
sible that leakage from their conductors may 
cause explosions, it must not be lost sight of that 



coal gas has no right in their conduits, and that 
its presence, espeirially in wet or damp situations, 
is very deleterious to many otht rwise good in- 
sulating materials, and may cause such injury 
that, beyond and (]uite apart from the risk of e.\- 
plosions, it will ultimately render necessary the 
replacement of cables which have, by its pres- 
ence, become too seriously lowered in insulating 
qualities." 

The New York papers have been pouring hot 
shot into the Board of Electrical Control for the 
last week, and it seems to be the general belief 
that the legislature will take some decided ac- 
tion in regard to the board. Speaker Husted 
of the State assembly has appointed a committee 
on electricity, gas and water supply. The ap- 
pointments on the committee constitute a new 
grievance. It is contended that the committee's 
work will have reference almost entirely to New 
York affairs, yet no New York city assemblyman 
was appointed. The correspondents think that 
the committee will recommend that the Board of 
Electrical Control be discontinued, and that the 
control of electric wires be vested in a new com- 
mission of some kind. Politics have more tc do 
with the matter than they should. The majority 
in the assembly want to adjust matters so that 
the present administration in New York city 
shall have no influence with the new commission. 

.\ bill was introduced in the New York Senate 
last week to abolish the present Board of Elec- 
trical Control of New York and substi- 
tute a State Board of F^lectrical Commission- 
ers. The board is to consist of one Republican, 
one Democrat and one electrical expert. It is 
the design of Senator Roesch, who introduced 
the bill, to create a non-partisan electrical com- 
mission. If the expert appointed is a Democrat 
the clerk of the commission must be a Republi- 
can. The board is thus kept equally balanced 
politically. The members of the commission 
are to receive salaries of $-<,ooo each, and their 
clerk is to have $5,ooo. 



In the last issue of the Western Electrician 
it was stated that Chicago was to liave overhead 
wires. This assertion was based on the fact that 
Commissioner Purdy had granted the Lake View 
Electric Light company a permit to run a pole line 
through the streets of that part of Chicago which 
was a city by itself, before the annexation of last 
spring. Just previous to the annexation of Lake 
View, its council granted an ordinance to the 
electric light company, allowing it to carry wires 
on poles for five years. Two years' additional 
time was also allowed, during which the conduc- 
tors were to be put underground. When the 
Chicago commissioner was called upon to issue 
a permit for the commencement of the work of 
stringing overhead wires, he hesitated about 
granting it, inasmuch as it has been the settled 
policy of Chicago to refuse permission for the 
construction of aerial circuits. He consulted 
the law department and found that the ordinance 
was operative as the Supreme court had decided 
that all the ordinances granted by municipalities 
prior to annexation were to be recognized as 
valid by the present city after annexation. This 
Lake View ordinance, it was held, came under 
this decision. As other companies possess sim- 
ilar franchises in Hyde Park and the Town of 
Lake, which were also annexed, the decision is 
exciting consiilerable interest. There are two 
sides to the controversy. It is said, on the one 
hand, that it would work a great injustice if 
companies granted franchises by suburban towns 
before the annexation should suddenly be de- 
prived of all their rights by arbitrary action by 
Chicago authorities. It is urged that annexa- 
tion should not cut off privileges obtained at a 
time when the city authorities had no jurisdic- 
tion. On the other side, it is urged that it 
would be unjust to allow new companies to use 
overhead wires within the present city limits 
where no such privilege is accorded to the old 
Chicago companies. Prof. Barrett is of the 
opinion that the city has police powers that can 
be exercised to compel a general compliance 
with the underground regulations of the city. 
He is decidedly opposed to overhead wires any- 
where within the corporation limits, and it is 
said he will soon present a communication to the 
city council asking the aldermen to tcike action 
in the premises. 



January 25, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



43 



Experience as a Teacher in Electrical 
Engineering.' 

By Foree Bain. 

"A thousand volumes in a thousand tongues, enshrine 
the lesson of experience; yet a man shall read them all 
and go forth none the wiser." The experience of a man may 
be considered as a book of which each day forms a page 
and Che finale of life completes the volume. It is a book 
that cannot be truly translated into any language sufficient- 
ly expressive to impart to the reader the fuU text, force 
and meaning of its contents. 

The five known senses which man possesses appeal to 
his reasoning faculties. In the operation of gleaning in- 
formation from a book, the sense of seeing only is called 
into use, while the experience of many persons has con- 





FIG. I. — EXPERIENCE AS A TEACHER IN ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING. 

iributed to the accumulation of the knowledge, enuncia- 
tions of the problems, and to ths expression of the 
th^ughts contained therein. 

Our environments are so crowded with mysteries, that it 
is hardly safe to say that we can express a thought that 
will convey the exact meaning intended. The capacity, 
the experience and the conditions of the individual must 
be considered; the impressions vary as the conditions of the 
individual vary. At one time the meaning will be as clear 
as the dawn of a summer morn, while at another time 
words seems expressionless. 

There goes with experience an impression of reality unat- 
tainable by oiher means, the demonstration of a thought 
satisfies the mind that the thing is not only a logical con- 
clusion, but an objective entity. It is su/gested by some 
that the mind of man is gradually approaching such a 
degree of perfection that eventually all facts may be arrived 
at by a system of logical reasoning, and indeed some of 
the ancient philosophers believed that they could solve all 
of the problems in the universe by thought alone, but the 
modern philosopher realizes that meditation is futile unless 
accompanied by observation and experiment; in fact the 
rise in modern science is due to the adoption of the princi- 
ple that the discovery of a physical truth consists, not in 
the mere logical statement, but in its experimental estab- 
lishment. The discoverer of a truth is not he who guesses, 
though he may guess aright, but he who pracdcally dem- 
onstrates a new fact, and thus compels its acceptance 
within the body of knowledge. Theories can be made to 
fit facts, but facts are inflexible. Facts form the wall 
around the fortress of knowledge, against which the ar- 
rows of theories and false conclusions fall harmless. There 
may be several theories to explain a single fact, but the 
fact remains unattained The fact is the exponent of the 
discoverer's thought, the index to the operation of his mind. 
By observing known phenomena he has been able to ex- 
tract praciically from nature new phenomena; hypothet- 
ical reasonings upon which a theory leading up to that 
result may be formed, are themselves valuable and in- 
structive, but the practical demonstration is the true and 
greatest value of the investigation. 

A book impresses the mind like the portrait of a friend; 
the finished picture is before you, the outlines of a reality 




FIG. 2. — EXPERIENCE AS A TEACHER IN ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING. 

are spread upon the canvas, every feature has been faith- 
fully portrayed, the visage of the friend is recognized at a 
glance, the artist's work is complete; butyou can not follow 
the various processes of nature nor the surroundings which 
have gradually developed the characteristic features of his 
subject; he can only present a picture of the work that has 
been previously done. 

Books are the pictures of many minds, and like friends in 
need, they are friends indeed. While they can not impart to 
us all that is necessary to enable us fully to comprehend 
and understand some of the complex problems of life, 
they are as faithful guide boards in the path of knowledge, 
and point toward the direction of progress and success, 
without which we would wander unceasingly in the wilder- 
ness of mystery and ignorance. 

The progress due to the activity of investigation and 

IRead before the Chicago Electric Club Januar/ 20, 1889. 



invention in the science of electricity and magnetism, 
within the last few years has fostered, encouraged and 
developed the need of a new profession in the field of in- 
dustrial pursuits. The electrical engineer of to-day finds 
himself as firmly istablished, and the demand for his ser- 
vices, by the public, to be as enduring and of ss high a 
character as that of the civil or mechanical engineer. \Vhat 
the future may have in store for him is not within the prov- 
ince of this paper. 

I shall endeavor to address myself to the young men 
who are young in the study of electrical engineering, 
and furnish a few practical illustrations which may be a 
means of impressing upon them the necessity of an individ- 
uality in method, and read a few leaves torn from the book 
of experience, of an electrical engineer. We find that 
certain things must be done ^'hich are unusual; we search 
our text books, we can not find a precedent, they are one 
and all silent on this particular subject, or if they mention 
it at all it is in such a vague and indifferent way that the 
information, such as it is, is of little value. 

The first illustration of my method of solving some such 
problems is shown by Fig. i and it has proven very satis- 
factory. The arrangement shows a method of measuring 
the difference of potential between the terminals of a gen- 
erator of high e. m. f. This can be done using only a 
small ammeter, and without the use of a voltmeter of any 
kind, and the results will be almost perfectly correct, near 
enough at least for all practical purposes. ^ is a dyna- 
mo, -i- and — terminals, B a double pole switch, C a tank 
of pure water, D an ammeter reading from i to 10 am- 
peres. 

Tlie tub is connected in circuit as shown, with two car- 
bon electrodes, the resistance between the electrodes is 
measured in the usual manner before the current from the 
dynamo is passed through. Suppose that we know before- 
hand the approximate e. m. f. of the dynamo — say 3,000 
volts — then, if our tub and circuit measure 1,500 ohms, 
two amperes will be indicated by the ammeter. C x R=E. 
The double pole switch is intended for two purposes: first, 
the reading should be taken as soon as the ammeter comes 
to a rest, and when it reaches the highest point, the circuit 
should be reversed by means of the switch, and the read- 
ings taken again when the ammeter reaches the highest 
poi..t; the second reading is only necessary as a check on 
the first. The object is to eliminate any error that might 
result from electrolytic or osmotic effect. The switch also 
makes it possible to cut the entire apparatus immediately 
from the live circuit as soon as the readings are taken. By 
using a hot wire ammeter the method can be used for al- 
ternating currents, in which case it will not be necessary to 
use a switch tt) reverse the poles. 

Fig. 2 represents what I have found to be the most con- 
venient and most easily adjustable method for connecting 
a plating or electrotyping dynamo and tank. The e. m. f. 
necessary in this work is very low, and the current strength 
is great, so that when an ordinary wire rheostat in the field 
circuit is used for varying the e. m. f. as usUdl, the steps 
for adjustment are too great, rendering it impossible to 
obtain the exact e. m. f. desired. As the coatacts heat, 
the current going through the field quickly and greatly de- 
creases, causing the voltage to fall rapidly. Moving the 
arm of ihe resistance box to the next segment while it 
would temporarily correct the trouble, would finally intens- 
ify it by the increased heat of the contacts. Often the var- 
iation of one volt, or a fraction of a volt, from that re- 
quired in galvanoplastic manipulation will so seriously in 
terfere with the process of deposition as to cause entire 
failure. If the e. m. f. be too great the deposits will f e 
granular and rough or burned; if too low the deposits will 
be slow and uneven. All modern dynamos designed for 
deposition are shunt or compound wound; the latter are 
liable to reverse, and the former are net always successful 
for the reasons just related. 

The cut shuws an ordinary shunt dynamo, the + biush 
connected to the anodes and the — brush connected to the 
cathodes in the usual way. One terminal of the field is 
connected to the — brush; the remaining terminal is con- 
nected to a small adjustable cathode, in the same tank. 
This small cathode may be placed near any of the anodes 
and may be so arranged that it can be conveniently moved 
toward or from the anode elements, thus decreasing or in- 
creasing the resistance of the field circuit. It will be un- 
derstood at once that by varying this distance the ampere- 
turns of the field are consequently raised and lowered, and 
thus the e. m. f. may be minutely and permanently adjust- 
ed. All contacts may be soldered, and the resistance will 
remain practically constant 

A very successful method of charging accumulators or 
storage batteries is shown in Fig. 3. Without mentioning 
the objections to the use of series and shunt wound dyna- 
mos, I will describe this method in forming and afterward 
charging accumulators. The thing desired is a process by 
which a maximum current will flow at the beginning of the 
charge, or forming process, and will automatically and 
gradually decrease in strength as the process proceeds, 
until a point is reached when the current must be discon- 
tinued altogether. It is a matter of great convenience if 
this process can be accomplished automatically, as the 
work would be far better performed than if an ignorant 
and careless attendant was in charge. In this case the 
dynamo must be especially constructed for the purpose. 
Suppose for illustration we desire to charge 300 accumu- 
lators, arranged, as shown, to 2.10 volts each. Our dynamo 
must have a difference of potential of a little over 105 
volts at the terminals, or the potential necessary to charge, 
say 50 accumulators in series. Connect the accumulators 
in the first place in two groups, 50 in series in branch ./. 
and as many in multiple to this group as desired, as shown, 
and connect a lesser number in branch i9, say 52 or less and 
connect the two groups thus formed in series, one group 
being electrically opposed to the other. At the point 
where the two terminals are joined connect the — terminal 
of the dynamo through an automatic circuit breaker having 
an adjustable retractile spring or v/eight. Connect the 
-h ternainal of one group to the -f terniinal of the dynamo 



The -h terminals of the other group must be connected to 
the -1- terminal of the dynamo through the field, and pre- 
ferably a water and acid adjustable rheostat. Xow adjust 
the rheostat so that no current will flow in either branch 
and start your dynamo. Close the circuit at the cut-out, 
and the dynamo current should divide through the two 
circuits in the direction as shown by the arrows. The 
current will gradually decrease as the e. m. f of the bat- 
tery increases, and when the batteries have been charged 
to the desired point the cut out will disconnect the — ter- 
minal of the dynamo, and, as the batteries are balanced, 
no current will flow through the circuit Several series of 
batteries may be connected in parallel with the batteries in 
branch .-1, limited only by the capacity of the dynamo. 
The current of the dynamo will be always proportional to 
the sum of the resistance and counter-electromotive force 
of the groups. By this method a defective cell will be 
quickly detected by the diversion of current in the two 
branches. 



TmULT 



□niXET 





FIG. 3. — EXPERIENCE AS A TEACHER. IN ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING. 

In the spring of 1S7S or 1S79 I put up a telephone line 
for a gentleman in a little town in Ohio between his resi- 
dence and a large sawmill about five miles down the river. 
A telephone was a question of doubt at that time, and 
naturally the event was anticipated with considerable curi- 
osity and pleai^ure by all of the town folks. The line was 
completed and the instrument was properly connected at 
the residence, a number of people assembled to hear the 
"machine talk." In company with a boy who could make 
a noise with a mouth organ 1 set out with the other set of 
instruments for the mill. I got them connected all right 
and awaited a reply to my lusty "Hello! All was silent 
I soon discovered tha t the diaphragm of my receiver was miss- 
ing. What could I do? To return to the town without 
demonstrating the success of the apparatus, that night, 
would have been as disgusting to the eager and expectant 
persons as to myself. A sawmill is a desolate place, and 
the only thing that I could find in the shape of a diaphragm 
was a circular saw and it was a trifle too large. 1 found 
a piece of writing paper, cut two diaphragms of this, got an 
old file and managed to tie some bits from the head 
of a nail, placed these iron filings between the two paper 
diaphragms, removed the cap of the receiver and placed 
them in position, when, presto, my instrument worked 
to perfection. I merely mention this to show that many 
problems may be easily solved by the application of a few 
moments of independent and original thought. The text- 
books do not mention the use of a paper diaphragm, to be 
substituted in cases of this kind, for one "capable of mag- 
netic induction" to use a familiar quotation. No particu- 
lar ability is shown by this substitution for the usual form 
of diaphragm, for surely it was simple enough. My object 
in mentioning the instance was to illustrate the fact that 
experience naturally leads us in paths of practical exped- 
ients, and there will be many times when we may come in 
on "three wheels" so to speak, if Orst, we understand our 
subject well, and second, if we are not afraid to think of it 
in our own way and apply such remedies as will be sug- 
gested by mature thought and reflection. 

It may be interesting to illustrate a few more problems 
which have been solved in a practical way. Fig. 4 
shows how a repaired armature may be tested. I frequent- 
ly have armatures only to repair. Sometimes one or more 




FIG. 4. 



-EXPERIENCE AS A TEACHER IN ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING. 



new coils are to be wound in. Tt is necessary to make a 
test to see that there are no short circuits. The insulation 
resistance between the coils may measure up to the required 
standard and there may be no "grounds" on the core, but 
the only way a test can be made for short circuits is by 
actually running the armature as a motor or generator. 
Mount the armature between'centers or on frictionless bear 
ings and move it up by the side of the energized field of a 
dynamo and pass a current from the d\namo or other 
source through the armature. The armature will begin to 
revolve immediately. It will require only a few moments 
to discover a short-ciicuited coil if one exists, by the over- 
heating of such coil or coils. It may then be corrected and 
tried again. When an armature has stood this test I 
am ready to guarantee it. Did you ever know a short cir- 
cuit or burn-out to occur in a Siemens armature except in 
the lower coils? One would think that when this is so it 



44 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 



would be necessary to entirely rewind it. but such is not 
the case: take the bind-; olT and with a sharp chisel cut the 
injured coiU in two and pull the ends out, lill up the space 
on the ends of the arraitures where the old coil came out 
with shellac anJ cotton and wind new coils on the outside, 
connect up and test, and thtre you are. I have repaired 
armatures in this way that hive run for years afterward. 

Several years ago, I think it was when the first towers 
were being used frooo which 10 suspend arc lamp^. I was 
consulted by the superintendent of such a plant who com 
plained that the carbons of his lamps would not remain in 
line during the day. The wind would jar them so that 
they would slip by rach other. When the dynamo was 
started at night they of cour-e would not light up. but 
those that did light were not affected by the wind while 
they were in operaltoo. This little problem was solved in 
the most satisfactory manner. I made several paper 
cylinders about i i inches long and a little tapering, and 

^ — ^. H *^ ¥i ^ >< ^ 

H 



JIX, 



s 



^^^,^ji^2eS2Z:Z^i22l 



,J^^A'.^^^^^ y ^.^TTT?^ 



FIG. 5. — E.\fKRIENCE AS A TEACHER IN ELECl RICAL 
ENi;iNEERING. 

placed them between the upper and lower carbons on the 
lamps, fitting them tightly on the upper carbon but loosely 
on the lower one. These paper stalls were put on the 
carbons by the trimmer, in the morning, and they would 
hold the' carbons in place against the strongest wind. 
When the lamps were started in the evening the paper 
stalls would immediately burn off and the lamp mechanism 
would then hold the carbons in place These stalls or 
cylinders were made of any kind of thin paper, by the 
trimmer or engineer at night, and did not cost anything 
but lime to make them. 

In 1S6; while a telegrapher in a little country town, it 
occuired to me that T could make a self closing telegraph 
key. that would cause my name to go rumbling down the 
corridors of fame for an indefinite period. I conceived the 
idea of a p.dal attachment to the key. so arranged that a 
slight pressure of the foot would open the circuit and a 
counteracting spring would close it. The idea was well 
worked out, and I was getting r<ady to spring it on an 
unsuspecting public when unforlunatcly my favorite dog 
sprung it for me. Th; space under the tab'e was a favor- 
ite resort of his, especially when he became sleepy. One 
day when I was engaged elsewhere he laid down for several 
hours on my pedal attachment, and kept the line cpen. 
The superintendent "located" him. and of course the result 
was heartrending; in this case experience proved to be 
a teacher, for I have not made another pedal attachment 
since then. 

Kig. 5 shows a very convenient arrangement for compar- 
ing voltmeters, or means by which a voltmeter or 
ammeter may be calibrated by comparison with 
one known to be correct. In this case a constant 
current djnamo, say 10 amperes, is shown. Several lamps 




FIG. 6.- 



-EXPERIENCE AS A TEACHER l.\ ELECTRICAL 
ENOINEERINO. 



arc in circuit at R. A tub with three electrodes i, 2 and 
3. arc shown. The resistance between i and 3 is 15 
ohms, hence 150 volts between i and 3, The movable 
electrode ~ is connected with 1 through two voltmeters in 
multiple. The terminal 2 may be moved from i toward 
3 and any desired voltage in the most minute fractions may 
be indicated by the instruments. The unknown may thus 
be calibrated by the known. Ammeters may be calibrated 
or compared, by this means, but of course must be in series 
instead of multiple with each other. 

Fig 6 shows a similar device for operating an arc lamp 
on an incandescent circuit. Any good arc lamp may be 
placed in a circuit of 1 10 volts by placing a tub of water 
and acid in series with it; the electrodes should be carbon 
and the evaporation should be looked after. 

There are no practical units of magnetism and conse- 
quently there are no instruments to measure it directly. In 
the absence of such I have found that a very useful mag- 
netometer may be devised, which will at least appro.ximaleiy 



show the relative strengths of electro or permanent 
magnets. An Ayrton vV Wriy voltmeter or ammeter, when 
placed in a magnetic field so that the lines of fuue are 
parallel with the length of its core will dr.-uv the cor^- into 
tne solenoid, the needle will indicate a ccila n number on 
the dial. Now place the instrument in a similar ix)sition in 
the lield of another magnet and the dellcciion of tie reedle 
will Ic greater or lessaccortling to the ccniparative st length 
of the second magmt. This is very hanOy fcr (|ui(.kiy de- 
teiniining the fault of an unequ;d or dis oiteU litld in a 
dynamo or motor, and is clo.-e enough 10 enable jou to ic- 
pair such a fault and to learn when ic has been correitid. I 
have seen "conse(|uent pole" i ynamos with a bacly dis- 
torted field in which the ilistoriion was caus^td by a greater 
number of ampere- turns en one limb of the niagi et than 
on another, or by unequal magnetic permeability cf the 
iron of wh ch the htld is composed, or an ineqt al ly of 
cro s-section. 

l'"or fear that I may weary you with loo long a paper I 
will close with a few words of advice to the young men who 
wish to succeed. '1 he ladder of ambition is interminable 
in length, ii extends upwaid from the densest ignorance of 
life and is shrouded with a mantle of mystery at the high- 
est pinnacle of knowledge. There are a greater numberat 
its base than have reached the giddy heighis of success, 
there is more room as we ascend. If we have begun to 
climb, and our position makes it possible, we should not 
"look down" on those below. They may pass us some 
day and tread on our fingers. If we try to climb too many 
ladders we may find at the end of life that we have not 
reached a very high point on any of them and we will never 
get above the crowded position. Stick to one ladder and 
get as high on it as possible. The journey is a pleasant 
one if you will only contribute your share to the pleasure 
of others and be guided by the words of the immortal 
i'ope: 

"One science only will one genius fit, 
So vast is art. so narrow human wit." 



Primary Battery. 

The cut presented herewith illustrates a new 
primary battery which has recently been placed 
on the market by J. H. Mason, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The inventor claims for the cell great lasting 
qualities. The new zincs for the battery are 
prepared in such a way that they keep clean and 
bright. The fluid is of such a chemical nature 
it is claimed, that no crystals form and the cur- 
rent is maintained steady and just as strong at 




I'RIMAKV 1!\ I ILRV. 



the last as at the first. It is' further claimed 
that the ac'.ion in this battery is such that the 
solution instead of the zinc is used up — in other 
words, that it is necessary to replenish the fluid 
more often than the zinc. As the cost of the 
fluid is less than that of the zinc, the inventor 
considers this a feature of importance. 



High Tension Currents and Electrical 

Distribution Underground. 

By H. B. CoiiB. 

So much has been said and written by great electricians 
about the progress of electricity, that the subject is now 
becoming a topic for general discussion. Daily newspapers 
are full of well written articles on the subject from engi- 
neers, electricians and scientists. Every branch of the 
subject has been considered but owing to the frequent ac- 
cidents m New York from electric light wires, writers 
have of late confined themselves to a consideration of the 
dangers of eleciric lighting. They have argued and ex- 
plained these dangers and pointed out what they consider to 
be tlie proper remedies. 

I take it for granted that if it can be shown that the 
high tension current can be carried underground with per- 
fect safety to life and property, no one will deny it in re- 
gard to low tension. Let us if possible, get at the facts. 

Major Chas. VV. Raymond, engineer. United States 
army, in a voluminous report to the United States Senate, 
onthesubj ct of putting wires underground in Washington, 
says he sees "no reason why wires of all kinds cannot be 
placed underground," and stales that in Europe the practi- 
cability of maintaining both the incandescent and arc lamps 
by underground conductors seems lo be uncjuestioned. 

Wni. K. Gray, of the India Rubber (lutla Percha \- 
Telegraph company, of Silveriown, I'.ngland, writes that a 
cable, seven to eight miles long, was laid in a three-inch 
iron pipe in ICastborn, England, in 1885, carrying 2,oco 
volts alternating current, and is still in successful opera- 
tion. Of this cable, Mr. (Iray writes. "We have tried many 
insulators but have come lo the decided conclusion that up 
to this date no insulator has been found to equal vulcanized 
India rubber, if well mi.\ed, of good quality of rubber, and 



put on under great pressure. Of such a cable it would be 
difticuh to estimate its life." .Mr. llray also m.entions the 
following cables of similar construction; at Silvertown, 
England, cable eight miles long, laid in 1S83, carrying 2.- 
400 volts, alternating current, still in good condition; in 
London cable two miles long, l.iid in 1SS7, carrying 2,400 
volts with perfect satisfaction, still another in Biussels, 
'iw^ miles long, with like results. Encouraged by the suc- 
cess of these cables, l-'erranli constructed and is operating 
a cable in London carrying 10,000 volts alternating current 
with great success, but owing to its great cost, probably it 
will never be generally adopted, especially in the United 
Starts. 

(Ireat as the success has been in Europe in this line, 
American manufacturers are obtaining far belter results at 
very much lower cost. Several failures were reported 
in the attempt to carry high tension currents in this coun- 
try in the early days of our experiments. Large cities had 
passed laws requiring wires to be placed underground by 
certain dates. "No time could be wasted or allowed for 
experiment, something must be produced at once lo carry 
this great and powerful current." The inventor's mind was 
turned in this direction wilh such success that we are now 
able to carry underground an alternating current of almost 
any voltage. I aIU here mention a few cities where high 
tension currents are successfully carried underground. 
Prof. John P. Barrett, city electrician of Chicago, reports 
that the city has now nearly one hundred miles of streets 
ligh'ed by electricity. All the circuits are underground 
and are working splendidly. There is no fear of accident 
and perfect safety to life and property is assured. He 
further says as an instance of the durability and reliability 
of underground wires, that those placed in conduits in 
iSS/ are giving good satisfaction and are as perfect to-day 
as the day ihey were put down. He says, "We have never 
had occasion to touch them since; never had a cross or 
break on them and for aught I can see, will continue so." 
Washington, Buffalo, Detroit, Milwaukee. St. Paul, and 
Denver have had equally as good results, but in New 
York, the city where all this trouble has been experienced, 
is to be found the greatest practical evidence in the world 
that high tension currents can be and are being successfully 
carried with absolute and perfect safety underground. 

The subways of New York at the present lime contain 
upward of 150 miles of eleciric light cable; carrying all 
the way fiom i,coo to 7,000 volts. Thirty-six miles of 
cable are carrying 5,000 volts or about no lamps of 2,000- 
candle power on a circuit. It has been in operation about 
five or six months, and during this time not one case of 
trouble has developed. 

This cable is not a concentric or double cable, like that 
of Ferranti of London; but is constructed on an entirely 
different principle. It is composed of a lube of hard rub- 
ber, vulcanized under a pressure of 120 pounr s to the 
square inch. The inside diameter is about one-quarter of 
an inch with walls about one-sixteenth of an inch thick. 
Over this hard vulcanized rubber tubing four cords one- 
eighth of an inch in diameter are spirally wound, so that 
they come on opposite sides. This tubing, after being 
thus corded, is passed through a lead press, and as the lead 
covering is being formed on the tubing by an ingenious 
device, parafiine is m'de to fiow into the pipe, filling the 
space between the tubing and lead cover or pipe. The wire 
is drawn into the rubber tubing, the last thing. As the 
hole in the tubing is only about one quarter of an inch in 
diameter, it might seem difficult to get a number 4 wire in- 
to it, but I have seen it put through lergths of i.ooo feet 
with ease. 

I think I have shown conclusively that wires of high ten- 
sion currents can be carried successfully underground, but 
a problem quite as desirable to solve now presents itself, 
and as it is a necessity, the inventor must again be called 
into service, to leach us how lo distribute this powerful 
current. I wish I could say as much in this direction as I 
can for our cables. The subways now built seem to be 
constructed in the most crude and absurd manner, wi h no 
provisions for distribution. They present evidence neither 
of mechanical, electiical, nor engineering skill. Imagine 
a water or gas main put down in our btreels with no pro 
vision for supplying the buildings, so ihat every time ;■ cur- 
neclion is to be made with a building, the pavement niuat 
be dug up to tap the main. Such is the plan on which 
subways are constructed in all our large cities. The sub- 
ways of New York are probably the worst, though they 
cost more money than those of any city in the world. They 
are made of 3-inch iron pipes extending from street to 
street, terminating in manholes al each end. The pipes 
are laid in solid cement, thus making it utterly impossible 
to distribute from ihem, and connect direct with the build- 
ings. 

This mistake in construction was discovered after the 
subways were tuilt. This necessitated digging up the 
streets again, and another form of conduit was placed on 
top of the pipes for the purpose of distribution; but even 
this is far short of proper and reasonable requirements, 
because to make connection and distribute into a building 
il is necessary to dig up the street to tap the wire. 

This is all wrong, and the sooner our great electricians 
bring to perfection this branch of the art. the more rapid 
will be the progress of electricity in iis practical applica- 
tion lo pressing wants and everyday needs. A subway 
should be constructed, the wires placed therein, and leads 
extending lo every building for both the arc and incandes- 
cent lighting, in order that tearing up the streets could be 
avoided in the future, whenever a connection with a build- 
ing was required. Manholes should be constructed at the 
intersection of every street, wiih the wire arranged as in a 
telephone exchange for the purpose of manipulation and 
testing. I would suggest the use of hard rubber tubes ex- 
lending fn m street lo street, just large enough lo receive 
the wire, and ending at the manhole at street crossings in 
place of iron pipes. Here they could enter binding posts 
of proper construction, and be connected wilh similar wires, 
as desired. The central wires I would use as trunk lines 
or feeders, and the outside wires as distributing wires in 
each block. House connections should be made whether 



January 25, 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



45 



the occupant wished the electric light or not, by looping in 
and out in the basement the yame as water and gas are 
carried in with iron or lead pipes. These loops could end 
in a box of special construction that would be entirely safe, 
and so arranged that the occupant of a house or building 
could be furnished with the electric current almost at a 
moment's notice, merely by making connections. Until 
some such system is adopted the distribution of the eleclri- 
cal current will be difficult and verj' costly. This question 
of detail will undoubtedly be solved. No electrical difficul- 
ties exist; they are purely mechanical, and I predict the in- 
ventive genius of this country will master this problem at 
once. The necessity for quick distribution has arrived, 
and as we have learned to carry the high tension currents of 
5,000 and 10,000 volts with absolute safety to life and prop- 
erty, so will we learn to distribute it with equal safety and 
economy. 



Peckham's Cantilever Motor Truck. 

The cut presented herewith illustrates an im- 
proved form of motor truck, which was designed 
by E. Peckham of the Peckham Street Car 
Wheel & Axle company. New York. This truck 
it so built as to prevent the oscillating motion of 
cars, and also to strengthen the ends of car 
bodies by providing additional support at each 
end. The main double side-bars which carry 
the springs, are upheld at their extreme ends by 
cantilever trusses. These are hung from the 
journal boxes by means of malleable iron yokes, 
to which the main side-bars of the truck are 
firmly united. 

The motors are flexibly suspended as shown, 
and can be disconnected when desired, by the 
removal of only one nut. The center por- 
tion of the main side-bars can be easily taken 
off without disturbinor the motor hangrer when 



New York Electrical Society. 

On the nth inst. Joseph VVelzler gave before the 
New York Electrical society his annual lecture on "The 
Electrical Progress of the Year." After stating that the 
task he had set himself was«iot lo criticise but to record in 
the concisest possible manner the leading electrical evenis 
of the year, viewed from a practical standpoint, Mr. Wetz- 
ler drew attention to the developments in primary batteries. 
He showed the direction in which the old Daniell cell had 
been improved, and described the method of Delany. who 
indorses the sulphate of copper and the zinc in ]>aper bags, 
gaining considerable thereby, bolh in efficiency and con- 
venience. Gethens, he said, had securtd good results 
from putting a porous partition exactly at the line of the 
sulphates of copper and zinc, and during tfie year i\Ir. Ed- 
ison had brought out a primary battery, based on the 
Lalande primaiy battery, which dated some years back. 
The progress in storage batteries had not been, he said, 
so striking as that shown in some other branches, but still 
marked developments were to be recorded. In the Lugo 
cell, in which spongy copper highly absorbent of gases was 
employed, the plales weie so prepared as to admit of the actual 
storage of the oxygen and hydrogen given off by the de- 
composition of the electrolyte. Among the systems of 
distribution coming into vogue, where the storage batter- 
ies were placed at sub-stations and could be regulate:! en- 
tirely independent of ihe main station. Mr. Pfat'scher's 
might be mentioned, he said, which entails the use of a po- 
larized relay and the momentary inerruption of the charge 
of the circuit which operated the regulating devices. After 
touching on the Webster n>ethod of trta ing sewage elec- 
trically, by which the complete decomposition of the or- 
ganic matter 's promptly elTecled, the lecturer passed on to 
the subje-t of telegraphy. He remarked here that the or- 
der in which the various branches of his subject were 
treated must not be regarded as indicating in any way their 
relative importance. The recent interesting developments 
in synchronous multiplex Iransmission were next alluded 
to, beginning with that of Lieut Patten, by which twenty- 
four messages could be transmitted. The inventor of this 
'ngen'ous system was in the audience, and at the request 




-m=fri f^^HH=m^^w=frmv^^v^^ 



PECKHAM CANTILEVER MOTOR TRUCK. 



it is necessary to remove armatures for repairs. 
The brakes are applied to all four wheels, and 
are controlled by compound brake levers that 
can be operated instantaneously, and require but 
little power. 

The wheels are provided with malleable iron 
hubs, which are forced on the axles at a pres- 
sure of thirty-five tons. The wheel webs are 
interchangeable, and can be renewed by any or- 
dinary workman without the aid of special ma- 
chinery and without removing the motors from 
the axles. Tubular rubber cushions are inserted 
between the hub and web. The trucks are 
equipped with Adams' dust-tight journal boxes. 
The axles are constructed of fibrous steel and 
provided with enlarged bearings and screw 
threaded collar. 

The wheel base of the truck is six feet. The 
entire length is twelve feet. The car body rests 
on twelve springs. This arrangement adds very 
materially to the easy riding of the car. 



Maine Electric Light Association. 

The central station electric light companies 
in the state of Maine held a meeting at Portland 
and organized a state association, Jan. nth. 
The meeting fully represented the electrical 
central station interests of the state. The as- 
sociation was organized by the adoption of by- 
laws and the election of the following officers: 
President, Geo. P. Wescott; first vice-president, 
J. W. Wakefield; second vice-president, F. M. 
Laughton; treasurer, W. R. Wood; secretary, 
F. A. Sawyer; assistant secretary, Geo. E. Ray- 
mond; executive committee, Geo. P. Wescott, 
Portland; J. W. Wakefield, Bath; F. M. Laugh- 
ton, Bangor; W. K. Dana, Saccarappa; W. E. 
Maxey, Gardner. A copy of the by-laws and 
an application for membership blank will be 
sent to ever}^ central station company in the 
state. It is expected that no company will be 
without a membership. 



of the lecturer described and illustrated on the blackboard 
the principles of his invention. The line adjusting system 
of Delany was described, in which admirable adjustment 
is insured, and the de'ay and confusion incident to the 
breaking in on the line of an operator in bad weather are 
obviated. In the Delany automatic perforator, instead of 
the deep indentations of the Wheatstone system, the 
marks, which are not actual perforations, are made directly 
by an apparatus worked by a Morse key, and the paper is 
afterward passed through a transmitter in the usual way. 

After detailing the principle of the telemeter, by which 
the height of a receiver at a distance, or the temperature of 
every room in the largest building can be recorded and au- 
tomatically regulated, the lecturer described, under the 
head of telephony, the phenomenal exhibition of the degree 
of perfection to be obtained in the transmission of sound, 
given by W. J. Hammer in his experiments between 
New York and Philadelphia. On that occasion speech, 
after being recorded on the phonograph in New York, was 
repeated by a carbon transmitter, transferred over a line to 
a motograph receiver in Philadelphia, reproduced into the 
phonograph, again repeated by the carbon transmitter, 
transmitted to a local motograph receiver, and then given 
with clearness and but slightly diminished volume, to the 
audience. The loud speaking telephone of Charles Selden 
was also explained. 

In entering on the treatment of the applications of and 
improvements in the use of the alternating current, the 
lecturer said he was surprised, in looking over the notes he 
had prepared for the lecture, to see how largely the appli- 
cations of the alternating current exceeded those of any 
other department. In connection with the distribution and 
generation of electricity, reference was made to Acheson's 
calelectric generator, and a comparison drawn between it 
and the recent modification by the same inventor, in which 
the generating capacity of the transmitter was increased by 
the application of heat. In the matter of transformers, 
the complaint of the poor efficiency secured at small loads, 
Mr. Wetzler said, had been overcome by Mr. Swinburne, 
who had designed an open circuit transformer, instead of 
the closed circuit transformer. He called his new type 
the "hedge hog," and claimed that for average loads it 
showed higher efficiency than the type it is intended to 
supersede. The Paget transformer was also alluded to 

Premising that a method of obtaining continuous cur- 
rents from alternating currents without the intervention of 
a commutator, had been the problem of electricians for a 
long time, the lecturer described the solutions arrived 
at by Mr. Tesla, and reference was made to Prof. Elihu 
Thomson's constant current regulator, by which a contin- 
uous alternating current strength could be maintained. 
Lieut. Patten here gave an explanation of his 3-wire dis- 



tribution, in which the positive current is passed over one 
wire and the negative impulses are passed over the other, 
but both are returned by the central wire. The result is 
that any continuous current apparatus can be placed in 
conni ction with the circuit, which may on other occasions 
be used for alternating current apparatus. Storage batter- 
ies, or motors, or any device that requires constant cur- 
rent for the maintenance of the magnetism, can thus be op- 
erated. The new Edison marine dynamo, which has eight 
poles, the four north poles being on the outside ring and 
the four south poles on the inside, was here alluded to, 
and the lecturer then proceeded to speak of the electric 
motor, and requested Mr. Crocker, the president of the so- 
ciety, to give an explanation of his new system of motor 
regulation, after which Lieut. Patten described his alter- 
nating current motor. Mr. Wetzler here referred to the 
principle recently defined by Mr. Tesla with regaid to the 
maximum capacity of which the motor is capable. Though 
the originality of the principle had been disputed, Mr. 
Tesla was no doubt the first to announce it in set terms. 

While on the subject of electric railways, ihe lecturer 
described the Eentley-Knight condr.it system, in which the 
slot is used at the side of the track, instead of in the center, 
as formerly. Attention was also drawn to Weems' system 
of rapid transit, and Mr Wetzler stated that he had timed a 
Weems car, watch in hand, when it was going at the rate 
of 120 miles an hour. The pointed ends of the car were 
so made as to minimize the enormous resistance of the air 
which is met with at such high speed?. The port-electric 
or "sucking" system of rapid transit was also descibed 
and illustrat d. 

Brief reference was made to the measuring instruments 
brought out during the year, among which were mentioned 
the BIythe electric torsion balance, the Ayrton & Perry 
twisted strip voltmeter, Mr. Pfannkuche's alternating cur- 
rent meter, and Prof. Elihu Thomson's method of generat- 
ing a current in a secondary coil which should be equal to 
the square root of the current in the primary This in- 
strument is used in conjunction with his oscillating electric 
meter. This was followed by a rapid grouping of many of 
the improvements made during the year. The lecture was 
very well attended, and among the speakers at its close was 
Prof. George Forbes. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
New York Notes. 

New Yoric, Jan. 18. — The subway explosions in Sixth 
avenue in two different places which occurred Wednesday, 
was the secon 1 disturbince within a week in this subway. 
The large vent in the subway at Fourteenth street where 
the explosioa occurre 1 last S i':urday evidently lessened the 
force of Wednesday's disturbances and there were no seri- 
ous consequences. The arc light at the corner of Seven- 
tenth street was seen to spark and sputter immediately be- 
fore the explosion, and immediately after the explosion all 
the lights were temporarily extinguished. The Subway 
company claims that it was the electric light wire that 
caused an ignition of the gases in the subway while the 
electric light company claims that the sparking and sput- 
tering of the arc light was due to the presence of gases in 
the subway, which finally put out all the lights for a time. 

Lineman John Cunningham who cut down Lineman 
Feeks after he received bis fatal shock on the telegraph 
pole has a suit pending against the East River Electric 
Light company for $2,000 damages on account of an acci- 
dent to him in falling from a pole. 

Harold P. Brown's mandamus is denied by the courts 
and Judge Lawrence is disposed to think that the act es- 
tablishing the Board of Electrical Control took away from 
the Board of Health "all power in respect to electrical con- 
ductors in the city of New York." Heclaims that the ap- 
plicants have no "clear legal right to demand what is asked 
for" in the writ. The Boird of Health "has acted in the 
matter and has exercised its discretion and judgment in 
respect thereto, and with the exercise of that discretion the 
court cannot interfere." 

Mayor Cleveland of Jersey City has signed an ordinance 
permitting the Bergen Electric Light company to erect 
poles and string wires all through Jersey City. The same 
day a wire in Bay street sagged until it rested on a wire of 
the New York & New Jersey Telephone company and 
eight telephones of the Board of Public Works were burned 
out by the current from the electric light wire. Three fires 
it is claimed, were started from burning telephones. Chief 
Ruggles received a shock in attempting to remove a burn- 
ing telephone. 

Heinrichs who was not permitted to testify at the coro- 
ner's inquest or before the grand jury in the case of Harris 
who met his death by an electric shock, has written Gover- 
nor Hill and the legislature, that tbis was a suppression of 
evidence by District Attorney Fellows and Coroners 
Schultz and Messemer. The grand jury rebelled when ex- 
pert evidence was suggested, as they said it was confusing 
and they wanted facts and these were presented by Dr. 
Moses, R. W. Pope, and Mr. Edison. 

Commissioner Gilroy has reported that all dangerous and 
badly insulated wires which the B^ard of Electrical Con- 
trol has designated, have been cut. Dead wires will now be 
gotten rid of by the commissioner and the companies in 
Conjunction. 



46 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 



1890 



The meeting of the New Vork Electrical society held 
Jan. I ilh at Clinton Hall was attended by a representa- 
tive body of electricians who listened to the interesting 
lecture on "The Electrical Progress of the Year" by Joseph 
Wetzler. The lecturer went very exhaustively over the 
ground covered by the latest developments in telegraphy, 
telephony, primary and storage bittcries. the electric light, 
and motor applications, both with continuous and alternat- 
ing currents. At the close of the lecture Prof. George 
Forbes gave an interesting account of the progress of elec- 
tricity in England where he said clectticians are now emu- 
lating the cxaffp'e of their American cousjn«. 

The Bwrd of Electrical Control has had its day and the 
public has had a bitter la^ie of politico-electric science. 
It his lined the pockets of its favorites and left the city in 
the worst imiginab*e condition with its impracticable sub- 
ways. An important bill has bren introduced in the state 
senile by Mr. Riesch providing for the dissolution of the 
present Itoard of Electrical Control in New Vork and the 
creation of a Slate Board of Electrical Control which shall 
have charge of all electrical matters in the stale. 

The (ias Fixture Manufacturers' association which was 
formed last July, will probably be reorganized. It is well 
known that members of this organization have been cutting 
prices, and it is therefore proposed by leading firms in this 
section to make a number of impDrtant changes. It is 
further reported that several smaller establishments will be 
combined under one management. 

Business in this city was affected seriously last week by 
the breaking of telegraph lines. During the storm all mes- 
sages that were received at the telegraph offices were sub- 
ject to delay. 

The State Civil Service Commission has been asked by 
the Board of Electrical Control to hold examinations for 
candidates forihree inspectorship vacancies. 

The regular annual discussion on the probability of the 
organization of an electric light trust is now under way in 
this city, and to all appearances there is no more excuse 
for it now than heretofore. It is probable that the entire 
matter is idle newspaper talk. 

Complaints against the Board of Electrical Control are 
increasing daily, and frequent communications from citi- 
zens appear in the daily papers. Here is a conservative 
view: "How buildings should be wired and electric plants 
installed should properly be the business of the Board of 
Electrical Control. Had this board been composed of 
qualified electricians, rules would doubtless have been 
adopted before this which would have rendered the occur- 
rence of fires almost an impossibility, and saved millions of 
dollars." In relation to this matter the ll'orid, which has 
been devoting considerable attention to the subject, says: 
"Not one human life was sacrificed to the electric light 
currents in New Vork until the Board of Electrical Con- 
trol inaugurated its ignorant and reckless plan of regulat- 
ing the wires so as to make business for the Consolidated 
Telegraph and Electrical Subway company." W. H. T. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mii.WAi'KF.K. Jan. iS. — The controversy over the Min- 
sey electric railway line has assumed a new aspect. The 
mayor and city attorney have taken a hand in the matter, 
and if an attempt is mide to start the road with the present 
poles and wires, measures will be taken immediately to 
prevent the cirs from running. Mayor Brown addressed 
to City .Utorney Elliott a communication Thursday, in 
which he charged the company with having violated the 
terms of the charter authorizing the construction of an elec- 
tric line, and concluded as follows: "I have to request that 
you will take such steps as may be necessary to enforce 
the rights and protect the property of the city and its citi- 
zens." The city attorney accordingly notified Mr. Ilinsey 
that he would take such measures as would insure a com- 
pliance with the terms of the franchise unless the company 
immediately complied with the directions of the Board of 
Public Works. The meaning of this notice is that Col. 
Hinsey must proceed at once with the removal of the 
present poles and the erection of new ones, stronger and 
higher and that he must provide for a return metallic cir- 
cuit. The mayor, city attorney and board of public works 
held a conference and decided to apply for an injunction 
should an attempt be made to operate the present line, and 
the matter will be fought out in the courts. It is claimed 
by the mayor that the construction thus far has been of an 
inferior grade and that the poles are not as tall as the 
specifications in the franchise provide for. On the other 
hand, Hinsey says he will give the people of this city the 
best street railway service in the West, and that the entire 
plant will be satisfactory when completed. Hinsey is sup- 
ported by the council of which he is president, while the 
mayor relies on the board of public works, the members of 
which hold their oiVice through his favor. This would in- 
dicate that the controverry is developing into a fight for 
political supremacy. S. 



San Francisco. Cal. 

Sas Fka.si.isco, Jan. g. — 'I'hc fire department commit- 
tee of the board of supen'isors of this city recommended 
recently the passage of an ordinance for the immediate 
removal of wires from the house tops and roofs of build- 
ings with the exception of the fire alarm wires. The ordi- 
nance provides that the wires mu'.t be removed within ten 
days after due notice has been given by the chief engineer 
and any failure to comply with the order is punishable by 
a fine of f 500, or imprisonment of six months or both, 
unless the privilege is given by the board of supervisors 
to ?naintain the wires. .Apparently this measure is aimed 
at the Electric Improvement company which, when refused 
a franchise, strung its wires over house tops. 

Sacramento is out in force on the electric light prop- 
osition. .Xt the meeting of the trustees Dec. 30, W. C. 
Clark of the Westinghouse company and representing 
I capitalists from San Francisco requested a franchise for fifty 
years, offering at the same time to furnish one hundred 
and twenty-five arc lamps, in ninety days at a charge of 
$14.95 per month. He stated at the same lime that he 
did not want the franchise unless it came with the city 
contract. This proposition, after a very stormy debate 
was accepted, with the stipulation that he could not sell 
out to the Capital Gas company without forfeiting the 
franchise. The mayor gave notice that he should move to 
reconsider the franchise at the next meeting. The point 
that seems to be the sore one is that the meeting was 
called for the purpose of opening bids for the city lighting 
and no one except the Capital Gas company had put in 
such a b'd, and it is claimed the trustees had no right to 
award the contract to Clark without his having put in a 
bid. The Capital Gas company formerly got $51 per 
month for a mast of three lamps. The fever for city elec- 
tric light plants inaugurated by Oakland, and agitated by 
Sacramento, has now reached Stockton. At the last meet- 
ing of the trustees it was decided to find out the cost of a 
plant sufficient to light the city. 

Fairhaven a town situated on the Sound about thirty 
mites from Seattle, Wash., is having a boom. An electric 
railroad and an electric light plant are projected. 

W. G. C. 

Louisville. Ky. 

Louisville, January iS.— By February i, Hiram & 
Gooch expect to have a new electric light plant in oper- 
ation in the central part of the city, between Main and 
Market and Fourth and Fifth streets. They have already 
made contracts to supply 3,000 incandescent lights. The 
additional plant is needed since the city has only two 
plants, and one is of small capacity. Two or three squares 
only are now lighted by electricity on Main, I^Iarket, Jef- 
ferson, Green, Third and Fourth streets. The other 
streets are still half lighted by gas. 

The Western Electric company of Chicago has con- 
tracted to supply the Louisville hotel with electric lights. 
The rotunda will be supplied with arc lights and the bed- 
rooms with incandescent lamps. 

The Louisville (_ias company, which has the exclusive 
privilege of furnishing the city with gas, will apply to the 
state legislature at the present session for an amended 
charter permitting it to operate an electric light plant. The 
electric light companies now in operation will strongly op- 
pose the application. 

The state legislature has passed a bill imposing a penalty 
of not less than Sio nor more than f 100 for damages to 
telephone posts or lines. 

Telegraph wires are being strung on the line of the 
Louisville, Hardensburg t^ Western railway. 

The Thomson-Houston company is preparing to supply 
with electric lights the caisson of the Louisville ..V JefTerson- 
ville bridge, in which thirteen workmen were killed last 
week. 

Frederick Stitzell, assignee of the American Semaphore 
company of Louisville, has secured a patent on an electric 
semaphore setting apparatus. 

Electric lights will take the place of gas on the bridge 
between Covington and Newport, Ky. B. A. 

Denver, Col. 

Dknver. Jan. 18. — Judge Rising has decided the injunc- 
tion case of the Denver Tramway company against Mayor 
Londoner and Chief of I'olice l'"arley. The suit was begun 
to enjoin the defendants from interfering with the construc- 
tion of an electric railway. The plaintiff claimed the right 
to operate an electric railway by virtue of an ordinance 
passed in 1SS5, and certain ratifications of that ordinance 
by the city council in 188S. It was claimed by the defend- 
ants that the original ordinance was absolutely void. The 
judge decided against the Tramway company on every 
point. The attorney for the company said the company 
would appeal from the decision. 

J. W. Strayer hopes to construct an electric road in that 



part of the ciiy lying north of East Colfax avenue. He 
says that nothing definite is yet arranged, but that the in- 
terested parties arc formulating a scheme. 

I'rof. A. Graham Bell of telephone fame responded to 
the toast of his own name at the first banquet of the Ex- 
change last week. He said: 

Gknilkmkn — I must thank you for your welcome to Den- 
ver and Colorado. I am afraid my object has been misap- 
prehended. A few days ago I was dropped down in Den- 
ver on my return to my native state. The grip attacked 
me, and 1 stopped here to try your climate, 1 shall return 
home without having seen buffalo, deer, or cowboys, and I 
have not been shot at while in Denver. 1 can say that I 
admire the enterprise and push of the citizens; that this city 
has grown so fast, is a wonder to me. I have read in the 
Forum that Colorado has been the home of man for count- 
less ages; men who built houses of strong mortar and ir- 
rigated the soil before while man made his appearance. A 
writer for the J-'orttin also said that the length of time man 
has inhabited Colorado cannot be measured by centuries. 
Man measuri s lime by the light of the world. Greatness 
and smallness, nearness and (arness are similar terms; far 
is near to wings of light, near is far to wings of sound. 
Vou can produce sound by sunlight; you can transmit 
speech along a beam of light. It may occur to you that you 
would like to know how this is done. T will explain. Take 
a disk of metal with holes in the circumference, catch a 
beam of sunlight by means of a mirror, revolve the metal, 
cut the light by rotation of the disk of metal and the inter- 
rupted beams of light will produce sound. To produce 
speech by beams of light, catch the light with a mirror so 
thin that it will vibrate, reflect the beam of sunlight a dis- 
tance from a bottle filled with a small amount of carbon, 
speak on the back of the mirror. The vibrating mirror will 
be alternately convex and concave. .V man at a distance 
receiving the beam of light, and with the varying of that 
beam of light, the sort of speech and audible tones of the 
person speaking can be heard by the one at the distance. 
If you had a bottle with that sort of solid in it. and should 
speak against my radiaphone, you would hear my thanks 
for the honor you give me of appearing at this banquet. 

P. 



Omalia, Neb. 

Omaha, Jan. iS. — The Council Bluffs, la.. Telephone 
company is putting up a metallic circuit between the city 
and Omaha, There has been much complaint since the 
motor line has been in operation, and during the day when 
all the trains were running, it has been almost impossible 
for subscribers to communicate. 

The board of directors of the South Omaha Electric 
Light, Heat & Power company met last week and partially 
organized. No president was elected. C. M. Hunt was 
elected vice-president, C. W. Key treasurer, and John A. 
Doe secretary. 

"Do you see those poles and cross arms :n the alley?" 
asked President Wiley of the Thomson-Houston company 
of Omaha, when asked about electric lights for the streets. 
"Those are the first for our new line. They have insula- 
tors for thirty-six wires to feed arc and incandescent light, 
and supply power to machinery." The company's contract 
with the city calls for the starting of 100 arc lights at street 
intersections by February 10, and Mr. Wiley promises that 
they will be ready. A large number of small factories now 
using steam or water motors are arranging to put in electric 
motors next month, which will be operated by the Thom- 
son-Houston circuits. 

J. B. Stoddard, respresenting the Sperry Electric Light 
company of Chicago, and James Riley, traveling expert for 
the same company, were in Council Bluffs. la., last week, 
to inspect the new Sperry lights and dynamos. The work 
of setting up the macliinery and erecting the new lines and 
lights was done under the direction and personal supervi- 
sion of Superintendent Harry Evans. The new lights have 
given satisfaction in every respect. The only change that 
remains to be made is to "cut in" the three new towers 
to the circuits already in operation. II. 



Boston, Mass. 



Boston, January 18. — It is evident thai the Boston 
Electric Light company will not release its hold upon the 
city contract without a very emphatic protest. In this 
desire to continue its service to the city, at a price to be 
fixed by the state board of gas commissioners, the company 
is strongly upheld by the fire underwriters and nearly 140 
inlluential business men and firms interested in the district 
over which the company's wires are strung. Two remon- 
strances from these business men were presented to the 
board of aldermen on Monday night of this week, protest- 
ing against the transfer of the contract to a new company, 
on the ground that the decreased cost of light would be 
much more than offset by the increase J danger arising from 
the duplication of all Ihe overhead high tension wires. 
This phase of the protest was met by "An Open Letter to 
Mayor Hart," which appeared yesterday in all of the daily 
papers, and in which the Suburban Light & Power com- 
pany, to which the contract has been let, announces its 
intention to put all of its wires underground in the business 
part of the city. This has called forth a reply from the 



January 25, 1890, 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



47 



opposition party proclaiming the dangers of underground 
wires of high tension, the damage to the city from the nec- 
essarj' street excavations and the uncertain nature of such 
a ser\'ice. 

As to the system to be used by the new company, it 
says: "The wires will be laid upon a simple system, after 
the most approved manner, it being the intention to use a 
new and improved apparatus, free from the dangerous 
features that have heretofore accompanied high tension 
electric lighting. There being no direct electrical con- 
nection between the underground mains and the lamps, 
thereby guarding from the danger from fire that is inci- 
dental to all systems where direct connection is necessarily 
made from the mains to the lamps.'' It is claimed that 
the lamp to be used will burn for 32 to 36 hours with 
a single carbon. The system is entirely new and it is said 
to be that announced by Mr. Westinghouse some time ago. 

The board of aldermen has had its share of electrical 
business this week. At its meeting on Monday night, in 
response to a second appeal from Mayor Hart for immediate 
action, an order was passed "that a joint special committee, 
consisting of five members of the board of aldermen with 
such as the common council may join, be appointed to con- 
sider the subject of superintendence of electric wires in the 
city of Boston." The Suburban Light & Power company 
petitioned for the right to erect and use 1,000-horse power 
of stationarj' engines, and the Walworth Light & Power 
company to lay or erect wires over or uader the streets of 
Boston. The common council order for a report on the 
cost of maintaining and operating a city plant also came 
up for discussion and was referred to the committee on 
lamps, where it will probably "rest in peace." To this 
same committee was also referred a rather remarkable peti- 
tion from the aristocratic owners and occupans of houses 
on Commonwealth avenue asking that gas lamps be 
restored to that thoroughfare. This is conservatism with 
a vengeance. 

In the common council meeting last night, the council- 
men concurred in the order given above for the appoint- 
ment of a committee to consider the subject of the 
superintendence of electric wires, and further ordered that 
this committee considered it advisable to reduce the voltage 
of overhead electric light wires to 500 volts. 

The daily "grist" of the state legislature, now in session 
on Beacon Hill, also contains its share of electrical bills and 
orders. Among these are one advocating "better protec- 
tion to the public against danger from electric light wires 
used or kept 'alive" during the daytime," and one for 
securing "supervision and control of overhead or under- 
ground electric w^ires, with such safeguards as may be 
required to properly protect lives and property." Both 
were referred to the committee on mercantile affairs. 

The West End Street Railway company, through its 
president, Henry M. Whitney, has applied to the legis- 
lature for authority "to locate, construct, maintain, equip 
and to operate by electricity or other motive power an 
elevated railroad," An exactly identical petition was to-day 
presented by the "Meigs Elevated Railway company." 
The indications are that the West End company is to be 
bitterly opposed, and it was reported at the state house 
yesterday that representatives of the Manhattan system in 
New Vork were in town making plans for an attempt to 
capture the charter for itself. 

Two new electric car lines on the West End road will 
be put in operation to-morrow morning. The first will be 
an extension of the line now running between Grove Hall 
and the Tremont House, and will hereafter be run past the 
Tremont House around the loop to the depots formed by 
Hanover, Causeway, Poriland, Merrimac and Sudbury 
streets. The cars on this line will be run at intervals of 
fi\e minute?. The second line to be put into operation 
to-morrow is that from Dorchester to the Tremont House. 
The cars will stop only at designated streets about a 
quarter of a mile apart, and conductors are instructed ' not 
to wait for passengers coming from a distance." Gates 
will be used on all electric cars to prevent passengers 
getting on or off the cars on the side next the other track. 

The advertising agent of an opera company thought he 
had played a shrewd trick on the West Etd Street Railway 
company on Sunday morning two weeks ago when he had 
the span and guy wires of the electric lines on Tremont 
and Boylston streets and Park square hung with gay col- 
ored posters announcing the advent of the company at 
one of the theaters. After ascertaining the offenders the 
company rendered a bill of f2i, the expense incurred in re- 
moving the hangers. This was paid at once and was 
promptly followed by the arrest of the two guilty men on 
a charge of defacing private property. They were to-day 
fined $10 each in the municipal court. 

The price of incandescent lights has been reduced by the 
Edison Illuminating company in this city from i^ to i 
cent per hour for i6-candle power lamps and for other 



candle powers in the same proportion. The new schedule 
of prices will take effect Februar}' r. 

A large fire occurred this morning in the boot and shoe 
district of this city destroying the building of Claflin, Co- 
burn & Co. As was to be suspected an electric light wire 
is accused of starting the fire because "there was nothing 
else in the building that could have started a fire." 

The election of the board of directors of the Weston 
Illuminating company of this city took place on Wednesday 
of this week, resulting in the choice of F. L. Higginson, 
president; A. Robeson, secretary and treasurer; Moses 
Williams. Charles Storrow, and H. L. Higginson. 

The regular quarterly meeting of the New England 
Electric exchange was held last Monday at the rooms of 
the Boston Electric club. The secretary's report showed 
that since the formation of the exchange there had been 
343 applicants for license. 247 licenses issue4, thirteen can- 
didates rejected and two not examined. No business of 
impo'tance came before the exchange. 

The war department of the United States government 
has ordered a Thomson welding machine for the Water- 
vliet arsenal at Troy to be used in welding wire for the 
manufacture of rifled cannon. A commission from the 
na\y department is expected in Boston in February to e.x- 
amine the electric welding process and report upon its 
adaptability to the welding of boiler flues, etc., for the 
government cruisers. This commission will also test a 
chain welder for the Charleston navy yards. 

George Westinghouse, Jr., was registered at one of the 
hotels in Boston on Saturday last. O. H. M. 



THE ELECTRIC LIGHT. 

Seymour, Ind., has a new electric light plant. 

An electric light plant is being installed at Bedfo'd, 
Ind. 

A company has been formed to establish an electric light 
plant at Vernon, Tex 

The Pioneer Mining & Manufacturing company, Thom- 
as, Ala., is enlarging its electric light plant. 

The Ball Engine company of Erie, Pa., has furnished a 
complete steam plant of 100 horse power capacity to R. 
Mugge of Tampa, Fla. The power is for a Heisler Elec- 
tric plant. 

The Central Thomson-Houston company of Cincinnati 
is pu:ting in a complete electrical plant for the DeCoppet 
Ice company of Somerset, K.y. The steam plant is furn- 
ished by the Ball Engine company 

The Rapidan Water & Electric Power company at Rapi- 
dan, Minn., has been organized. The capital stock is 
§100,000. The incorporators are Seth H. Baker, Rapidan; 
George F. Piper, I\Iankalo; Clarence H, Piper, Garden 
City, and J. C. Washburn, Mankato. 

The Chicago Edison company has just completed Ihe 
wiring of the Winslow Bros. Manufacturing company's 
building, Chicago, for 250 incandescent lamps. The con- 
tract for an Edison dynamo has been awarded to the same 
company, and the machine will be installed next week. 

At a recent election at Boonville, Mo., the citizens voted 
in favor of contracting with the Boonville Electric Light & 
Power company to light the city for ten years. The com- 
pany will erect a station at once. One of the officers of the 
company writes: "What we want now is a good plant." 

Mayor Callahan of San Antonio, Tex., has had a con- 
ference with representatives of the electric light, telegraph 
and telephone companies doing business in the cilv, and 
served notice on them that if they failed to agree on elevating 
their wires to a uniform height, he would follow the ex- 
ample of Mayor Grant of New York, and cut their wires. ' 

Among the contracts for central station alternating cur- 
rent apparatus already reported by the agents of the West- 
inghouse Electric company for the month of January, are 
the following: For Red Oak. Iowa, 750 lights; Allen- 
town, Pa., 1,500; Elmira, N. V., 750; Jacksonville. 111., 
750; Marj^ville, Mo., 750. All of these orders are for new 
plants except in the case of Elmira, which is an increase. 
The original plant was installed there during the latter 
part of the year iSSg, 

The Fremont, O., Electric Light & Power company is 
preparing to make extensive additions to its electric light 
plant. As soon as the weather permits, the electric light 
station will be moved to the present gas works. New boil- 
ers and engines of 350-horse power will be put in, new 
buildings, dynamos and other machinery will be added, 
and the station will be a model one. These improvements 
will cost from $12,000 to $15,000, The company is also 
extending and improving its lines. 

A meeting of the companies doing business in the stale 
of Michigan was held at the office of the Brush Electric 
Light company, Detroit, January 17th, for the purpose of 
organizing a state association. The attendance and the 
response from companies throughout the state was good. 
The desirability of organizing such an association was 
agreed to without dissent. The association organized by 
adopting by-laws and electing the following officers: Presi- 
dent, Geo. Peck, president Edison Illuminating company 
of Detroit; vice-president, Jas. R. Dee, general manager 
of Peninsular Electric Light & Power company of Hough- 
ton and Hancock; secretary and treasurer, Joseph E. Lock- 
%vood, general manager Brush Electric Light company, 
Detroit; executive committee — George Peck, Detroit; Jas. 
R. Dee, Houghton; Joseph E, Lockwood, Detroit; W. H. 



Powers, Grand Rapids. The secretary was directed to 
s.'ndacopyof the by-laws and a blank application for 
membership to every company in the state. The associa- 
tion will give its first attention to the establishing of a gen- 
eral system of rules and regulations for the wiring of build- 
ings, so as to secure the safest and best construction and 
service. 

Theformal opening of the new salesrooms of Lyon, Potter 

& Co., Chicago, last week, was an event of more than 
usual interest to the music-loving public of Chicago. This 
firm has fitted up an immense bui'ding on Wabash avenue, 
Chicago, in the most elaborate style, making it one of the 
finest establishments in the western metropolis. The fa- 
cilities for lighting this large establishment are in keeping 
with the other appointments. The Chicago Edison com- 
pany, to which the contract was given, wired the sales- 
rooms for 250 lights. These are supplied with current 
from the company's central station. At the main entrance 
an iS-lamp ball cluster attracts considerable attention. In 
the main salesroom on the ground floor the lamps are ar- 
ranged on pillars. The fixtures are of special design, in 
the form of bands about the pillars, and each contains 
six lamps. The other salesrooms are lighted by four light 
clusters, also specially designed. Among the special feat- 
ures that attracted considerable attention on the opening 
night was a mound of flowers in which were arranged 20 
3-candle power lamps in series. The effect of these 
lights among the flowers was indeed striking, and attracted 
considerable attention. 

The London FJecbical Review speaking of the w^ire 
cutting in New York, says: ''In England, owing to the 
liberal policy of the Board of Trade, no similar drastic 
measures have been taken, and the 'model order' of Major 
Marindin, which stipulates that in future all electric light 
conductors shall be placed underground, and that those 
already carried overhead shall within two years from the 
issue of the regulation be laid underground has, with the 
exception of one or two minor points, met with general 
approval. T4ie fact that this policy has been followed in 
this country, and that almost similar steps have been taken 
in New York, has caused the governments of other 
countries to consider the subject. The German govern- 
ment is now taking action in the matter, and has just de- 
cided to put underground all the telephone, telegraph and, 
we also believe, the electric light wires. In Paris most of 
the electric light cables are laid underground, but in the 
French provinci^^l towns they are generallv run overhead. 
This state of affairs prevails aUo in Spain, and to a cer- 
tain extent, in Austria-Hungary. The most recent to take 
action in this direction is the Italian government, which 
has just adopted a policy by which the telegraph and tele- 
phone wires, the latter of which the government proposes 
to acquire, will be protected from the influence e.xerted 
upon them both by the induction from and contact with 
electric light and power cables." 



THE ELECTRIC MOTOR. 

The Anniston, Ala., Street Railway company will adopt 
an electric system on all its lines. 

It is stated that the Union Street Car company of St. 
Joseph, Mo. proposes to experiment with a storage battery 
system. 

A party of Montreal capitalists visited Boston last week 
and examined the West End electric railway system, with a 
view to introducing similar service in their own ciiy. 

The Brooklyn Street Railway Company of Cleveland 
Ohio has just installed two 125 horse power engines, 
making 14 Ball engines of this size now in its two power 
stations. 

The Keokuk. la., Electric Street Railway company has 
asked for an exclusive franchise for opt rating electric 
street cars in that city. The company has a capital stock 
of $100,000 and expresses a willingness to equip a first 
class line. 

President Allen of the Business Men's association of 
Davenport, la., at the annual meeting, called attention to 
the fact that the city has a water fall of a capacity of 10,- 
00 Nhorse power, which could be utilized by the use of 
electric motors. 

The Birmingham, Ala., Street Car company has been 
granted permission by the city council to experiment on its 
lines with storage batteries. Much interest is felt in the 
development of electricity as a means of propulsion for 
street railways. 

An effort is being made to introduce an electric street 
railroad into Grand Forks, Dak. The Northwest Electrical 
Construction & Supply company of .St. Paul, Minn., is en- 
deavoring to secure the franchise, and many wealthy local 
citizens are championing its cause. 

The city council of Pueblo, Col., has granted a franchise 
to the Pueblo City Railway company for the construction 
of twenty-two miles of road to be operated either by cable 
or electricity. Work is to be commenced within thirty days 
and completed through the business streets inside of six 
months. 

The question of rapid transit and better street car facili- 
ties has agitated the people of Memphis, Tenn., for years. 
The present system of horse cars is a miserable 
failure as far as modern accommodations, time and 
service are concerned. Three months ago, when a 
company was organized to introduce rapid transit into the 
city, the movement was hailed with delight. It was pro- 
posed by the new company to build an electric street rail- 
way, touching every important point in the city, and a 
franchise was granted the projectors of the enterprise by 
the legislative council. A representative of the Sprague 
company recently invited representative business men to 
visit Cincinnati and other cities and examine the electric 
roads in those places. In every instance the visitors have 



48 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 



become convinced of ihc desirability of introducing the 
electric system, and the outlook for rapid transit in 
Memphis is certainly ver>' good. 

The Thomson Houston Electric company has just closed 
a contract wiih the Street Railway company of Fort 
Worth, Tex., to furnish that company 15 motor cars and 
the requisite generating apparatus. It is provided that the 
system shall be in operation May isl. Under this arrange- 
ment the s>stem with which experiments have been maHe 
will be abandoned. 

A sur\-ey has been made and the right of way obtained 
for an electric railroad from a pomt on Hudson stieet, 
Rochester. N. V., to the Sea Uiceze, a summer resort on 
Irondcquoit bay. The line will be six miles long, and it 
is hoped the cars will be running :it the opening of the sea- 
son. '1 his will make the third electric road from Rochester 
10 summer resorts in the immediate neighborhood. 

In an interesting article on coal-mining machinery in the 
Black Diamotui the following paragraph appears; The 
past year has seen great advances made in the science of 
electric power and improvement in the manufacture of 
electrical machinery for coal mining and other purposes. 
It has opened a prospect in the future of cheaper mining 
and an extension of trade by diminishing the cost for 
absolute labor, thus placing this country in a far better 
position to compete with other lands in the trade marts of 
the South. Since the Gramme dynamo was introduced in 
1S70 the development of dynamic power has been steady 
and continued, and to-day its value is being appreciated 
the wide world over. The number of electrical machines 
that are being placed in coal mines, the great attention 
which they are receiving from every operator of account, 
and the immediate saving in the working expenses of a 
mine which their advent effects, stamp them as being a 
common mining factor in the future. With their perfec- 
tion the cost of coal production will be so lessened that 
coal as a fuel will vie in point of economy with certain 
fuels which under highly- favored circumstances now dis- 
place its use in various sections of the country. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 

The Central Electric ccmpany of San Francisco has 
been incorporated with ^250.000 capital to construct and 
maintain electric apparatus in the cities and towns of the 
Pacilic coast: directors; C. F. Fargo. J. Redding, L. I- 
Baker, G. P. Adams and C. H. Wilson. 

Oscar Williams, whose death at Hartford, Conn., 
Wednesday, January 15. was due to an electric 
shock, was a victim of his own care'essress and 
folly. Along the west side of the factory w here he 
was employed ran two wires of the Hartford Eight iV 
Power company, so near a seccnd-s'ory window 
that one can reach down and gia^p them. '1 he workmen 
in the factory had been in the habit of thus reaching down 
and receiving slight shocks. The electric company found 
this out and sent a warning to the establishment, and the 
practice was ordered discontinued. Williams, however, dis- 
regarded the order and Wednc day went to the window, 
and leaning out, grasped the wires. Ht leaned over a 
steam radiator, and a circuit was formed Instantly he 
uttered a piteous shriek, and two employes ran into the 
room, and seizing the unfortunate man by the legs, pulled 
him by main force off the wires in through the window. 
He was unconscious, and died in less than ten minut'S. 
Two lingers of the right hand were burned to the bone. 

The following will be of interest to medical *nen: A.t a 
recent meeting of the Harveian Society in London. Dr. 
Cagney said that experiments by Eulenburg, von liruns 
and Hermann .Vlunk had shown that certain drugs could 
be made to pass through animd tissues by the action of a 
galvanic current, and he liimself had used iodide of potas- 
sium in this way for the cure of lead palsy. Only very 
small doses, however, could be administered through the 
skin. The method was best adapted for the treatment of 
diseases of the skin and mucous membranes, or of small 
tumors immediately beneath them. In the application of 
the method a very strong current was not needed, but a 
suH'icient current density was required, and the tissues 
under treatment must be brought directly in the path of 
the current. The electrodes might be either sponges 
holding solution of iodide of potassium or a modification of 
Dubois" conducting tubes tided with the fluid. 'I"he elec- 
trode should be of large surface area. The fluid 
should be a saturated solution of iodide of potassium, and 
it ought to be supplied, where possible, at both poles. 
Where this was not possible the solution should bi: at the 
negative pole. The current should be passetl for lu to 15 
minutes, and its strength would be determined by circum- 
stances. Its direction should be reversed every minute. 



THE TELEGRAPH. 

David Dougherty, of the I'ij^lal Telegraph Cable com- 
pany, said recently: "A glance at the table of charges of 
the Commercial Cable company recall's Puck's declaration 
that he could put a girdle about the earth in forty minutes. 
There seems to be no portion of the globe where civiliza- 
tion has not obtained a foothold. Messages can be .=ent 
from extreme of the fi.xed rale to New York, and thence by 
transatlantic cable to (ircat Britain, Ireland, France and 
Germany, to .Mgeria, Morocco, Tripoli and Tunis on the 
northern coast of Africa, for from 8c to 27c per word. 
Delagoa Bay, Mozambique, Zanzibar and the Transvaal in 
South Africa can be reached for %z. 16 per word. There arc 
twenty-eight telegraphic stations on the west coast of Africa, 
the tariff ranging from $1.45 to i^2 per word. In South 
America, the Argentine Republic, lirazil, Chili, Colombia. 
Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay are reached from 
ICngland by twenty-eight stations, the charges ranging 
from $1.40 to ^4-7" perword. AH portions of Arabia, 
Australia, China. Cochin China, Corea, Ascension Islands, 



Corfu, Corsica. Cyprus, Canary Islands, Greek Islands, 
Herzegovina, India, Japan, Java or Sumatra, Liberia, 
Persia. Philippine Islands, Siam, are reached by telegraph 
direct, and telegrams are mailed from these points to all 
known countries. The highest price charged is $11.76 
per word to South Persia. Cipher dispatches are pro- 
hibited to Turkey, both in Asia and Europe, Koumania, 
Tri|X)li, Servia and several other countries. .Ml messages 
to the Orient must be written in French. It wants but a 
irans-Pacilic cable to complete the girdle about the earth." 

Personal Paragraphs. 

Alien R. Foote, who has charge of the department of 
electricity for the eleventh census, was in Chicago last 
week. 

II. Ward Leonard of the United Edison Manufacturing 
company. New York, attended the meeting of the 
Chicago Electric club Monday evening. 

Paul C. Just, formerly with the Thomson- Houston 
Electric company, Chicago, has accepted the position of 
electrical engineer for the North Chicago Street Railroad 
company. 

Asa T. Soule, who died at Rochester, N. Y., last week, 
was the originator of the electric railway between that city 
and Ontario beach, which has proved such a boom for elec- 
tric roads in that section. Mr. Soule held about half the 
stock of the electric company. 



Business Mention. 

The Electrical Supply company, Chicago, has just is- 
sued a neat circular calling attention to special lines of 
goods which it is now handling. 

Hansjn & Linehan, of Dubuque, Iowa, write the 
Western Electrician under date of January 17, that 
they are about installing an Edison electric light station, 
and will need from 15 to 25 tons of bare copper wire 

G W. Lord's famous boiler compound is finding a 
large field in the West. The Magee Brothers of Chicago 
and St. Paul have recently ordered two car loads of this 
cleansing compound which is being so largely used in all 
the steam plant districts of the country. 

Mr. Biddle, who has charge of the electrical department 
of las. Queen & Company, Philadelphia, reports a large 
and increasing business in electrical testing instruments. 
The new catalogue just issuing comprises many new in- 
struments of iniertst to electricians generally. 

H. T. Paislc is now located in his new and commodious 
quarters at the corner of I2th and Market street, Philadel 
phia, and reports an increasirg business. Ills w ell known 
switch is now universally popular. He is at work upon a 
new electrical device which he will shortly present to the 
electrical public. 

The rapidly-growing business of the Southern Electrical 
Supply company has compelled them to move from their 
old quarters at 310 North Third street, to the commodious 
five story brick building at S23 Locust street, St. Louis. 
This comparatively new concern seems to be achieving a 
gratifying success. 

L. J. Wing has purchased the interest of the Simonds 
Manufacturing company in his fans, engines, etc. He 
has established new headquarters at So John street, New 
\oxV city. The Western department will remain in charge 
of W. H. Wissing. and the headquarttrs will be at 96 
l<ake street, Chicago. 

The Elektron Manufacturing company which manufact- 
ures the Perret motor, has just begun the manufacture of 
an incandescent machine after the improved pattern of Mr. 
Perret, whereby a very low rate of revolution of the arma- 
ture is reached so that direct couplirg with the many new 
high speed engines can be successfully maintained.- 'I'his 
is a very ingenious machine and is characterized by fine 
workmanship. 

The Fletcher & l-"lelcher Electric company of Cleveland, 
(>., recently introduced an improved form of diy battery, 
and are receiving complimentary notices of work. Sub- 
stantial assurance of the success of the battery is furnished 
in the targe and increasing orders that have of lale been re- 
ceived. It is known as the Excelsior dry battery. It is 
compact, perfectly sealed, has a high electromotive force 
and low internal resistance. Its power of recuperation is a 
special feature. 

The Central ICIectric company, Chicago, has removed to 
its new building, iiOand iiS Franklin street, where, with 
increased facilities for carrying a larger stock and more 
diversified line, and for making shipments more promptly 
and with greater care than formerly, it hopes to ascend even 
higher in the scale of perfection. This company has had a 
remarkably successful career, and its prosperity is due 
largely to the strict business methods which it employs and 
the high line of goods it carries. 

Since the numerous tests and experiments with the new 
arc light system of the Westinghousc Electric company have 
attested its excellence, the company has decided to extend 
the arc light business as much as possible. The works in 
I'iltsburg are now being enlarged, and all the detail work 
is now removed cither to Newark or New York to give more 
space to arc tight work. The new six-story building which 
is taking the place of the structure which burned down sev- 
eral months ago, is to be exclusively utilized for the manu- 
facture of arc lamps. The socket department was last 
week removed to Newark, to make needed room in the 
works. 

M. A. Glasier, well known throughout the West from 
his long connection with the Jarvis Engineering company, 
as western manager, has changed his business connections, 
and has become associated with the engineering firm of 
J. A. Grant & Company, of Boston, whom he will repre 
sent in the West. Mr. Glasier has taken offices at 103 



Adams street (Electric Club building) Chicago, 1. A. 
Grant Jv: Company are a young but vigorous concern which 
has made an enviable record for itself. The firm does 
general engineering with the Mcintosh and Seymour en- 
gine as a leading specialty. Mr. Glasier has a host of 
acquaintances in the electrical business, all of whom will 
unhesitateingly predict him entire success in his new vent- 
ure. 

The National Carbon company of Cleveland, O., has is- 
sued the following circular: "It gives us great pleasure to 
state that we have finished rebuilding the portion of our 
factory destrojed by lire two months ago, and are now run- 
ning at our full capacity in every department. We have 
spared no expense in erecting special machinery of our own 
design, and believe our facilities to be far in advance of 
any other carbon factory. We wish to present our ac- 
knowledgments to our patrons for their kindness in overlook- 
ing the unavoidable delays in the matter of shipments of 
carbons, and to say that as we are now running full again, 
we are able to serve every one promptly as heretofore. We 
feel that we can best show our appreciation of our patrons' 
kindness to us during our time of trial by tire by an im- 
provement in the quality of our carbons, and confidently 
believe that such improvement will be found in the Na- 
tional carbons which you will receive in the future." 



Electrical Patents. 



419, 



419,2 



419. 



419. 



4'9. 

419. 

419. 

419. 

419. 

419. 
419. 



Issued Jan. 14, 1890. 
1S6. Hood for Electric Lamps. Daniel A. Culman, 
Jr , Kansas City, Mo. 

The second claim reads as follows: 

"In a hood or screen for lamps, the screen-sections 
covered with netting, spring-hinges for holding said 
sections normally open, and means for fastening the 
same in a closed position, in combination with a 
clamping ring." 

2i5. Electric Motor. Stanley C. C. Currie, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Multiple field poles are employed, and the changes 
of polarity in the poles of the armature are caused to 
pass from -i- to neutral and then to — , and vice versa. 

The fourth claim follows; 

"In an electric motor, the combination with the field 
magnets of the multipolar armature, the poles of wnich 
are each independently wound in different circuits, and 
the commutator with the bars of which the armature 
circuits are connected. 

264. Method of Making Electrolytic Meters. Arthur 
E. Kennelly, Orange, N. J. 

The process consists in heating both the solution 
and the electrodes to expel the oxygen therefrom. 
2S2. Electric Steam Generator, leremiah O'Meara, 
New York. N. V. 

Claim four reads: 

'In a heating apparatus, a refractory crucible 
adapted to b^ highly heated, combined with a heating 
agent applied to the said crucible and adapted to heat 
the same, and a vessel within the crucible to ccntain 
water to be hea'cd or converted into steam and sepa- 
rated from the crucible by means of an alloy fusible at 
a predetermined high temperature." 
30S. Conduit for Electric Railways. Bernard J. 
Black, Richmond, Va. 

309. Electric Street Railwav. Bernard J. Black and 
Wilton F. Jenkins, Richmond, Va. 

312. Draft- Annunciator for Mines. William Bul- 
luck, Centralia, Pa. 

313, Elect lie Railroad Telegraph. Baylus Cade, 
Louisburg, N C. 



Eleclric Railroad, Baylus Cade. Louisburg, 

Railway Car. Albert B. Pullman, Chicago. 111. 
Electric Connector. John A. Seely, Brooklyn, 



419 



419. 



419 
419 
419 



N. C, 

355. 

3O5. 
N. Y 

The invention is applicable, principally, to lead- 
covered cables which are usually laid in conduits 
ihrougli the streets, the joints being made at intervals 
where lateral branches are run off to buildings. 

The last claim reatls: 

"5. A coupling or joint for electrical conductors 
consisting of a tube or sleeve, in combination with a 
conductor, the tube being provided with a longitu- 
dinal slit, and solder filling in the slit and connecting 
the walls of the two with the conductor." 
367. Meter for Alternating Electric Currents. Oliver 
B. Shallenberger, Rochester, Pa. 

Of the twelve claims we give the eighth: 

"In an electric meter having a rotating armature, a 
polarizing conductor for the armature, and a second 
polarizing conductor placed at an angle to the first and 
consisting of continuous rings of conducting material 
placed side by side.'" 

4S7. Electric Cut-out. John F. Wollensak, Chicago, 
III. 

The object of the invention is to provide a compact 
and substantial device for connecting and disconnect- 
ing the wire in an electric circuit. 

The claim reads: 

"In an electric cut-off, the combination of a bracket, 
an insulating piece arranged in the bracket, a binding 
screw arranged in the insulating piece and exposed in 
one portion, and a thumb-screw that may be turned 
into the bracket until it connects with the exposed 
portion of the binding screw, and out until it discon- 
nects therefrom." 
,524. Shade for Incandescent Electric Lights. Joseph 

H. Huber, Greensburg, Pa. 
,58s. Electric Railway. Isidor Kitsee, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

,617. .Socket for Incandescent Lamps. Charles H. 
Lawton, New York, N. V, 



January 25 1S90 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



XI 11 



Eugene R Phillips, President. 



W. H. Saiwer. »ec'.7 and Electrician. 



AMEUICAIT ELECTEICAL WOUKS, 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

Manufacturers of Patent Finished 

ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, Office and Annunciator Wire, Rubber Covered 

Wire, Lead Eucased Wire, Telephone and 

Incandescent Cords. 

FARADAY CABLES. 

New York Office, 18 Cortlandt Street, 

p. C. ACKEBMAN. Agent. 




EuGESE F. Phillips, President. 



JoKN Cakroll, Scc'y. Treasure-. 



EUGENE F. PHILLIPS ELECTRICAL WORKS, 







Factory, \ i 



- 3IANUFACTUREI{S OF - 



ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRE, 

Magnet Wire, Office and Annunciator Wire, Rubber 

Covered Wire, Lead Encased Wire, Telephone 

and Incandeecent Cords. 



FRANK T. BROWN, Ute 

PRIKCIPAL EXAMINER ELECTRICITY, 
D. S.PATFNr OFFICE,'--- 

Bntterwortli, Hall, Brown & Smitli, 

Patent Atlorneyn, 

25-26 HONORE BUILDING. - - CHICAGO. 
Two complete seta of U. S. Electrical Patents. 

THOS. C. SMITH, Jr , M. E. 

11 Hammond Building, - Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Strain and Electric Power Conetruction, Elec- 
tric Light PJantp, Lonenltbtion and Soperintend- 
ence. Specifications fumiehed for flret-class 
plants. 



Ari. SIZES 

AND 
QXJAIilTIUS 



MICA 



For Electi'ical Purposes. 

ETJGEKEMUSSELL&OO,, 

218 ■Watw St..New Tork. 

Telephones and Electrical Sup- 
plies of Every Oescription. 
KIgia Telephone and Electrical Supply Co 
ELGIN, ILL., U.S. A. 








s 



FARADAY CABLES. 




THE "CL ARK " ^SATIRE. 

Insulation Guaranteed Wherever Used, Aerial, Underground or Submarine. 





In a letter from the Inspectos of the Boston Fire Underwriters* Union, under date of March 
''.9, 18S6, he says : *'A Thoroaghly Kellable and Uesirable Wire in Every Respect." 

The rnbter used In Insulating our wires and cables Is specially chemically prepared, and is guaranteed 
to he waterproof, and will not deteriorate, oxidize or cracky and will remain flexible In extreme cold weather 
and not affected by beat. The iusulatlon is protected frum mechanical Injury by one or more braids and ihe 
iFliole slicked with Clark's Patent Compound, which Is water, oil, acid and. to a very great extent, fire proof. 
Our iTisulation will prove durable when all others fail. We are prepared to furnish Single Wires of aU 
gangea and diameter of iusulatlon for Telegraph, Telephone and Electric Lights from stocK. Cables mad« 
M) order, 

, EASTERN ELECTRIC CABLE COMPANY, 

^ 61 and 63 Hampshire Street, Boston, Mass. 

frRrp>v A. m.ARK. OoueralManaeP-r. HERBERT H. EnsTIS. Electrician 



JAMES W. QDEEN & CO., 



Ayrton and Perry Ammeters and Voltmeters. 
Carpentier Ammeters and Voltmeters. 
Cardew Voltmeters. Electro-dyramometers, 
Queen's New Standard Laboratory Resistance Boxes. 
Queen's New Portable Combination Testing Set 
Complete Outfits for Insulation Testing. 
Special attention paid to re call crating Ammeters 
and Voltmeters. 

924 Chsstnit Stwet, Pijlidelplin. 



MATHER ELECTRIC CO., 

CHICASO OFIICE:] «»»™ "' MetropoUtan Block, )j jj BEID, Manager. 
I I>a Salle and Kandolph Sts. ) ' 

THE BEST SYSTEM OF INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 

^. FRICTION CLUTCH PULLEYS 

AJKI> CUT-OFF COCPr-IXGS. 

C^.&.S2, .a. C'X'EXSIST'ICS: 
Vise-like grip of clutches ootionaily gradual or sudden. 
Large friction sutfoces prevent undue ujetr. 

Disengaaement of clutches is positive. 
Pulleg shaft automatically oiled. 
They have a good tecoid running throuch jive yews. 

Experts are invited to examine pscuHarities. 
*>ena for !»*•» Catalogue. 

ECXIPSE WIXDEXGIXE CO.. Beloit. Wis. 




LEONARD & IZARD COMPANY, 

COKSULTIHG MD COHTRACTIHG ELECTRICAL IHGIXEERS, 

For any or all Systems of Electric Street Railways, Electric Motors of all Kinds, Incandescent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Electric Light 

"Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Electric Transmission of Power, Train Lighting Plants. 
A full line of Commercial Supplies carried at all times for Plants described above. Plans and Specifications for all Kinds of Electrical Construction Work. 

Sherman and Van Buren Sts.-RIALTO BUILDING. CHICAGO. ILL. 

Branch Offices: Thetumh-r i-xchanee. RoomsS and 6, Minn'»ppnli«.-3linn. ; BfoitbTre*»t«>rn 3ln*ual I. if*- ln*^TirPTirp Biflf k. Room lis, Telfphorp VI f.. Milw aFlc-e. YTfs 



^^N/^ 



rRAOir MARK. 



INSULATED WIRES AND CABLES, 

Electric Light, Telephone, and Telegraph, 

CANDEE AERIAL WIRES, OKONITE WATER-PROOF TAPE, MANSON PROTECTING TAPE. 
A\(rARDED A GOLD MEDAL AX THE PARIS EXPOSITIOIT. 

THE OKONITE COMPAIMY, ■ ■ ■ 1 3 Park Row, NEW YORK. 

BRANCHES: Ch'cago, Boston, Philadelphia. Omaha, Minneapolis, Cincinnati Louisville. St. Louis. Kansas City, gnd San Francis co. 

Automatic Electric Motors 

In all Sizes from One-half H. P. Upward. 

High Efficiency, Perfect Regulation, Superior Workmanship, Ease of 
Management, Remarkable Sitnplicity, Etc., Etc. 




DITNAIVEO '^ ElaZSCTRIC « IXEACHIIffSS 

For Electroplating, Electrotyping, Copper Kefining, Etc, 

RBSKrH nPPirP?' new YORK, 33 church St.: BOSTON. Ill Arch St.: PHIIADELPHIA, 506 Ccrr.merce St .: CHICAGO, 42 ia Salle St 
DlUmUn UrriUDO. KANSAS cur, nialto Bullalng: NEW ORLEANS, 106 Carondelet St. 

THE EDDY ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING CO., WINDSOR, CONN. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25 1S90 




Established in 1861. 

%E. BHGGOT, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN 

^^ ^ ELECTROLIERS, 

COMBINATION 

GAS AHL ELSCTRIC 

FIXTURES. 

ELECTRIC AND GAS GLOBES, 
SHADES, Etc., Etc., 

Madison Street and Fiftli Avenne, 

CHICAGO. 

BHANCH STORE 

2134 Michigan Avenue, 



THE SPERRY ELECTRIC CO., 

D. P. PEERY, Ylce-Presldent and General Manager, 

MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

SPERRT IMPROVED STSTEM 



-OF- 



HIGH OR LOW TENSION. 



1. The new Sperry apparatus free from repalre for twelve mooths. 

-. That the new sperry Improved Dynamos cao Decoupled in aerlea with perfect eafety. 

3. That any number of lamps from one to capacity of dvnamo can be cut In or out of circuit, 
elngly or In croapa, with perfect eafety, and without Bpartins; at the brashes. 

4. To absorb power In exact proportion to namter of ligbta burning. 



1. The new Aatomatlc Sperry Dynamos and Lamps surpass in efliclency those of any other 
make. 

•J. That there is greater economy In operating the new Sperry System than any other. 

3. That our antotnatlc regalatlon has no equal; no rheostat, no wall boxes, no solenoid or 
daeb-pot. 

4. That If you will visit our factory we can show yoo the best arcl'ghting apparatus in existence. 

We Invite correspondence with electrical engineers. Intending buyers, and Interested 
people everywhere. 

THE \}im ELECTRIC :0„ 131, 1S6, 198 South Clinton St„ CHICABD, ILL. 

VXV Office and Factory ^'f/ 

2134 to 2140 DeKalb St., - ST. LOUIS, MO, 

Maimfaclnrers of ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS aud CARBON SPECIALTIES, 




OUR 

BL4CKD14M0HD" 

POINTS 

— oiTsnnE — 

THLM ALL. 

AVRITE FOR SAMPLES AND PRICES, 



Lone Life, 

Uniform Size, 

SLTEKirRtLlTY, 

Guaranteed Second 
to None. 



Stilwell's Patent Live Steam-Feed Water Purifier. 




Removes all Impurities. 

Knlitely prevents SCALE if Steam 

Boilers. Cutjilogue ou application. 

8TILWELL&BIERGEMF6.G0., 

DAYTON, OHIO. 



GEORGE CUTTER, 

CONSULTING ELECTRICIAN, 
80 Adams Street^ - CHICACrO. 



BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO., 

Orford Rosette Pendant «?!.!«!™^- 



THE LUNKENHEIMER BRASS MFG. CO., ■ Cincinnati, Olllo. 




Write for Juae, 1S89, Cataloene of (S) Globe Valves, Pop Safety Valves 

LabricatorSi Oil and Grease Cnps. Eng^lne BuI'ders' Brass Goods, 

and Glass Oil Cops for Dynamos. 



1 2 Pearl Sti-oet. Room 6, 




Eureka construction. 



BOSTOX, MASS. 

Impoveil Pateiiteil Material for Street 
Railway Road-lieils. 

BEST IHATERIAL. LOWEST PRICES. CORRES- 
PONDENCE SOLICITED. 

THOMAS ASBBIIKNEE, Westero Agent, Kansas Cily, Mo. 

Rolled any weifibt desired. Patent allowed. Sample 
Cliair and Section of Rail Seat, Espress Prepaid, to 
Prospective Purchasere. 



BALL 

^ " '^'" I I Ji 

RELIABILITY 
ECONOMY, 
SIMPLICITY, 
DURABILITY. 

THE MOST PERFECT 

GOVERNING 

EVER OBTAINED. 



AUTOMATIC 
CUT -OFF 



ENGINE 




STANDARD 

DOUBLE 
COMPOUND 

TANDEM 
COMPOUND 



For Electrical Li.i|?litiii^, Electrical KaiUvays and pur- 
poses Avliere perfect s'overiiing' is required, it has no equal. 

BALL ENGINE CO„, ERIE, PA. 



J. F. PORTER. Pres. & Genl. Manager. 



E. RUEBEL, Superintendent. 



CENTRAL ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, 



919 LOCUST STREET, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

BRANCH: NASHVILLE, TENN. 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 

For any system of Incandescent Electric Light Plants, Arc Light Plants, Street Railway Plants, Electric Power 
Plants, Electric Light Wiring, Storage Battery Plants, Train Lighting Plants, Pole Line Construction. A full line of supplies 
carried at all times for plants described above. Plans and specifications for all kinds of Elect rical Construction. 

THTSTANDARD CARBON COMFANYrCLEVELAND. OHIO, 



IVIa.zx'U.fctot'u.x-ex'ai ol 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS AND BATTERY MATERIAL. 



January 25, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



VICTOR TURBINE WATER WHEEL 




The attention of ELECTRIC COMPANIES is called to this CELE- 
BRA'n-:i> "WATER M'HEEE as particularly adapted to their use, 
on account of its remarkably steady motion, bisrb Speed 
and s:reat Efficiency, and lars:^ i'apacity, for its diameter, 
being double the Power of most wheels of same diameter. It is used by a 
number of the leading electric companies with great satisfaction. In the econom- 
ical use of water it is without an an equal, producing the highest per cent, of use- 
ful effect sfiiaranteed. 

SE>'0 FOB CATALO«rE AND PARTICFtARS. 

Our Horizontal "Victor" is highly recommended, as no gezxZ are required, 
and it can be belted directly to dynamo. 

The accompanying engraving represents a pair of 12-inch VICXOR 
XfRBI.^'ES arranged on a horizontal shaft, with Cast-iron Flume, Draft 
Tubes. End Bearings for Shaft, and Driving Pulleys complete, all mounted upon 
a substantial cast-iron bed plate. The entire arrangement is very complete and 
strictly first-class in every particular. We are now prepared to furnish Victor 
Turbines, either single or in pairs on horizontal shafts, and where the situation 
admits of their use. we recommend them. 

8T1LWELL & BIERCE MFG. CO., • DAYTON, OHIO. 



FACIOBIES: WATEBBUBT, CONN. 

MASIUFACTIJKEKS OF 

BARK AND INSUImATZSD ^ITIRE. 

Underwriters' Copper Electric Light Line Wire, handsomely finished, highest conductivity. Copper Magrnet Wire, Flexible Silk, Cotton and 
Worsted Cords for Incandescent Lightlnfr. Round and Flat Copper Bars for Station Work. Insulated Iron Pressure Wire. 

PATENT "K. K." Ome wire 

For Electric Light, Electric Railways, Motors, Telegraph and Telephone Use. 

AGENTS FOR THE WASHINGTON CARBON CO., CARBONS FOR ARC LIGHTING. 

THOS. L. SCOVILL, New York Agent, 

26 PARK PLACE, NEW YORK. 



/^I ADC MADRON CO., MAKERS o-' HIGH -GRADE 



BELDING MOTOR & WF(}. COMPANY, 






OFFICE 144 Adams Street, The Rookery, ) 
FACTORY 128-130 So. Clinton Street, f 



- CHICAGO, ILL, U.S.A. 



MABTJFACTUEEKS OF THK 



BELDING ELECTRIC MOTORS 



P 



Perfect Automatic Regulation, 

Highest ISfBciency CS-uaranteed. 

THE STRON&EST ARMATDRE MADE, PERFECTLY BALANCED, ABSOLOTELY NO BEATING. 

All Parts Intercbang'eable Even to Comniutator. 

Correspondence Solicited. - Agents Wanted in all the Principal Cities. 



FRANCIS W. PARKER, 

SOLICITOR of ELECTRICAL PATENTS 

THE ONI.T' COUFIiETE SET OF V. 8. 
TtT.BCTmCAI. PATEHTS IK CHICAOO. 

1001-3-5-7 Opera House Block, CHICAGO. 



THE STANDARD OPEN CIRCUIT 






I ■ A(\^lASi),lNCANJ)E5CHNT(U(;j'HlC 
t'GHflNG. ei,ecrRO-PLATING>,ANJ) 
rOR ExpCRlMENfALUSE. ALSO MOTORS. 




BATTERIES OF THE WORLD. 



PARIS 
HIGHEST AWARD! 

THE ONLY 

ISQLDMEDAl 



F O R 



ELECTRIC BATTERIES 
EXPtiSlTiQN - 
1889 



CSOSDA. 




THE LECLANCHE BATTERY COMPANY, 149 West 18th Street NEW YORK. 



WESTERN ELECtollCIAN. 



January 25, 1S90 



BUTLER HARD RUBBER CO 



THE 



33 Mercer Street, NEW^ YORK, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Of every description, including the celebrated HARD RUBBER BATTERY CELLS, manufactured under 
KieVs Patents for Primary and Storage Batteries. The cheapest and best Cells in the market. Also 
Sheet, Rod and Tubing (Kiel's Patent) for electrical purposes, at reduced prices. Standard quality Sheet, Rod, 
Tubing, Insulator Hooks, Key Knobs, Switch Handles, Telephone Receivers and Battery Syringes, constantly on hand. 

HARD RUBBER SPECIALTIES OF ALL KINDS MADE TO ORDER. SEND FOR PRICES AND ESTIMATES. 

For Sale by CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., CUcago, 111. 




THE SCHUYLER ELECTRIC CO., "'"°H«*«- 




January'as, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



JOHN W. MASON, Manager. 
SFECIAIi AGENTS 



:nlO ^v> 



TRADE MARK. 
WIBES AND CAB£,E8. 



GATE CITY ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Have a FUIili STOCK of 

ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES! 

And will make L.OW Prices and PROMPT Shipments. 

522 DELAWARE STREET, - - KANSAS CITY, MO. 




WHEN YOU BUY A MOTOR 

Prom ANY Manufacturer or Dealer, 

State that you WANT IT SUPPLIED 
WITH the 

Whittingham 

Automatic 

Switch. 

Send for Catalogue. 

Automatic Switcli Co.. 

No. 8 Keyser BuUdhig, 

BALTIMORE. MP. 

The GOUI.D PACKING GOMPAMT^ 

36 Cambridge street, 

EAST CAMBRIDGE, - MASS., 

MANTJFACTURB THE 

Gould Steam and Water Packing 

The Original Ring Packing, Pat. June 1, 1880. 

Saperior to any Packing: in the market for Steam, Water 
or Ammonia. Self-Lutrfcating, does not corrode the rod, 
never grows hard If directions are followed. Sent on thirty 
days' trial. Satisfactory or no pay. None gennine without 
f;hiB trade mark and date of patent stamped on wrapper. 

Beware of infringements and imitations, 

ALBION CHIPMAN, Treasurer. 

All similar Packings are imitations and calculated to deceivb- 

UAFX 

ELECTRIC LIGHT CO. 




ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 

STREET OR TRUNK LINES. 

ELEVATED OR UNDERGROUND. 



Central Stations for Power Distribution. 



STATIONARY MOTORS. 

STORAGE BATTERIES. 



Executive Offices: 115 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

AGENCIES, 13 South Fourth St., Philadelphia; 119 La Salle St. , Chicago. 

Factory: JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



OVER ONE MILLION FEET 

standard Underground Ca"ble Co.'s 

INSULATED WIRES AND CABLES 



SOLD TS SIX MONTHS BY THE 



NEBRASKA ELECTRIC CO., 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS 
AND JOBBERS. 



"yyestem S-u.pply- KCo-u.se, 
OMAHA. 



AVrite for Samples, Prices 
and Data. 



ELEGTRiC HEAT REGULATOR 

Saves Coal, Saves Doctor's Bills, Saves Labor; 

Automatic, Simple and Durable ; Insures uniform temperature 
throughout the house; no heater complete without it; can be 
applied to any kind of heating apparatus. Try one, and be con- 
vinced. 
If not sold In your town write ns for illaetrated circular and prices. 

CONSOLIDATED TEMPERATURE CONTROLLING CO., 

aHWDTEAPOLIS, ]}II?iIir. 




C. F. ANNETT, Preat. 



S. F. FENTON, Tice-Preat. and Treas. 



Hotel and House Annunciators. 
Electric Gas Lighting. 
Fire and Burglar Alarms. 
Electro-Medical Apparatus, 
Electric Lighting. 
Telegraph Instruments. 
Wire and Batteries. 



CHAs. a^)■^^ET smith, seo^ 



The United Electric Go. 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies, 
SALT LAKE CITY. - UTAH. 



iH| KING BELL 



PATENT APPLIED FOR. 




SOMETHIN& ENTIRELY NEW 
EASY OF ADJUSTMENT, 

SOLID IRON BASE, 
NICKEL-PLATED &ONG, 



CUT TWO-THIHDS ACTUAL SIZE 

Cau be adjusted Ibefore op 

after placing in 

position. 

Working Parts 
Completely Protected. 

Seat, Reliablf, 

and Substantial. 

For Prices, See Our Catalogue. 




SECTIONAL VIEW SHOWING WORKING PARTS. 



FRANKLIN S. CARTER. 



CHARLES M. WILKINS. 

TRADING AS 



E. WARD WILKINS. 



PARTRICK & CARTER, 

Manafactarers of and Dealers in Every Uaecrlption of 

EI-ECTRICML. SUPPLIES. 

Sole Proprietors of the Patent Needle Annunclatore, 

114 South Second Street, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

ESTASLISBBO 1667, 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 



a 



G. & V ELECTRIC MOTOR COMPANY, 

402 $c 404 GREENWICH STREET, IMEW YORK. 



ALL STANDARD SIZES 

OF— 

ELECTRIC MOTORS 



-FROM 



1-8 H. P. TO 40 H. F. 



Chicago Office. Phcenix Building. 
Cincinnati Office. 99 West Fourtli Street. 




Ovsr G.OOO Now in Uiae 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES, 

Running Sewing Machines, Elevators, 
Printing Presses, Ventilating Fans, Blow 
ers. Coffee Mills, Polishing and Grinding 
Tools, Etc. 



New England Office, 148 Higii Street, Cor. Oliver, Boston. 
Piiiladelpliia Office, 301 Arcti Street. 



JOHN STEPHENSON CO., 



i_iis^i-r:ErD, 

ZTElMr YORK. 



STREET CARS 



-FOR- 



ELECTRIC MOTORS 



CARS ADAPTED TO ALL SYSTEMS. 




BERGlMiLITIT & CO., 

ELECTRIC LIGHT, COMBINATION 





ADAPTED TO ANY SYSTEM OF INCANDESCENT liiaHTING. 



ALL APPLIANCES FOR THE EDISOI ELECTRIC LIGHT, 



Illustrated Catalogues, Designs and Estimates Furnished on Application. Correspondence Solicited. 



Office and Works, [ ivrx^iiT- •\ri\T>Tr i Show Rooms, 

292-298 Avenue B, j -W-t-W JCUHli. | 65 Fifth Avenue. 



T. W. WILMARTH & CO., 227 State Street, CHICAGO, ILL. 

AGENTS FOR OUR FIXTURES IN THE NORTHWEST. 



January 25, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



SOUTHERN ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO. 



Of Every Description at Bottom Prices. Prompt Shipments and Intelligent Execution of Orders, Our Specialties. 

™«*^ 823 LOCUST STREET, ^«' 




TRADE MABK- 
A GENTS. 




TRADE MARK. 
AGENTS, 




F0REf(4a)BAIN, 

84 MARKET ST., CHICAGO, 

XSIectrical Kxpert^ 

DESIGN ER AND MANUFAC TURER. 

Special and Experimental 

MACHINERY . 

Large Dynamos and Motors for Special "Work 

built to Order. Coal Mining Haalage 

a Specialty. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT REPAIRING. 



THE PERKINS 
ELECTRIC LAMP 
COMPANY, 

Chicago Office, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN ST. 



iEOHABS PAGET. 



CHAELE8 J. KINTNBE. 



PAGET & KlNTNEELf 

Ghemcal and Electrical Experts and Electrical Engineers, 

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENTS. 
INTO. 4S JBlToet,€3.-v^a,-y, - l^O'J^Vi' "V^HJ^L., 

Dr. Gassner's Dry Battery. 

Acknowledged by experts to be tbe Beet Open Circuit Battery in the Market, 
tbe most durable and convenient for 

Electric Bells, Gas Ligliting, Telephones, 

Signals, Electric Clocks, 
Stationary Batteries for Physicians 

and many Other Uses. 




ITo Liquid. Ko Glass. 



Highest Testimonials. Write for Circular. 

For Sa™™rn Ele^ctric Co. ^ _ SCHO VERLING, 

And California Electrical Works, BOLE AQEKT AND MANUFACTTJKEE* 

San Francisco, Cal. Ill Chambers Stree*, New York 



^K^^g^ 



SPEAKING TUBES an! WHISTLES, 

Oral, Electric, Pneumatic, and Mechanical 

ANNUNCIATORS AND BELLS. 
W. R. OSTRANDER & CO., 

2 1 , 23 and 25 Ann St. New York. 

Factory, 1461 and 1463 DeKalb Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
■ Send for New Catalogue, out August 1st. 




) 



I 



"REVISTA TELEGRAFICA DE MEXICO;' 

F. A. SONI, Editor and Publisher. 

The "REVISTA TELEGBAFICA DE MEXICO" is the only electrical paper published in Mexico 
and has a wide circulation ail over that country and Central and South America. As an advertising medium 
it is unequaled in its special field. 

Advertising rates are moderate, and will be promptly furnished on application. 

Correspondence from electrical merchants and manufacturers desiring Mexican trade is cordially 
invited, and samples of goods will be cheerfnliy received and kept at the show rooms. 

In connection with the "Revista Telegrafica de Mexico." Mr. Soni is solicitor of Mexican Patents. 

Paients applied for by Mr. Soni will be obtained promptly on the best terms. 

Address: X*> ./l^. S^KTX. 

P.O. Box 31, orCaltedelRetuoioNo.lR. sntreiuelo. OITf OF MEXICO. 




PATENT 
DOUBLE 



LIFT-OVER 



PENDANT BURNER 



Igniting Gas or Gasoline by Electricity. 



This PENOANT BURNER has the Double Lift- 
Over Electrode, -which saves two-tbirds of Bm^tj Power and 
avoids Short Circuiling, wh!ch is liable to occur in many others. 

The Double Lift- Ov,r Eleclrode is a very importaDt feat- 
ture no other Pendant hss. 

Electric Sparl< or Connection only when Gas is Ignited. 



Electric Gas Lighting Apparatus. 
Electric Bells and Annunciators. 
General Electrical Supplies. 

Electrical Specialties to Contract. 




IDynsLKio a.rLcl CyliiKier Oils. 

Second to none. Free from gum or acids. Especially adapted for all fast runnning 

machinery. By refiltering can be used continually. Adopted by the largest 

Electric Plants of the West. 

8. TAUSSIG, Agent, - ^ 43 River St., CHICAGO. 

WRITE FOR PRICES'AND SAMPLES. 



IMPROVED 



Primary Batteries 



FOR 




DOMESTIC 
ELECTRIC 
LI6HTIN6, 



AND FOR 



Scientific and other Porposes. 

NEW CATALOGUE JUST OUT. 

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



JAMES H. MASON, 

MANUFACTURING ELECTRICIAN, 

1 20 Park Avenue, - - BROOKLYN, N, Y, 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, iS 



THE BEST or ALL 



THE MHLTER K. FREEMHN 

TRANSFORMER SYSTEM 

OF INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 




ALTERNATING CURRENT DYNAMO— CAPACITY, 500 1 6-CANDLE-POWER LAWFS. 

We Guarantee 12 16-C. P. L%mpsfor each Mechanical S. P. applied to Dynamo. We Guarantee our Trans- 
formers and Dynam,08for two years, and sell our Apparatus upon its Satisfactory Performance. 

Our Apparatus is of the Highest Efficiency, Mechanically and Electrically, 

WE GUARANTEE ITS OPERATION, AND 



COHHESFONDEITCE SOIvIClTEC 



M 



NATIONAL ELECTRIC MFG. CO 

EAU QLaAIRR, wis. 

GEO. B. SHAW, - General Manag^er. 



EASTERN ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION CO., Gen'l Eastern Agents. 

33 COLD STREET, NEW YORK. 

BAKER. BALCH & CO.. General Agents. 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



THOMAS WOLFE, Southwestern Agent, 

UNION DEPOT HOTEL, 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 



January 25, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



NOW READY! NOW READY!! 

TWrd Edition Dynamo Tenders' Hand-Book, with moonlight schedule for 1890. Second Edition Incandescent Wiring 
H»ad-B3ok with additional chapters. An astonishing record: The rapid and continued demand for Lieut. Eadt's prac- 
tical hand-books has compelled us to print Thirteen Thousand copies within Eighteen months, as follows: 

Dynamo Tenders' Hand-Book, let Edition ,...-2 500 Copies. Incandescent Wiring Hand-Book 2d Eiition (Just ready) 2,500 Copies. 

2d " ..-. ..2,000 " BellHangers' " " 1st " 2,500 " 

" " " 3d '• (Just ready.) 1,000 " 

Incandescent Wiring " 1st " 2,500 '• Total witliin Eighteen months 13,000 



Bell Hanger's Hand-Book. 



BY F. B. BADT. 



PRICE $1.00. 106 pages, 07 illustra- 
tions, flexible cloth binding, ty;:e page 
5;^x3 inches. Just the book for people 
engaged in selling, installing or handling 
electric batteries, electric bells, elevators, 
house or hotel annunciators, burglar or fire 
alarms, electric gas lighting apparatus, 
electric heat apparatus, etc., etc. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

VOLTAIC KLECTRICITT. 

Contact Series. 

The Voltaic or Galvanic Cell. 

Generation of Current. 

Local Action. 

Polarization. 

DESCKIPTIOH OP BATTEBIB8. 

The Smee Battery. The Grenet Battery. 

The Daniell Battery. 

The Grove Battery. 

The Bunsen Battery. 

The Carbon Battery. 

Nickel-plating Battery. 

Fuller's Mercury Bichromate Battery. 

The Leclanche Battery. 

The Diamond Carbon Battery. 

The Law Battery. 

Gravity Batteries. 

Dry Batteries. 

Classification of Batteries. 

ELEMESTARY DATA. 

The Electric Current. 

Ohm's Law. 

Conductors and Insulators. 

Direction of the Current. 

Connecting Batteries. 

Cells Connected in Series. 

Cells Connected in Multiple Arc. 

Recapitulation. 

Work. 

External Resistance. 

Rules for Connecting Batteries. 

Data Regarding Batteries. 

Divided Circuits. 

Electro-magnets. Induction CoUs. 

Electric Bells. 

Single Stroke Bells. 

Long Distance Call Bell System. 

Push Buttons. 

Buzzer. 9 

Indicating Box Bell. 

Annunciators. Electric Alarms. 

Hotel Fire Alarm and Room Call. 

The Hess System. 

The Western Electrio Company's System. 

The Double Wire System. 

Partrick & Carter System. 

The Electro-mercurial -Alarm. 

The Metallic Thermostat. 

Burglar Alarms. Desk and Safe Alarms. 

Electrio Gas Lighting Apparatus. 

Portable Gas Lighters. 

Apparatus for Public Buildings. 

Apparatus for Residences, 

A Novel Automatic Burner. 

Connections of Gas Lighting Systems. 

Electric Heat Regulators. 

KtnmtNG ELECTBIC WIBES. 

Proper Installation. 

How to Fish Wires. 

Wiring Fixtures for Gas Lighting. 

Wiring Elevator Annunciators. 

Best 'nme for Wiring. 

Extra Insulation. 

TESTING MSTEUIIENTB. 

Detector Galvanometer and the Mameto 

BeU. 
Teste for Faults. 
Bell Hangers' Tools. 
Wire Tables. 
Specifications for Wiring a Hotel. 



Dynamo -Tenders' Hand-Book, 



BY F. B. BADT. 

PRICE $100. First and second edi- 
tions cxhaus'ed; third edition now ready 
making 5,500 books printed to date, con- 
taining additional pages and moonlight 
schedule f jr 1890. 100 pages, 70 illustra- 
tions, flexible cloth binding, size of type 
page Six 3 inches. Designed for dynamo 
tenders and linemen, stationary and ma- 
rine engineers. Just the book for men 
who wish to learn how to operate and care 
for electric light instaliatiots. The only 
book of the kind in the English language. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

ELEMENTARY DATA. 

The Electric Current. Ohm's Law. 

Work. 

Conductors and Insulators. 

Direction of the Current. 

Detector Galvanometer and Magneto Bell. 

ARRANGEMENT OF POWER. 

The Dynamo Room. 

Motive Power. 

Shafting and Pulleys. 

Foundalions for Dynamos. Belts. 

DYNAMO ELECTRIC MACHINES. 

Description of the Dynamo. 

The Continuous Current Dynamo. 

The Series Dynamo. 

The Shunt or Derived Circuit Dynamo. 

The Compound Dynamo. 

The Alternating Current Dynamo. 

Preparation of a New Dynamo for Opera- 
tion. 

S'aiting a New Dynamo. 

Keeping a Dynamo in Good Order. 

Brushes. The Commutator. 

Repairs to the Armature. 

Repairs to the Field Magnets- 
Testing the Wire Coils of a DynanK) for 
Contact against Iron. 

DISEASES OP DYNAMOS. 

Non-Generation of Current by the Dynamo. 
Excessive Sparking of Commutator and 
Brushes. 

LAMPS. 

Arc Lamps- 
Suspension of Arc Lamps. 
Tiimming and Cleaning Arc Lamps. 
Incandescent or Glow Lamps. 
Multiple Arc System. 
Multiple Series System. 
Series Multiple System. 
-Arc and Incandescent Lamps on the Same 

Circuit. 
The Alternating System. 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Current Indicator or Ampere Meter. 

Pressure or Potential Indicator, or Volt- 
meter. 

Current Regulator. • 

Switches. 

Safety Devices. 

Lightning Arresters. 

Ground Detector. 

Switch-Board. 

cntcmTS OR leads. 

Outdoor Leads for Arc Lighting . 

Outdoor Leads for Incandescent Lighting. 

Arc Circuits inside of Houses. 

Incandescent Circuits inside of Houses. 

Size of Wires for Incandescent Lamp In- 
stallations. 

Testing. 

ACCUMULATORS.— DESCRIPTION AND OPER- 
ATION OF ACCUMULATORS. 
SAFETY REGULATIONS. 

Rules of the Boston Underwriters' Union. 

English Regulations. 

Abstract of the Chicago Electric Light 

Laws- 
Rules and Regulations of the New York 

Board of Electrical Control. 



Table of Electric Light Conductors. 
Lamp Lighting Schedule — Moonlight Sys- 
tem. 
Construction Tools. 



Incandescent Wiring Hand-Book. 



BY F. B- BADT. 



PRICE SI. 00. Type page 5ix3 inches, 
flexible cloth binding, 66 pages, 35 cuts, 
and 5 tables, three of which are 12x18 
inches. These tables give at once and 
without any calculations, the size of wire 
required in each case for any percentage of 
loss. First edition exhausted, second edi- 
tion containing additional matter now 
ready, making 5,000 copies printed to date. 
A timely book, containing full illustrations 
for incandescent wiring and complete in- 
formation concerning methods of running 
wires, location of safety devices, splices, 
insulation, testing for faults, wire gauges, 
general electrical data, calculatlngsizes of 
wire, wiring of fixtures, elevators, build- 
ings, isolated and central station plants. 
The only book of the kind published. 

TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

ITie Multiple Arc System. 
The Three- wire Sys'em. 

METHODS OF RUNNING WIRES- 

Cleat Work. 
Moulding Work. 
Concealed Work — 

a. When the Building is Being Con- 
structed. 

b. Iq a Completed Building. 



LOCATION OF SAFETY DEVICES -AND 
SWITCHES. 

The Tree System. 

The Closet System. 

Safety Devices. 

Switches. 

Splices. 

Safety Rules. 

Insulation and Testing for Faults. 

FIXTURES AND ELEVATORS. 

Wiring of Fixtures. 
Wiring of Elevators. 
Wire Gauges. 

GENERAL ELECTRICAL DATA. 

Coulomb. 

Ampere. 

Volt. 

Ohm. 

Conductors and Insulators. 

Ohm's Law. 

Conductivity. 

Divided Circuits. 

Work, Energy. 

CALCULATING SIZES OF WIRES. 

Plans and Symbols. , 

Drop of Potential and Loss of Energy. 

Practical Rules for Determining Sizes of 

Wires. 
Safe Carrying Capacity. 
The Three-wire System. 
Explanation of Tables. 
Table No. 1, Gauges in Circular Mills. 
Table No. 2, Electric Light Conductors. 
Table No. S, 50 Volt Lamps, 
Table No 4, 75 Volt Lamps. 
Table No. 5. 110 Volt Lamps. 



Elements of Electric LipDg, 



BY PHILIP ATKINSO^\ A- M., PH- D , 

SSOpagep, 12 mo. 1C4 Illaetratione. Price $1.50 
This book is a revision of the popular series 
of articles which ran through the Western 
Electbician under the same title. A 
complete and comprehensive treatise on ekc- 
tric lighting giving the latest practical facts 
with the least amount of technicality and 
mathematical formulae; with full treatment 
of the dynamo, the storage battery and the 
principles of direct and alternate current 
lighting. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Electbicity a Mode of Molecular Mo 

Tios. Principles of the Dynamo. 

The Armature. The Commutator. Closed 
Circuit and Open Circuit. The Brushes. The 
Field Magnets, The Dynamo's Mode of Ac- 
tion. Difference of Potential. Reversed Cur- 
rents. Commutation. The Armature's Mode 
of Action. Shunt and Series Dynamos Com- 
pared. 

Alternate Current Dynamos. 

Principles of the Alternate Current Dynamo. 
The Siemens-Halske Dynamo. TheLontin Dy- 
namo. The Gordon Dynamo. The Westing- 
house Dyiiamo. The Converter. 

Direct Current Dynamos. 

The Edison Dynamo. The Weston Dynamo. 
The Sperry Dynamo. The Brush Djnamo. 
The Thomson-Houston Dynamo. The West- 
ern Electric Dynamo. The Ball Dynamo. 
The Mather Dynamo. The Van Depoele Dy- 
namo. The Hochhausea Dynamo. The 
Wood Dynamo. 

Electric Terms and Units. 

Electric Potential. Electromotive Force. 
Resistance. Current. Electric Induction. 
Magnetic Induction. Conductivity and Insu- 
lation. Quantity and Intensity. Elec.ric 
Units. The Volt. The Ohm. The Ampere. 
The Ampere Hour. The Coulomb. The Farad. 
The Microfarad. The Watt. The Electric 
Horse-Power. The Joule. 

Electric Measurement. 

The Potential Indicator, The Deprez-Car 
pentler Ammeter. Ayrton and Perry's Am- 
meter, Ayrton and Perry's Voltmeter. Ayrton 
and Perry's Spring Voltmeters and Ammeters. 
The United States Electric Lighting Co. 's Am- 
meter. The Western Electric Co.'s Ammeter. 
The Curdew Voltmeter. Ayrton and Perry's 
Meter. The Forbes Coulomb Meter. The 
Edison Current Meter. The Standard Light 
Unit. The Bunson Photometer. 
The Arc Lamp. 

Principles of the Arc Lamp, Arc Light 
Carbons. The Jablochkoff Electric Candle. 
The Jamin Electric Candle. The Sun Lamp. 
Automatic Adjustment of Arc Light Carbons. 
The Foucault-Duboscq Lamp. The Serrin 
Lontin Lamp. The Brush Arc Light Lamp. 
The Incandescent Lamp. 

Reynier's Lamp. Early Experiments. In- 
candescent Light Carbons. The Edison Car- 
bons, The Lane Foi Carbons. The Cruto 
Carbons. Swan Carbons. The Weston Car- 
bons. The Bernstein Carbons. General De- 
tails of Filament Construction. Construction 
of the Incandescent Lamp. Position of 
Lamps. Renewal of Lamps. 

The Storage Battery. 

Electric Storage. Plante's Secondary Cell 
Chemical Reaction in the Plante Cell. The 
Plante Battery. Faure's Secondary Cell. 
Chemical Reaction in the Faure Cell. Faults 
of the Faure Cell. The Improved Faure 
Secondary Cell. The Fluid. Electric Form- 
ation of the Plates. Electromotive Force. 
Resistance and Current of Cell. Weight of 
Cell and Thickness of Plates. Cause of 
Buckling. Variable Resistance of Electrolyte. 
Inspection. Formation of the Faure Battery. 
The Julien Accumulator. 

Electric Distribution. 

Arc Light Distribution. Series Installation. 
Hefner von Alteneck's Regulator. Incan- 
descent Light Distribution. The Direct Cur- 
rent System. Parallel Installation. Multiple 
Series Installation. Series Multiple Installa- 
tion. Combined Arc and Incandescent In- 
stallation. The Edison Three-wire System. 
The Storage Battery System. The Induced 
Alternating Current System. The Primary 
Alternating Current System. Meters. Fuses. 
Switch Boards. Lighting Mines. Installa- 
tion Rules. 



SENT POST PAID ON RECEIPT OF PRICE. ELECTRICIAN PUBLISHING CO., 6 Lakeside Building, CHICAGO 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 



Cantilever Motor Truck 



AGENTS 
WANTED. 




AGENTS 
WANTED. 



^^^^pRi^F^^Wi^^W¥^^'^^^^ 



The Strongest, Simplest and Easiest Riding Motor Trucli in Existence. 
Tlie only Motor Trucii Equipped witli Intercliangeable Elastic Motor Wheels. 

The superiority of this Truck consists in itn Great Strength, Powerful and Simple Brakes, Interchangeable Elastic 

Wheels, and the facility with v.'hich Motors, Armatures and Wheels can be removed and repaired, together with the ease of motion imparted to the 
car body, which rests naturally upon the springs disconnected from the motors and their connections. Cantilever truSS supports ends of cars, 
equalizes weight of load a,nA. positively prevents oscillation of cars. For descriptive circulars, blue prints and price lists, apply to 



THE PECKHAM STREET CAR WHEEL & AXLE COMPANY. 



239 



iNSONIA BRASS AND GOFFER GO. 



1 33 and 1 35 Wabash Ave , 



19 and 21 Cliff Street, 



MANUFACTURERS OF- 



BARE AND INSULATED WIRE 

For Electric Light, Electric Railways, Motors, Telegraph and Telephone Use. 

Weatherproof Wire, Magnet Wire, Insulated Iron Pressure Wire. Underwriters' Wire, 

Office Wire. , Flexible Incandescent Cord, Paragon Wire, Annunciator Wire, 

Round and Flat Copper Bars for Station Work. Battery Copper Oongs, etc. , etc. 



FIRE PROOF AND WEATHERPROOF WIRE. 



Approved by NEW YORK BOARD 



OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS. 



CUT SHOWING STYLE OP INSULATK IN. 



This Weather-Proof Composition Hardens on Exposure to the Weather, Rendering the Covering Absolutely Impervious 
to Moisture, and Enabling it to E£fectually withstand the most Severe Abrasion. 

THE BEST AND CHEAPEST LINE WIRE MADE 



DESCRIPTIVE CIRCULAR AND SAMPLE FURNISHED ON APPLICATION. 

LARCE STOCK OF WIRE CARRIED IN CHICAGO AND NEW YORK. 



January 25, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 








ELECTRIC RAILWA7 SISTEM 

BY THE VERDICT OF OVER FIFTY RAILWAY COM- 
PANIES HAS BEEN DECLARED 

A PRACTICAL A HD COMME RCIAL SUCCESS. 

^ Schedule Time Regularly Maintained, 

No Destruction of Apparatus, 

Sliaht Cost for Repairs, 

ARE THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE 



Iloinsoii-IoQsloii tailway System 



I 



FIFTY ROADS IN OPERATION. 

THIRTY ROADS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 

TWENTY CONTRACTS JUST CLOSED, 

MAKING A GKAND TOTAL OF 

ONE HUNDRED ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANIES 

USING THE THOMSON-HOUSTON SYSTEM. 



Illustrated and Descriptive Pamphlets Furnished to Prospective 

Purchasers. 



THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 

MAIN OFFICE: 620 ATLANTIC AVE., BOSTON, MASS. 



148 Michigan Ave, Chica^, III, Wall and Lloyd Sts., Atlanta, Ga. 403 and 40S Sibley St,, St. Panl, Minn. 



"WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 



ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO., 







We can promise immediate at' 

tention to all orders sent 

us, and prompt ship 

ment of goods. 



«t*5' 



We carry all kinds of 

ELECTRIC LIGHT 
POW ER SUPP LIES. 

Our complete Catalogue of 
the«e goods, No. 560, has 
been Issued, and will be 
mailed to any address 
upon application 



SHIELD BRAND WIRE. I 

MOISTURE PROOF. 

No. 43... .Double Braid. 

No. a Triple Braid. 

No. 45 . . Quadruple Braid. 



A Line Wire of Very Superior 
Insulation. 




R&B. 



P. &B. 

ILINE WIRE. 




No. 41. . . .Double Braid. 



The insulation will stand 
exposure to the weather for 
years, and give perfect satis- 
faction. 



We handle all kinds of 

ELECTRICAL 

HOUSE GOODS. 



Our No. 647 Catalogue of these 
Goods Is the most com- 
plete ever issued. Send 
for it. 



• •• 



We can quote on 
all our goods, the low- 
est prices on large or 
small orders. 




171 RANDOLPH STREET, 

C-H-I-C-A.-O-0. 



x:as7srn offigb and factories. 



AlffSOIfflA, CONN. 



January 25, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



IMPORTAIMT. 

^%^ PA Tt;jfjr 

SUSTAINED. 



The broad right to the use of Double Carbon Electric Arc Lamps 

declared to belong to the Brush Electric Company, under 

U. S. Letters Patent to Charles F. Brush, No.219,S08. 

In the suit of The Brush Electric Company vs. The Fort Wayne Electric 

Light Company, decided at Indianapolis, Dec. 24, 1889, 

JVDCE CRESHAM SOLDS: 

1 That Brush was the Pioneer Inventor in Commercial Arc 

Lighting. 

2 That the Brush Patent in suit is the Pioneer Patent for 

Double Carbon Arc Lamps. 

3 That the Patent is Broad and Fundamental. 
4z That all its Claims (six in number) are valid. 

5 That the claims of the Patent are all infringed by the Defendant. 

The Court says: "The separation of the two pair of Carbons, so that the Arc is established between one 
pair and maiutaiaed betwesn tiie Carbons of that pair until they have been consumed and then automatically es- 
tablished between the Carbons of the other pair and maintained between them until they have been consumed, is 
a dissimultaneous and successive arc-forming separation, and it is this feature which distinguishes the Lamp in suit 
firom all prior lamps." 

The Brush Electric Company is assured by the most competent legal advisers 
that under this . Brush Patent, as interpreted by the IT. S. Circuit Court, practically 
all Double Carbon Electric Arc Lamps now offered for sale are 




and notice is hereby given that Infringers, whether manufacturers or users, will be 
i^rosecuted and held for damages to the full extent of the Law. 

THE BRUSH ELECTRIC CO., 

CLEVELAND, - - OHIO. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



January 25, 1890 



FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC 




f ox>t ^Wetyxie, XudlAzxet. 



Manufacturers of the 

SLATTERY INDUCTION SYSTEM 

OF 

IHCAHDESCBNT LIGBTIFG, 

AX1> TIIK 

WOOD SYSTEM 

OK 

ARC LIGHTING. 




The Most Oarefolly Worked- 
out and Oomplete Altematlaa 
System of Electric Xighting la 
Existence. 

Armatures and Oonverten 
Chiaranteed. 12-16 Candle Power 
Lamps to the Mechanical Hon* 
Power Ouaranteed. 




CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 

115 BROADWAY, 

Boreel BIdg. 



MAIN OFFICE AND WORKS, 

FORT WAYNE, IND. 

CHICAGO OFFICE, 185 Dearborn St., First Floor, 

W. J. BUCKLEY, Manager. 

SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE, 21 7 Sansome St. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICi:, 

907 Filbert Street, 

G. A. WILBUR, ManageFf 

City of Mexico Office, F. ADAMS, Successor. 




DETROIT 

Electrical Works, 

MANUFACTURERS. 



In our Annunciators our aim has been that 
nothing should he wanting in style, workman- 
ship or material to make them the BEST ever 
put on the market. 

Dealers who wish to identify themselves with 
the best goods and the safest policy, should 
handle the products of the DETROIT ELEC- 
TRICAL WORKS, which have the highest in- 
dorsement of both dealers and consumers through- 
out the country. 

Write us for Illustrated Annunciator Chart. 



RESPECTFULLY, 



S<nn<lnr<I llotol \oc«Ile Aiiiinnoiator 

Wlih eue 7 CALL and Fine ALARM ATTACHUtf/Ttl. 



Detroit Electrical Works, 



aOEITH-OIT, Axxo:^. 



$3 per Annum. 



EVERY SATURDAY. 



1 O cents per Copy. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY i, 1890. 



No. 5. 



ALUMINUM BRASS AND BRONZE COMPANY, 



MA>'UFACTtmEES OP 



COWLES' ALUMINUM AND SILIOON COPPER ALLOYS, 

IN INGOTS. SHEETS, KODS. WIRE AND CASTINGS. 



Sheet Copper, Sheet Brass, PURE ALUMINUM. 



STEWART BUILDING, 

B3 Chambers St., Hew York. 



ROLLING MILLS, 

Bridgepart, Conn. 



a 



^^ Standard Underground Cable Co., 

^BM, WESTINGHOnSE BLE„ PITTSBDRM, PA. 

COMBINES %^4 lil^ 

IN A HIGH GRADE ^^— ' ^ Ml^^9^^ 

Weatherproof Ilre-^ '^^^i * 
SAFETYIDURABIUTY. 



G. L. WILEY, 18 Cortlandt Si , New York. 

F. E. DEGENHARDT, 

Room 542 '-Rookery," 
Chicago. 






IIANTJFACTUKERS OP AND DEALERS IN 



1 ElBcWc Ci. 

SD DEALERS IN 

EVERYTHING ELECTRICAL 

»ESm FOB 356 PAes CATAI,06UE, 

111 Arch Street, BOSTON, MASS. 



NEW YORK BELTING ScPACKINC CO 



JOHN H. CHEEVER, Treas., 15 PARK ROW, NEW YORK. 

Oldest and Largest MannfactnrerB in the Uoited States of 

VULCANIZED RUBBER FABRICS 

Rubber Belting, Packing & Hose 

MACHINE BELTING, 




With smooth metallic rubber snrtace for use 
Dynaiuos and swift running machines. 

VULCANITE EMERY WHEELS. RUBBER MATS 

MATTING AND STAIR TREADS. 




(2121) 



ELECTRIC 
LIGHT, 

HIGH OR LOW 
VOLTAGE. 



BRANOHES: Boston, Phhadefptifa. Cleoeland, Detroit, Chicago, San Francisco. St Louis, *finneapolis, Denver' 



nalsdia-Mlier and GnttaPerclia iDsilating Co 



Vulcanized India-Rubber Cables, to any 
specificatioii up to 8.000 Megohms per mile. 

ABSOLUTELY PURE RUBBER CABLES, 

Concentric Cables, any millage. Flexible 
Cords, Silk, Hemp, Cotton, Dynamo 
Wires and Cables, very pliable. Every 
variety o{ Incandescent Cores. 



UNDER WATER 

AND 

UNDER6R0UND. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Three and Two-wire Ca- 
bles, to any specification 
up to 8,000 Megohms per 
knot. 

Cables ot High insulalion 
and Long Life, all millage. 



WM. M. HABIRSHAW, F.C. S. 

General Manager. 



Offices: 1 59 Front Street, 

NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



MARINE 

ELECTRIC 

LIGHT 

Installations 



Standard Marine 
Cores to any Millage 
or Specification up to 
9,000 Megohms per knot. 

Two -Circuit Concen- 
tric Cables, both cir- 
cu'ts, 9,000 Megohms per 
knot. 

Nav*\' Portables, Silk, 
Cotton and Hemp. 

Bell Wire, rubber cov- 
ered, for Marine Work. 

Pliable Cables, for 
Search Lights. 




DAY'S KERITE INSULATION. 

The acknowledged Standard for durable and high 
Insulation. Its merits proved by a record of over 
quarter of a century. Adapted to all electrical purposes. 



Btetric Light and Power, 
Telegraph and Telephone, 



Aerial Use, 
All Sizes Subterranean Uie, 
Submarine Use 

Concealed Wiring in ill Location*. 



E. B. McGLEES, General Manager, I6 Dey St. NEW YORK. 

"Western Electric Co., Chicago, m.. Sole Agents for the West. 



ANSONIA BRASS & COPPER COMPANY, 

Sola Manufacturers of COWLES' PATENTED 

Fire -Proof and Weather - Proof 

ELECTRIC LIGHT LINE WIRE. 

c a B A 



■ ■ - ^v\^'<^^<=C<•'<\^<.'^.^^^<<^^V^■5V<.^'^•:.<<■^•<^v .■■■■■ 



CUT SHOWING STVLK OF INSULATION. 

jI.— Copper Wire, B. B.—Tvro Braids, saturated with Fire-Proof Insulation. C— I 
Mturated with a Blacky Weather-Proop Composition. ^ 

Approved by New York Board of Fire Underwriters. Samples tumisbed npon «pp6eanoa. P«f« Bi» 
trie Copper Wire, bare and covered, of every description. 

Mi&nmnnac. i 19 »•"' 21 Cliff St.. New York. FACTORIES: 

WAHtKuuiii!>. ^jgg ^^^ ^gg WsbMh Ave.. Chicaao. !■. ANSOVtA, CONN 



THE EDISON MACHINE WORKS, 

MAirUF AC TUBERS OF 

Weatherproof Wire. Insulated Iron Wire. Magnet Wire, Rubber Covered House Wire. 
Annunciator Wire. German Silver Wire. Office Wire. Flexible Brush Holder Cable. 
Gas Fixture Wire. Arc Lamp Cords. Tinsel Cords. Flexible Cords. 

Telephone, Telegraph and Electric Light Cables. 
PARAGON TAPE. 

JAMES F. KELLY, General Sales Anent. - 19 Dey Street, NEW YORK. 

WOBK8: SCSMNECTADT, N. Y. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February i, iSgO 



THE THOMSON-HOUSTON ELECTRIC CO., 



Arc and Incandescent 

Electric 
lighting Apparatus. 



620 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

148 Michigan Ave., Chicago, Tll. 

115 Broadway, Nkw York, N. Y. 
315 W. 4th St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

116 Gravier St., New Orleans, La. 

503 Delaware St., Kansas City, Mo. 
319 N. 3d St., St. Louis, Mo. 
234 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Electric Railway 

Eqnipment. 
Electric Motors. 




Ai"c Wynaiiio. 



No better proof of the superiority of our arc apparatus 
can be offered than the fact that of the 21,000 arc lamps 
operated by Gas Companies in this country, over 11,000, or 
52 per cent., are Thomson-Houston. The dynamo is entirely 
automatic in its regulation, perfect in mechanical construc- 
tion, and economical in operation. The lamps burn steadily 
and uniformly, and hold their adjustment better than any 
other lamps on the market. 




Our direct current incandescent dynamo is rapidly gain- 
ing favor with practical electric lighting men, as its many 
features of excellence are recognized. Like the arc dynamo 
its regulation is automatic, permitting any number of lamps 
to be thrown on or off without in the least affecting the 
others in service. Our incandescent lamps have an un- 
equaled record for long life. 



Direct Current InoandeMoent Djiiamo. 




The problem of long distance incandescent lighting is 
practically solved by the alternating current dynamo, and to 
meet the demand for a machine of this character we have 
constructed what is unquestionably the most perfect alterna- 
tor offered the public to-day, embracing as it does, all the 
features that combine to make a perfect dynamo — automatic 
regulation, perfect mechanical construction, highest effici- 
ency, and economy of operation. 



AltematiiiK Current Dynamo. 




Motor. 



The employment of electric motors for driving small ma- 
chinery is becoming so common, and its advantages so well 
known, that it is unnecessary to elaborate in this direction. 
In the construction of our motors we feel that we have reached 
a point where their superiority cannot but be admitted. 



LIGHTNING ARBE8TER. —All of our installations are 
protected from destruction and injury by our lightning arrester, which 
we will fully guarantee to operate successfully in every instance. The 
Company guarantees to repair or replace apparatus injured by light- 
ning where these arresters fail to operate. 



February i, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



JENNEY ELECTRIC MOTOR CO., 




One H. P. Constant Potential Motor. 

AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC MOTORS 



-^i* Tm:- 



HIGHEST EFFICIENCY 

For both Arc and Incandescent Circuits, from 1-2 to 100 
H. P. All of our Motors have Self-Oiling Boxes. 

224 S. ILLINOIS ST, - INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



THE MITCHELL VANCE CO., 

(Successors to 1IITCHEI.I., TABfCE A CO.) 
DESIGNERS AND MAKERS OF 

ARTISTIC ELECTROLIERS AND COMBINATION FIXTDRES. 



Having no Special Agent 
in Chicago for our 

Goods, we Solicit Cor- 
respondence from 
Buyers, which 

we Promptly Answer. 

Combination Fixtures, 

Electroliers, Brackets. 
Pendants, Reflectors 




Architects' and Decora- 
tors' Designs and 
Suggestions Carried Out 

with Fidelity 
to the given Motive. 

Insnlating Joints, 

and All Fittings for 
Incandescent Ligbting, 




MANUFACTORY, SALESROOM, 

24 and 25th St. and 1 0th Ave., 836-38 Broadway and 13th St., 

NEW YORK CITY. 



ELECTRO-DYNAMIC CO. 

224 Carter St., Philadelphia. 

Dynamos, Motors, Datteries, 




Voltmeters and Ammeters, Switches, 



i-jsrn- 



Complete Electric Lislit 

and Power Plants. 
STREET CARS EQUIPPED 

TOB. ELECTRIC PROPULSION. 



The Oldest and Most Experienced Electric Mo- 
tor Company in the World. 



Chicago Office, 592 Phenix Building. 

Detroit Office, 30 Atwater St., East. 

San Francisco, 220 Sutter St 



® 



INDIA RUBBER INSULATION. 



KTEXT to GUTTA PERCHA, the best known 
^ insulator is INDIA RUBBER ; but it is very- 
refractory unless vulcanized, and the sulphur 
necessary for vulcanizirg is a deadly enemy to 
copper (as may be observed in samples of all wires 
insulated with rubber compounds where the vul- 
canized coat is placed directly on the wire). 

In order to overcome these difla.culties, we 
first coat the copper wire with TIN ; then with a 
Rubber Cement ; then Rubb( r Compouncl, "WITH- 
OUT SULPHUR; then for protection, use the 
vulcanizing coat, and rubber tape or biaid. 

It is then vulcanized with great care so as not 
to be liable to crack. 

These wires are the best made for AERIAL 
OR UNDERGROUND WORK. 



m 




ERNST HOEFER, Rookery, CHICAGO. 

SELLS OUR WIRES IN THAT VICINITY. 



BISHOP GUTTA-PERCHA CO., 

420-426 East 25th St., NEW YORK. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



Februar)' i, 1890 



THE IVATIOI^v4.t. C^RBOIV CO 



Cle-^ela,n.d., Ol2.io. 

-MANUFACTURERS OF- 



ELECTRIC LIGHT CARBONS and BATTERY MATERIAL. 



JARVIS 



ENGINEERINB CO, 

61 OLIVER STREET, 



tOSTOKT. 



CONTRACTING ENGINEERS FOR ERECTING 
COMPLETE STEAM PLANTS FOR 

ELECTRIC LIGHT & POWER STATIONS. 

NATIONAL FEED WATER HEATER. 

JARVIS BOILER SETTING, to Burn Anthracite Coal and Coke 

Screenings. 
NATIONAL ROCKING AND SHEFFIELD GRATE BARS 

SEND FOR NEW CATALOGUE. 



ECONOMICAL ARC LAMPS 

FOR INCANDESCENT CIRCUITS 

( These lamps, burning in series, require about 50 volts and 8 amperes of current. 

[ Electrical contractors can make money by acting as our agents. When writing please state voltage and system used. For 

prices and information regarding our new and improved Multiple Arc, Multiple Series and Search Lamps, address 

THE ELECTRIC CONSTRUCTION & SUPPLY CO.. - 18 Cortlandt Street, New York City. 





KiTrmfAX I.AMP. 



Dynamo Belts Carried in Stock. 


KNAPP ELECTRICAL WORKS 


TNu Ntu For Driving Dynamos. 

■1 Complete Sleam Plants Furnished and Erected. 

LNGLISH, MORSE & co;':';:rr.r„. 


GENERAL ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES, 

And 'Westei-n Agents 

Perkins Incandescent Lamp Company, 

54 AND 56 FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 


SEND FOR SPECIAL CIRCULARS. 



EDISON M ANUFACT URING CO., 

EDISON'LALANDE BAHERY. 

(UNDEE AUTHORITY OF THOMAS A. EDISON.) 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

PRIMARY BATTERIES for TELEGRAPH "MAINS" and "LOCALS," 
ELECTRIC MOTORS, TELEPHONE TRANSMITTERS, 
ELECTRO-PLATING, ELECTRO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

ANNUNCIATORS AND BURGLAR ALARMS 
AND ALL CLASSES OF CLOSED AND OPEN CIRCUIT WORK. 



coi5I5:e:s^03^^)e:i:tce] soi^icite^)- 



JAMES F. KELLY 



General Sales 
Afi:ent, 



1 9 Dey St., NEW YORK. 



February i, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



THE REYNOLDS 

Improve d Corliss Engine 

Is especially adapted for electric plants 

of all kinds, and has made a record in 

this field which cannot be excelled. 

Cr IB USEftUAUED FOB ECONOMY OF FUEL, BEGV T . AKT rg OB 
MOTION, AND DXTRABrLITT IN TJSE. 




SOLE BUILDERS 



EDW. P. ALUS & CO., 



RELIANCE WORKS. 



MILWAOKEE, WIS, 



«« rile for our Catalosut* H. 



Manufactnrere of and Dealers in 

Pulleys, Gears, Shafting, Hangers, Leather, Rubber 

and Cctton Belting, Lubricants, and Mill and 

Engine Supplies of Every Description. 

CHICAGO BRANCH, 41 aid 43 SOUTH JEFFERSON ST. 



BERNSTEIN ELECTRIC CO, 

INCANDESCENT UMPS 

FOR 

ARC-LIGHT CIRCDITS. 

SIMPLE . RELTABLE. DURABLE. 

The only safe socket for series lamps, and the only 
socket having insulating material for the outside 
parts. Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

620 ATLANTIC AVENUE, 

CHICAGO OFFICE. 80 Adams Street, GEORGE CUTTFR. Agent. 




EXCELSIOR ELECTRIC CO. 

MOTORS 

— FOR ■ 

Arc I Incandescent Circuits 

WOCND FOB ASY CCKKKST. 

PEEPECT AUTOMATIC REGULATION. 




^^p Highly Efficient and Economical. 



CONSTANT SPEED UNDER ALL LOADS. 

F. ^W. HOBNE, Manager 

WESTERN AND SOUTHERN STATES. 

1 1 EAST ADAMS STREET, - - CHICAGO. 



COMPOUND. 



CONDENSING OR 
NON-CONDENSING. 

16 Siies, 6 to 600 H. P. Hot yet equaled by any form of Ingiie for 
HIGH FUEL DUTY AND SIMPLICITY. 



STANDARD. ^IISI.*"^.'' 

3,000 in use in all parts of the Civilized World. 
JUNIOR. 6 Sizes in stock, 5 to 50 H. p. 

AH AnrOMATIC EHSME CHEATEE TEAH A SUBE TAIVE. 
Well Built. Ecoromical. Reliable. Over 300 sold the first year. 



in, 



^^^G above built stnctlyto Ganeewith Interchangeable Parts. I 
Bepairs Oamed in Stock. Send for Illustrated Catalogues. " 



ll 



PITTSBURGH, PA.U.S.Av 



SELLING DEPARTMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. 

IT Cortlaodt Street, l xito<*;„„i,„„„ 
Hathaway Building, ! ^SSS^SSS 
WestinghouseBuiiaing, f ChurcE, Kerr 
156, loSLate Sti^et, J "^ "-*• 
608 Chestnut S* . M- E. MucklS, Jr. & Co. 
■Mi, JM Wash' .gtan Ave. ) jr^,,^^ 

&Co. 



NEW YORK, 

BOSTON, 

PITTSBURGH, 

CHICAGO, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

ST. LOUIS, 

KANSAS CITY, 312 Union Af nue. 

DENVER, laWSevente. nth Street, 

OMAHA, 1619 Capitol Avenue, F. C. Aver. 

PINE BLUFFS, Ark. Geo. IL MUey & Sons. 

SALT LAKE CITY, 859 S. Tvrafa St. I Utah & Montana 

BUTTE, MONT. E. GnujiteSt. f Machinery Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO, 21 and 33 Fremont St.. Parked Lacy Co. 

PORTLAND, OR. .» .35 N". Front St.. Parke & Lacy 3Ich. Co. 

CHARLOTTE. N.C. 36 CoUege St., It^.^^ » t i™o n^ 

ATLANTA.GA. 45 S. Prior St. f The D. A. Tompkms Co. 
DALLAS. TEX. Keating Imp. i Mch, Co. 

CHATTANOOGA, TENN. C. E. James i Co. 



W. D. SAKGKNT, Pres. 



JOHN A. BARRETT, Vice-Pres. and Cons Elec. E. H. CUTLER, Treas. and Mgr. FRANK A. FERRET, Eltc. 



THE ELEKTRON MANUFACTURING CO., 

MANtJFACTUBERS OF THE 

PERRET ELECTRIC MOTORS AND DYNAMOS. 



AUTOMATICALLY REGULATED, UNEXCELLED IN SIMPLICITY 

AND DURABILITY. 



The Only Machines Having Laminated Field Magnets of Softest Charcoal Iron 

By Means of Which Higher Efficiency, Closer Regulation and Slower Speed 

ARE OBTAINED TH4N IS POSSIBLE OTHERWISE. Jt^CAREFrL INVESTIGATION INVITED. 




:^hti -sr 




ro/f Elejq: 

TUBING ALL,-sri; 



'm. Purposes, 



Pure Sheet Tfubber Etc. ^r""^ 



I prices upon application; 

'^i^^^"^ JH£ Br.GooDmcH Co. 



AHUON nUBBEfr WOffKS 

AKRON. OHIO. 






^}^Hptf, OWO: IP 



ransmE^i 



0P£CiALTIES OF ALL KINDS, TO: ORDER 

.S^:>': .Send for 'Gr/jLoeuE. ■^~— :_^,,- 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February i, 1890 



SEND US A SAMPLE ORDER! 

If You Want Anything Electrical, Write to Us. Lowest Prices. 
Most Complete Stock. Quickest Shipment. 



Wire. 


All kinds from bare to highest grade of insulation made. 
We always carry a full stock of wire of all the best makes. 


F exible Cord. 


Of all sizes, and every finish. 


Sockets. 


Key sockets, keyless sockets, push button sockets, receptacle sockets, porcelain sockets. 
Absolutely water-proof and vapor-proof. 


Cut-Outs. 


Porcelain cut-outs, having plug or link fuses. Every size and style for two or three- 
wire system. 


ncandescent Lamps. 


To fit any socket. All candle powers, any voltage, and any efficiency up to twenty 
lamps to horse power. 


Switches. 


All mounted on porcelain. Absolutely incombustible. 
Any size. No heating or arcing. 


Ampere Meters. 


Accurate, constant, any range desired. 


Volt Meters. 


Very sensitive. Shielded from magnetic infiuence. Constant. Never need recalibra- 
tion. Any reading desired. 


Dynamos. 


Any voltage, from one volt to 1,200. Any current from two amperes to 3,000. 
Self-oiling bearings, highest efficiency, compound wound or shunt wound. No spark- 
ing. Perfect in every detail. 


Kinds of Plants. 


Central stations on two-wire, three-wire, double three-wire, series and converter sys- 
tems. Isolated plants, two-wire or three-wire. 

Train lighting plants, having special dynamo and engine, and all perfected special 
devices and methods. 

Steamship plants, best plants afloat, special devices perfected in every way, and ap- 
proved by government. 

Transmission of power plants. Electro-deposition plants; wide experience, perfected 
methods and devices. 

Arc lighting plants. Every good and economical kind of plants. 

Send for information and estimate to nearest District office. 

Construction for all kinds of electric light, electric power and electric railway, and 
electro-metallurgical plants. 


Miscellaneous Articles. 


Su2h as tape, rubber tubing, insulators, pins, cross-arms, solder, cleats, screws, insvilat- 
ing hooks, insulating compound, always in stock, and sold at best prices. 


Supplies. 


Of every kind in stock at New York, Chicago, Denver and San Francisco. 


Agents. 


Can be had anywhere within twenty -four hours. 


Contracts tor Installation. 


We make contracts for complete installation, construction and all, ard are diiectly re- 
sponsible for everything about the plant. 
No sub-contractors. No division of responsibility. 



UNITED EDISON MFB. CO. 



MAIX WISTKICT OFFICES: 

Eastern States, 65 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
Central " Rialto Building, Chicago, III. 
Mountain " 730 Seventeenth St., Denver, Col. 
Pacific " Chronicle Building, San Francisco, Cal. 



February i, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



REMOVAL. 



We Invite Our Friends and the Trade 

generally to call upon us in 

our new quarters, 

116 & 118 FRANKLIN ST., 

WHERE WE ARE NOW LOCATED AND DOING BUSINESS. 



Our very much increased facilities en- 
able us to carry a larger stock, a more 
diversified line, and to make ship- 
ments promptly and with better 
care, than formerly. 

We invite all to give us a call and if this 

cannot be done in person, send us 

your orders instead, which 

will be appreciated. 



CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., 



^ EIiXSGTRIGAI. SUPPLIES^ !>- 



116 & 118 Franklin St., - Chicago, 111. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February l, 1890 



Fvimpelly Storag-e Sa^tteries 

For Central Station Lighting, Isolated Plants, Running Stationary Motors and Street Car Traction. 
Specially adapted for Physicians' Cautery Purposes. Send for Circulars and Prices. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

PUMPELLY STORAGE BATTERY AND ELECTRIC MOTOR CO,, or^i'i'cioVn^i,. 




LOCKWOOD AMMETER 
'"° POLARITY INDICATOR 

For Arc an d Incandesce nt Circuits. 
Lockwood Instniment Co., 

'.11 Griswold Street, 



POND 



ENGINEERING CO. 

707 and 709 Market St., St. Louis. 
427 "The Rookery," Chicago. 

31 Waterworks Building, Kansas City. 

319 Ramge Building, Omaha. 
ENGINES, BOILERS, ETC., FOR DRIVING DYNAMOS. 

COMPLETE STEAW PLANTS CONTRACTED FOR. 

Erected Ready for Service. 

SPBCIAIiTIES :-The AiintDgton & Slme Ensine, Steel Boilers, Ireaon Link Belt, Sfana- 
ard RockiDKand Sheffield Urates, Lowe Heater, Ilyatt Fitter, Blake Pamp, Kortlng Injector, eto. 

8EKD FOB I.&TEST CATAliOeVES. 



WESTERN ELECTRIC CO., 



DISP LeCUNCBE BAHEBY. 



WM S. TCRNEF.. 



J. LESTIlK WOODBKIUGE. 



WOODBRIDGE & TURNER, 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors. 

OOMPIiETE EqClPMEMT OF KliECTRIC BAII.WA'Si^. 

Sleam Planls lor E);:ctrlc Light and Power. Arc and Incandescent Lights Installed. 

D.>h1k.ih and ENiliiiates Submitted. 

"74 C3ortl«.ia.ca.t S'tiree't, JMo-^^r "STorl*.. 



O. E. Maddex, President. 



E. T. GiLULAND, Vice-President. 



The Empire City Electric Co., 

15 Dey Street, New York, 

EIiEGlHlGllIi SUPPLIES 

OF ALL, KlXn.S FOR { 

ELECTRIC LIGHT, TELEPHONE, TELEGRAPH 

AND 

ALL BRANCHES OF ELECTRICAL WORK. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE AND PRICES. | 

A NEW BOOK 

Will be issued as soon as the Revisionary work is completed. 

ELECTRIC LAW, 

Edited liy Fkem II. Wuirri,E. Price, handsomely printed and bound, $10.00. 

The Electric Railway. Municipal Lighting. 

In paper, $1.00, Leather, |2.00, 

Whipple's National Electrical Directory. 

Price, 1 1 0.00. 

Whipple's Electrical Reports. 

Published Monthly. |3 00 per year. 

Address 

The FRED H. WHIPPLE CO., 

Or any Bleotrical Journal or leading Book Store. 

New York Office, 1 8 Cortlandt Street. 




We are continually 
increasing the efficien- 
cy of our 

DISQUE LeCLANCHE 

BATTERY, 



And Ouarantee It 



IN THE MARKET. 



' AlIES, CREHAE & CO., 

1^ N. W. AOBNTS, 

ST. PAUL, - MINN. 

Write for Revised Prices. 



Western Agent, \ 

'I. W. COLBURH&CO. 



_ Dynamos, Motors, Etc, 



Western Agent, 

A. F. MOORE S 



Wires and Cablet. 



G. A. HARMOUNT 

3l5--32i Wabash Ave., CHICAGO. ILL 



WHOLESALE DE.4LEn IIV 



General - Electrical ^ * Supplies, 

-' ' Manufacturer and Owner of the NEW PATENT 

MESSENGER AND FIRE ALARM 
SIGNAL BOXES, 

WITH PUSH BUTTON CALLS. 



lells, Batteiries, Buzzers, Buttons, Breakwheels, Burners. 
Brackets, Burglar Alarms. 



[ WriM .•':- ' ' ■ 



lectroliers, Eccentric Clamps, Electricians' 
Tools, Exten sion Bells, Elevator Cables, 



, t \Mr] 



pring Jacks, Signal Boxes, 
Silk Cord, Single Relays, 

Spark Coils, Switches, Splicing Tools. 

■elegraph 

Supplies, 
Thermostats, Ticket Cases, Telephone Tools, Tin Foil. 



Catalogue 



February i, i8go 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



THE 



INCANDESCENT LIGHTING 



WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY, 

By Alternate Gnrrents. 




Dynamos for 500 to 5,000 Sixteen Candle-Power Lamps' Capacity. 

COMPLETE CENTRAL STATION MACHINERY. 



IIWESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY, 

Pittsburgh, Pa., V. S. A. 

BOSTON, NEW YORK, CHICAGO, CINCINNATI, ST. LOUIS, 

PORTLAND, SAN FRANCISCO, CHARLOTTE, DALLAS. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. February ., 1890 



FRAUD! FRAUDI 



RECOGNIZING THE POPULARITY OF THE 

SAWYER-MAN LAMPS 

UNSCRUPULOUS PERSONS MANUFACTURE LAMPS 

IN BASES STAMPED 

"SAWYER-MAN PATENTS. " 



9 



THESE MANUFACTURERS BEING FINANCIALLY IRRESPONSIBLE 

THE SAWYER-MAN ELECTRIC CO. 

Hereby Cives Notice that it Will Enforce 

THE STRINGENT LAWS 

REGARDING FRAUDULENT PATENT-MARKS 

AGAINST THE USERS OF SUCH LAMPS. 



SAWTER-MiN ELECTRIC CO., 

510-534 WEST 23d ST., NEW YORK. 



February i, 1890 WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



WESTISGHOUSE ELECTRIC 



Arc and Incandescent Lighting 

ON THE TRANSFORMER SYSTEM. 



An experience of over two hundred sixty-five Central Stations has demonstrated 
the Converter System of Electric Lighting to be the only safe system. 

The Converter of The Westinghouse Electric Company is so constructed as to ab- 
solutely prevent by any possibility a connection between the current of the street wires 
and the wires connected with the lamps on the premises. 

The converter of this company reduces the potential of the primary wires and 
limits the quantity of current to the exact requirements. 

It is the only system which admits of reliable meters. 

There is not a single recorded instance of a connection between the primary and 
secondary circuits of this company's system.. 

Two hundred and sixty-five central stations in operation with a total dynamo capacity 
in sixteen candle power lamps of 458,250. 

Manufactured under Patents of Stanley, Wallace and Others. 



OVER 12,000 METERS IN USE. 

Write for Particulars. 



THE WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CO., 

PITTSBURGH, PEHN., U. S. A. 

BOSTON, NEW YORK, CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS, CINCINNATI, SAN FRANCISCO, 

PORTLAND, CHARLOTTE, DALLAS. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February i, 1890 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM. 

The Pioneer of Successful Electric Railways. 

The only Award given for Electric Railways at the Paris Exposition of 1889 was a 
GOLD MEDAL presented to the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Company, for the 
most perfect system of Electric Railway Equipment. 



What are the Essential Features in any Comprehensive 
Electric Railway System? 

Main Feeders from Power Station. 

Main Conductor Feeding in Trolley Wire. 

Uniform Size of Trolley Wire, Independent of Length of 
Line, or Number of Cars Operated. 

AND WHY? 

BECAUSE, Thereby only can be secured Uniform Electrical Pres- 
snre. 

Absolute Reliability of Service. 

Non-interference with one section by interruptions upon any 
other. 



The Sprague Company will guarantee to operate a ten mil& 
Thirty Car, Double Track System with 

Less Engine Power; 

Less Dynamo Capacity; 

Less Weight of Conductors; 

Less Loss in Distribution; 

Less Loss in Motors;. 
OR IN WORDS THAT ARE UNDERSTOOD BY ALL, WITH 
More Car Miles per Ton of Coal Consumed; 

More Miles of Line with a Given Loss; 

More Territory Covered by a Given Outlay; 

More Reserve Capacity in a Given Plant j 

THAN CAN BE DONE WITH ANY OTHER SYSTEM. 



FEATURES OF A CORRECT MECHANICAL DESIGN OWNED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE SPRAGUE CO; 



Centering the Motor on the Driven Axle; 

Flexible Yielding Support for Relief of Strains; 
Universal Movement of the Trolley Pole; 

Single Lever Movement for Motor Control; 



NO COMPETITOR OF THE SPRAGUE 
OOMPAITY CAN MAKE A SIMILAR 
GUARANTEE, AND ACCOMPLISH 
IT TO THE LETTER. 



SPRAGUE ELECTRIC RAILWAY & MOTOR COMPANY. 



Nos. 16 and 18 Broad St.. New York. 



Rialto Building, Cliicago. 



The Interior E lectrica l Conduit Co. 

A New^ and Improved Hethod of £qalppins Boildlngrs TPith an Insulated Tube Conduit for any tSystem of £lectrlc Wirioer. 

oo^vc^xia'xsrG^: 

SAFETY — Absolote immnnity from electric firee, 
ACCESSIBILITY— Perfect access to concealed wires. 
ECONOMY— ^I'lii" cost ot installation, and freedom from fiitnre expense- 
DURABILITY— Absolntely moisture-proof tul>e and appliances, insnrinf:; longevity of wires. 

CONVENIENCE— Sy^^tems of electric wiring; may be laid out onoriginal plans in a manner similar to that employed for gas, water and steam piping; the conductors may be drawn in at pleasure. 

FOR CIRC1Tf.A.R8. PRICE I.1ST AND IHSTRUCTIONS, ADDRKSS, 



THE INTERIOR ELECTRICAL CONDUIT CO., 



154 ND 156 WEST 27TH ST.. NEW YORK CITY. 




-t^e:- 



DNIOI HUIWiEE [0. 

PUSH-BUTTON 
SHELLS. 



TORRINGTON, CONN., 



95 CHAMBERS STREET, NEW YORK. 



-MANUFACTURER OF- 



The Paiste SwitchRs, Cut- Outs, Gas 
Attachments, Etc., 

HAS REMOVED 

FROM 1206 CHESTNUT STREET, 

a?o 

Twelfth and IVIarket Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



CHARlfS MUNSON. Prest. 
FRflNKGMOSSfSECr &TREAS. 




PlTTSBUF^GH _ 

N^VYORK. 



SANff^ANGISGO. 

New Orleans. 






28,30.32.34 & 36. S. CANAL Si. 



USE THE BEST INSULATION, 

The CELEBRATED P. & B. ELECTRICAL 
COMPOUNDS. 

W Thoroughly MOISTURE and WEATHER Proof, resist the STRONG- 

'ff\: EST ALKALIES. STRONG ACIDS, FUMES and GASES; also 

P. & B. WATERPROOF WRAPPING and INSULATING PAPERS. 

We manufacture a special VARNISH tor ARMATURES, and 

FIELD COILS. 

The Standard Paint Co., '^TyiVo'^/^:'' 




EVERY SATURDAY. 



Vol. VI. 



CHICAGO, FEBRUARY i, 1890. 



No. 5 



Dynamo Room in the Chicago Edison 
Company's Station. 

Tlie cut presented herewith illustrates the 
general arrangement of the machines and con- 
ductors in the dynamo room of the Chicago 
Edison station. 

The plant was started August, 1888, with 
eight 1,300 light Edison machines driven in 
pairs by four Armington & Sims engines of 200 
horse power each. In November, 1889, four new 
1,300 light dynamos were added to the plant, 
together with two Ideal 2oohorse power en- 



machinery and the floor itself is supported on a 
number of massive iron pillars. By this ar- 
rangement the transmission of vibration 
throughout the building is prevented. The 
room as now arranged, contains the twelve large 
Edison machines. There is, however, still 
space enough for 24 additional machines. The 
Edison three-wire system is used throughout. 
From the dynamo room 34 feeders run to dif- 
ferent sections of the city. Each feeder has its 
own ampere meter, and is numbered and lettered 
in accordance with the street intersection at 



company has finished the wiring for 25,000 
lamps, and is supplying current to motors, 
having a capacity of about 275-horse power. 
Besides operating the central station the com- 
pany, under the management of F. S. Gorton, 
has done a considerable amount of outside con- 
struction, installing engines and dynamos for 
isolated and central stations. In addition the 
company proposes to extend still further its 
present system. In a recent conversation Mr. 
Gorton said: "The company is now preparing 
plans to cover the South Side district as far out 




DYNAMO EOOM OF THE CHICAGO EDISON COMPANY S ST/ T.ON. 



gines. The steam generating plant consists of 
four Heine safety boilers. These are located 
in a room on the ground floor just in the rear 
of the engine room. 

The dynamo room is situated over the en- 
gine room, and each engine belts directly to 
two machines. The dynamos are set on bases 
which can be raised or lowered by means of 
screws, each operated by a worm and gear. This 
construction, which is indicated in the cut, ad- 
mits of perfect adjustment of belt tension with 
a small e.xpenditure of labor. A special feature 
of the dynamo room, and one of considerable 
importance, is that its floor is so constructed as 
to have no connection whatever with the walls 
of the building. The weight of the entire 



which it terminates. Each dynamo also has its 
own ampere meter, indicating constantly the 
current it is generating. Two large ampere 
meters of special design are used to indicate 
at all times the total load on the entire system. 
Every feeder has a pressure indicator which 
shows at any moment the electrical pressure at 
its terminus. A cleaver or knife switch of 
special design is in circuit with every feeder. 
The entire system is underground, and is fed 
from the one station. The Edison underground 
system of tubing is used throughout. The con- 
ductors of the underground system have a total 
length of about forty-eight miles and are calcu- 
lated for a maximum load of 50,000 lamps. 
Up to the present time the Chicago Edison 



as Thirty-fifth street. We do not know just 
where we will locate the new station, but we are 
considering the advisability of connecting it 
electrically with our Adams street plant. This 
would, of course, necessitate a considerable out- 
lay for copper but we feel that the plan is well 
worth our careful consideration. You see," con- 
tinued he, "by having the stations so connected 
the Adams street station could take care of the 
load of the new station after midnight. This 
load, you know, will be very light indeed after 
12 o'clock." 

The 800 light Edison plant in the Oliver Chilled Plow 
works, at South Bend. Ind.. is workingto the satisfaction of 
all concerned. The Leonard & Izird company o' Chicago 
installed the plant. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February i, iSgo 



New York Electric Lighting Interests 
Combined. 

It is reported that the New York electric light- 
ing companies have conibinetl their interests, the 
Westinghouse company predominating in the 
new concern. 'l"he Edison interests are not in 
the combination, but the Subway_ company has 
passed under its control. In connection with 
the publication of this consolidation, it is re- 
ported that the consolidated companies propose 
to reorganize the city into small di.slricts, de- 
pending upon various stations, so that the light- 
ing will be so managed that no station will be 
required to furnish a circuit for territory beyond 
its proper capacity. Under the reorganization 
system it is proposed to light the whole city 
from seven stations, one on Washington street 
near Cortlandt, one on Yandam street near 
Canal, one on Elizabeth street near Prince, one 
at Twenty-fourth street and North River, one at 
East River and Twenty-eighth street, one at 
Eightieth street and East River, and the Mount 
Mtrris station in Harlem. 



Western Electric Company's High Ten- 
sion Dynamo. 
The accompanying cut illustrates the latest 
form of high tension arc light dynamo of the 
Western Electric company of Chicago. The 
capacity of these machines ranges from lo to 60 



New Induction Coil and Battery. 

The accompanying cut illustrates an ingen- 
ious combination of an induction coil, a galvanic 
battery, and electrodes. The object ot the in- 
vention is to combine the essential parts in the 
smallest possible compass. 'J'he ap|)aralus was 
designed with this object, and also with a view 
to the difficulties of protecting the coil and its 
accessories from the battery solution, which is 
liable to escape from its cell, and of securing 
good and lasting contacts. The coil and bat- 
tery are contained in a cylindrical case, which is 
composed of hard rubber at the ends and of 




NEW INIJIJCTION COIL AND IIATTERY. 

metal in the middle, at least on its outer surface. 
The bottom or lower end of the cylinder is com- 
posed of a hard-rubber receptacle closed by a 
screw-cap. Within this is placed the cell; in the 
central or metallic portion of the cylinder is 
mounted the induction coil. The automatic 
circuit-breaker is arranged as shown just above 
it. The upper end of the cylinder is provided 
with a metal screw-cap, to which one electrode, 
T, is secured, and the current from the other ter- 



Kansas City Convention of the National 
Elect riC L'ght Association. 

The arrangements for the convention of the 
National ICleclric Light association at Kansas 
City, Februaiy 1 1, 12, 13 and 14, are almost 
completed. The Special ''Electric Limited" 
train which will leave Chicago at five o'clock 
Febaiary loth. will reach Kansas City early 
Tuesday morning. The guests will make their 
heaaquarters at the Coates House. A number 
of delegates will register at the Midland and 
Centropolis. The rooms of the officers of the 
association will be on the second floor of the 
Coates House. The fact that there will be a 
large attendance has been shown by the demand 
for rooms at the hotels. The session of the 
convention will be held in the Coates opera 
house, which is located within a few steps of 
the hotel. The opera house is a pleasant hall, 
and is conveniently arranged. The Casino in 
which the electrical exhibits will be located, is 
situated in the same block. The hall with its 
gallery, has an area of 6,000 square feet. The 
work of putting the exhibits in place will be 
begun February 9th, by the transfer company 
which has the matter in charge. The electric 
light companies in Kansas City have agreed to 
furnish the necessary cu rent. President Weeks 
has made arrangements by which exhibitors can 
secure the services of all the workmen they re- 




lamps. The machine is of compact form, is 
mounted on a strong, sliding carriage which 
holds it firm and steady, and is adjustable for 
tightening the belt if necessary, while run- 
ning. 

The machine has a specially constructed 
drum armature, the few parts of which are 
easily accessible. I'rom the method of winding 
the armature, it is claimed, highly economical 
results, with any number of lights, are obtained, 
destructive or damaging heat is avoided under 
all circumstances. Hy a simple movement of 
the brushes backward or forward, any number 
of lamps, up to the capacity of the machine, 
may be run without undue sparking at the com- 
mutator. 

The field magnets are constructed with a 
view to securing a seat for bearings and pole 
plates at the same time. The bearings are plain, 
and the entire design is so simple that the 
machine can be put together without difficulty. 



Asheville. N. C. will be illuminated by electric light, 
but whether a contract with a local company will be made, 
or a city plant be installed, has not yet been determined. 

The Barnesville, Cla.. Manufacturing company will put 
in an extensive electric light plant in the spring. 



WESTERN ELECTRIC CO.MPANVS HIGH TENSION tJVNAMO. 

minal of the coil is conveyed by a switch to the 
metal surface of the cylinder, which is held in 
the hand. 'I'he battery cell is composed of car- 
bon, enameled or varnished on its exterior. It 
is provided with a perforated carbon top ce- 
mented to the main cup, and in the perforation 
a rubber stopper carrying a zinc electrode, is 
fitted. The cell is held in position by a spring- 
seat, and when in position the terminals of the 
primary coil engage with the carbon cell and a 
metal pin that holds the zinc, respectively. 

The electrical connections and operations of 
this device will be readily understood. The 
ends of the secondary coil are led to the elec- 
trode, T, and the cap, so that any one holding 
the instrument and applying the electrode to 
any desired part of the body will receive a cur- 
rent by pushing up the contact-making slide 
until the part in contact with the hand is brought 
into connection with the secondary coil. 

The apparatus is the invention of L. T. Stan- 
ley and is handled by the Stanley Electric com- 
pany of Philadelphia, I'a. 

The East End Railway compnny of Memphis, Tenn. 
has decided to enter the electric lighting Held, and will in- 
stall an arc and incandescent plant. 



quire to arrange exhibits. Should it be found 
that the Casino hall does not afford room 
enough for exhibits, Music hall will be utilized 
as an annex; so in any event ample accommoda- 
tions will be provided for all who wish to make 
exhibits. 

The committees which have in charge the re- 
ception and entertainment of guests, promise 
the delegates a thoroughly enjoyable stay in 
Kansas City. They are hard at work but their 
plans are rot yet perfected. 

In a recent conversation Presidert Weeks 
said to a representative of the Wks-iern Elec- 
iKiciAN at Kansas City: "1 have recently 
heard from all the gentlemen who have promised 
to read papers at the convention. They all as- 
sure me that they will be present except Prof. 
Thomson. He has been in ill health lately and 
possibly may not be able to attend the meeting. 
But he writes that he will make a great effort to 
be present. The prospect is that we will have 
a large attendance and a very interesting con- 
vention in every way. The exhibits, of which 
there will be a large number, will be of interest- 
ing character. We are receiving applications 
for space in every mail. The electric compa- 



February i, [890. 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



nies have all co-operated enthusiastically in 
making arrangements for the convention." 

The following companies will make exhibits at 
the convention: Edison Machine Works; Sprague 
Electric Railway & Motor company; Eddy Elec- 
tric Motor company; C & C Electric Motor 
company; National Electric Manufacturing com- 
pany; Gate City Electric company; Okonite 
company; National Carbon company; Standard 
Carbon company; Charles D. Jenney & Co.; 
Charles A. Schieren & Co.; Royal Silk Manu- 
facturing company; James W. Queen & Co.; 
Phoeni.x Glass company; Ansonia Brass & Cop- 
per company; Detroit Motor company; Weston 
Instrument company; American Electrical 
Works; Palermo Jlica company. This list com- 
prises all the companies which have decided 
positively to make e.xhibits. The list will doubt- 
less be materiall)' increased in the next few 
days. The Edison Machine Works and the 
Sprague Electric Railway & Motor company's 
display, will occupy 500 square feet and will con- 
stitute in all probability, the largest exhibit in the 
hall. 



Electrical Method of Finding the Position 
of Distant Objects. 

The accompanying cut illustrates a method by 
which a gun may be directed upon a target when 
its distance from the piece is not known to the 
gunner, or in fact, when the individual at the 
gun is unable to see the target by reason of fog 
or smoke or other causes. 

The method is the invention of Lieut. Bradley 
A. Fiske of the United States navy. In the plan 
here described, observers stationed at points dis- 
tant from the gun itself — but which command a 
good view of the area within the range of the 
gun — are enabled to discover the bearing and 
range of a target and communicate it to the gun- 
ner. 

The method may be better understood by re- 
ferring to the diagram. In this A B represents 
a line of the parapet of a fort or other defensive 
work. C, D, and E are guns located in the fort 
and commanding the area which includes the 
posi'ion of the target F. Now, the object to be 
attained, is to lay all of the guns C, £>, and E 
correctl}' upon the target, although the gunners 
may be unable to see it and be ignorant of its 
bearing and distance. 

In the description which follows the operations 
connected with one gun only will be referred to. 
In the diagram G and If are two arcs of con- 
ducting material placed symmetrically with re- 
spect to abase line /y. These arcs are located 
at stations distant from the positions of the guns, 
and so situated that a view of the area to be pro- 
tected by the guns will not be cut off from the 
stations by smoke or other obstacles. For this 
reason it is better that elevated positions should 
be chosen. 

A' and Z are two pivoted telescopes, the free 
ends of which move over the arcs G and /f, and 
constantly maintain electrical contact with them. 
These telescopes may be directed upon the tar- 
get E, which will therefore be at the intersec- 
tion of the two lines of sight of the telescopes. 

Located at a station distant both from the guns 
and from the positions of the arcs G H, and say 
at a place safe from the effects of the enemy's 
fire, another station is established. This for 
convenience is called a "directing station," in 
■which is a chart or map, represented by the rec- 
tangles W, X, Y, Z. On this chart the line A' 
B' rep^ese^ts the line A B of the parapet of the 
fort, and the points C D' £' correspond to the 
centers above which the guns C D E are later- 
ally turned. The chart represents the area with- 
in the range of the guns on some definite re- 
duced scale, so that distances taken on it repre- 
sent actual distances. On this chart is drawn a 
line /' J' corresponding to the base line / _/, and 
symmetrically disposed with reference to this 
base line are arcs of conducting material G' and 
H'. 

.^'and L' are pivoted arms similar .to the arms 
K and L. The free ends of these pass ovei and 
make constant contact with the arcs G' and //'. 
Arc G' is similar in form and in electrical re- 
sistance per unit length to the arc G, and the 
arc H' is likewise similar in the same particular 
to the arc H. Extending from the extremities 
of the arc G to the extremities of the arc G' are 



two wires, and extending from the pivoted tele- 
scope K to the pivoted arm A" is a wire, which 
includes a battery. . Connected in loop from the 
two wires is a galvanometer M. It will now be 
evident that the wires referred to, the arcs G 
G', the battery, and the galvanometer M are 
connected in circuit in the form of a Wheat- 
stone bridge, and that ft^o effect of moving the 




ELECTRICAL .METHUD OF FI.NDIXG THE rOSITIO.N OF 
DISTA.NT OBJECTS. 

telescope A', for example, to the right on arc G 
is to increase the resistance in the one member 
of the bridge ard decrease it in the other mem- 
ber, and that the same is true of a similar move- 
ment of the arm A" over the arc G'. Therefore, 
if the telescope A" be set at a certain position 
oij the arc G, it is simply necessary to set the 
arm K' to such a position on the arc G' as that 
the galvanometer M shall show no deflection, 
when the bridge will of course balance, and 
therefore the angle made by the arm A'' to the 
base line I' J' will be equal to the angle made by 
the telescope A to the base line /_/. Now, as 
the arrangement of the two arcs H H' and the 
current connections is the same as that of the 
arcs G G' and their associated parts, it follows, 
therefore, that if the two telescopes A" and L be 
sighted upon the target F, and if a third ob- 



Consequently, if the pointer A^be turned on 
its pivot it will correspond to the positions of the 
gun E when it is turned on its pivot. One arm 
of the pointer JV is long enough to sweep over 
the area which includes the target, and the other 
arm makes electrical contact with an arc O, of 
conducting material. At the gun E is arranged 
a similar arc of conducting material O' , and 
sweeping over this arc is the arm P. The ex- 
tremities of arc O' and 6 are connected as 
shown. It will now be apparent that these arcs, 
the galvanometer Q, and the battery are here 
connected in a Wheatstone bridge in precisely 
the same manner as are the arcs G G' . It fol- 
lows therefore, that if an observer at the chart 
brings the arm N upon the point F' , which is 
the intersection of lines drawn from the arms A" 
L , he will have established the angle at which 
the gun E must be laid with reference to the 
base line / / \n order that it may point in the 
direction of the target F. At the same time, by 
the movement of arm N over the arc O, the ob- 
server throws into the circuit a fractional por- 
tion of the arc having a resistance proportionate 
to the angle, and hence, in order to interpose an 
equal resistance in the bridge, the person in 
charge of the gun over which is located the arc 
O', must move the arm P over a similar angle. 
He knows that he has moved it over this similar 
angle by the galvanometer Q reading zero. He 
has, therefore, simply to read the angle from the 
arc O' and lay the gun at the same angle. 

While the above method has been described 
as applied to the training of a gun upon the tar- 
get, it will now be readily understood that the 
adjustment for range may be made in a similar 
manner. Lieut. Fiske's invention is shortly to 
j be put into service on the new cruiser Baltimore. 



Electric Locomo'dve for Metal Mines- 

An electric locomotive for mines is shown in 
the accompanying cut. It is simple, powerful 
and compact, and is built with special reference 
to the arduous duties required of such a ma- 
chine. The locomotive shown in the engraving 
is constructed for a gauge of eighteen inches, 
but it can be accommodated to any gauge in 
ordinary commercial work. In order to protect 
the machine from damage, all the working parts 
are completely boxed in. The speed of the 




ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE FOR METAL MINE^. 



server moves the arms A'' Z', and at the same 
time watches the galvanometers, he will have 
placed the arms, when both galvanometers show 
zero reading, at precisely the same angles as the 
telescopes A' Z. It will now be evident that as 
the chart bears a definite proportion to the area, 
including the position of the target, the axes of 
the arms A"' Z', if they be prolonged, will 
intersect at F'. This point would, therefore, 
represent on the chart the actual position of 
the target F. Upon the chart there are piv- 
oted three pointers. Only one of them, however, 
is shown at IV. These pointers are pivoted at 
C, Z)' and E, which points, as already stated, 
correspond to the centers of horizontal motion 
of the guns C, D and E. 



motor is controlled by a switch which throws 
down the winding of the field into different 
electrical combinations, thus varying the speed 
of the motor without the use of wasteful resist- 
ance. The direction of rotation is also governed 
by the same switch. The operation of the motor 
is simple, and the mac'liine can be easily handled 
by an ordinary workman. 

Any system of conveying the current from the 
dynamo to the locomotive can be used, either 
using the rails as one side of the circuit for the 
return of the circuit, or employing a complete 
metallic circuit by the use of a double overhead 
trolley wire. In this latter case, a trolley pole 
shown in the view, carrying at its upper end two 
trolley wheels for making running contact with 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February i, 1890 



the overhead wires, is attached on the rear of the 
locomotive car. The locomotive is now being 
manufactured by the Sprague Electric Railway 
& Motor company, from designs made by 1. E. 
Storey. 

Westinghouse Compound Engine and 
Alternator. 

The cut presented herewith illustrates a 
Westinghouse compound engine belted to a 
Westinghouse alternating dynamo. The cut 
shows the engine in front view. The dynamo 
has already been described in the Wkstekx 
Ei.ELTRicux. This type of engine resembles 
in general form the Westinghouse "junior" 
automatic engine. In this new compound en- 
gine, however, the area of one cylinder is en- 
larged 3'; times that of the other. The valve 
chest lies across the top of the cylinders as 
shown. It is cast in one piece, the various 
steam passages being chambered in it. The 
valve chest also contains a small valve by which 
live steam can be admitted to the low pressure 
cylinder. By the use of this valve the engine 



tricity fully appreciate the necessity for the work 
which has been assigned him. His time has 
been necessarily limited, and for the present he 
has found it nei-essary to make comparatively 
short visits, at even the most important points. 
He is much gratified, however, at the earnest as- 
surances of co-operation he has received from 
all whom he has seen. 



The Overhead Wire Contrcversy in 
Chicago. 

City officials and electric light companies in 
Chicago have been exchanging views of late on 
the iiuestion of overhead wires in Chicago. It 
will be remembered that several companies were 
organized in Hyde Park, South Chicago, Lake 
View and the Town of Lake, for commercial 
lighting just before these suburbs were annexed 
to Chicago. The authorities of these places 
granted the companies franchises to operate 
electric lighting plants in their respective dis- 
tricts and to erect and maintain poles and wires. 
Before the companies could establish their 
plants the local boards of these suburbs passed 



panics, and a conference was arranged. Prof. 
Barrett was unyielding in his opposition to 
overhead wires. He explained to the represen- 
tatives of the companies that he could not do 
otherwise without stultifying himself. He had 
fought overhead circuits and had succeeded in 
causing Chicago companies to bury their wires, 
and he could not consistently follow any otiiet 
course than that which he had adopted. 

.■\ proposition was submitted at the conference 
providing for the stringing of wires in alleys and 
over house to|is when practicable, and in other 
cases on the streets. It was agreed that the 
electric light wires should not be strung on the 
same side of the street as telephone or telegraph 
wires, and in crossing streets where there are 
existing telegraph and telephone lines, the new 
companies must go under ground. This will 
probably be accepted. 



Electrical Executions. 

The commission appointed in New York to 
inspect the dynamos provided at state prisons 
for executing murderers has completed its work. 







may be turned "off center" when starting. The 
main valve in cylindrical, and is actuated by a 
single eccentric controlled by a governor carried 
in the fly-wheel. The use of a single valve and 
eccentric is a feature in this engine. As all the 
parts of the governor except the eccentric are 
inclosed in a case which, at the start, is filled 
with oil, it requires no attention for a considera- 
ble time. The lubrication of the pin connec- 
tions and eccentric is automatically performed 
through feed pipes, which are supplied from 
sight feed cups. The cranks are lubricated the 
same way as those in the automatic engine. 
These compound engines are designed to be 
run at high speed, the piston velocity ranging 
from ^;ii feet per minute in engines with a 
stroke of 6 inches, to 700 for a stroke of 20 
inches. The sizes range from 5 to 500 horse 
power. 

Electricity in the Census. 
Allen R. I-'oote reports that hi-, preliminary 
work in the census department, which has 
brought him in contact with managers of central 
stations and electrical manufacturing companies 
throughout the country, has shown him that all 
who are interested in the development of elec- 



wkstini;mouse comi'ound engine and AI.TERNATOU. 

out of existence, and when it became necessary 
to secure permits for the establishment of their 
circuits the companies applied to the commis- 
sioner of public works of Chicago for the 
necessary authority. These permits were re- 
ferred to City Electrician Barrett for his inspec- 
tion and indorsement. It is scarcely necessary 
to say that he did not favor the proposition; 
on the contrary he flatly refused to sanction 
the proceeding, though he was advised by the 
law department that under the annexation law, 
the commissioner of public works would be 
obliged to grant the application. Prof. Barrett 
nevertheless persisted in his refusal to indorse 
the application, and under instructions from the 
law department the commissioner of public 
works, issued the desired permits. This did not 
close the controversy, however. Mayor Cregier 
learning of the affair decided to take a hand in 
the controversy, and to support I'rof. Barrett. 
The companies were notified to discontinue 
operations, and were advised to put their wires 
underground. The mayor said the police regu- 
lations empowered the city to enforce the rule 
against overhead wires, and he proposed to see 
that its provisions were complied with. This 
unlocked for opposition surprised the new com- 



The commissioners, while they have not as yet 
made a formal report, have stated in newspaper 
interviews their unqualified approval of execu- 
tion by electricity. A series of experiments con- 
ducted by Harold P. Brown, convinced them of 
the advisability of the substitution of electricity 
for the halter. 

Harold P. Brown, in a recent interview, speaks 
in this cheerful way of his death-dealing ma- 
chinery: "I will guarantee now that the time 
from the moment the prisoner ente's the cham- 
ber until his death in the chair, will not exceed 
thirty seconds. We have done away with the 
helmet, which we first proposed to use. Now 
we have a head-piece, with a strap running 
under the chin and over a pad which will rest on 
the top of the head. This pad will consist of a 
little brass upright two inches high and an inch 
square. It will be connected with a flat spiral 
coil of wire, and above or beneath the wire will 
be wet sponges. All the three, upright, spiral 
and sponges, will form one compact cushion, 
and a band running round the forehead, together 
with the strap beneath the chin, will keep it in 
place. l'"or the feet we have prepared a heavy 
brogan, such as prisoners wear, with a copper 
insole covered with a sponge. The toe of the 



February i, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



53 



brogan is cut away, and the copper plate pro- 
jects. The current-bearing wires will fasten to 
the plate projecting from the shoe and the brass 
upright on the head. When the prisoner is in 
his cell the shoe will be slipped on and his arms 
pinioned. The moment he enters the death 
chamber he will be put in the chair. Two straps 
will fasten him in with a snap; the head piece 
will go on in a twinkling, as there are only two 
straps to buckle there also; the black mask will 
be thrown over all and — flash! he will cease to 
live. We have made experiments with this new 
apparatus, which has not yet been described 
anywhere. From the time one man entered the 
door until the moment the harmless wires were 
connected with him, took but twenty seconds. 
We will have any convict ready in thirty seconds." 



Electric Meters. 

The cuts presented herewith represent several 
forms of electric meters, the first types of which 
were exhibited at the Paris exposition. Fig. i 
shows the general design of Blondlot's watt- 
hour meter. Fig. 2 shows the construction of 
Clerc's watt-hour meter. Fig. 3 represents the 
Paccaud-Borel meter. The two watt-hour 
meters are for continuous current service while 
the last named apparatus is for alternating work. 
Blondlot's meter is constructed with two essen- 
tially distinct parts — the measuring apparatus 
and the integrating apparatus. The former of 
these is an electro-dynamometer whose fixed 
bobbin with vertical axis is wound with coarse 
wire and is traversed by the total current furn- 
ished to the consumer. The fine wire bobbin 
placed within the coarse wire one is mounted in 
derivation between the distribution terminals of 
each subscriber. The couple exerted upon the 
movable bobbin by the fixed one is thus propor- 
tional to the product, el, of the intensity, I, of 
the principal current by the difference of poten- 
tial, e, at the terminals of distribution. A coun- 
terpoise arranged upon an arm mounted upon 
the axis of the movable bobbin balances the 
electro-dynamic couple and causes a deflection 
of this bobbin by an angle proportional to the 
product, e I. The clockwork movement, an or- 
dinary timepiece, periodically closes (once every 
five minutes in the case considered) the circuit 
of a special derivation constituted by two sole- 
noids. The effect of the first of these solenoids 
is to bring back the fine wire bobbin to zero, 
and that of the second, which is arranged hori- 




FIG. I. ELECTRIC METER. 

zontally, is to render momentarily interde- 
pendent the axis of the bobbin and that of a 
revolution counter which, in every operation, 
revolves by an angle equal to that made by the 
movable bobbin before being brought back to 
zero. The rotations thus given periodically to 
the revolution counter are totalized, and may be 
read upon a horizontal dial actuated by an 
endless screw mounted upon the first axis of the 
revolution counter. 

The movable bobbin, in passing over a verti- 
cal dial placed beneath the clock, makes known 
the power, furnished every instant by the appar- 
atus controlled by the counter. The intervals of 
time that separate two different gatherings may 
be read upon the dial of the clock, and the in- 



tegrations made by the apparatus may be known 
from the horizontal dial, so that the consumer 
has under his eyes at every instant all the ele- 
ments of verification that are necessary to 
him. 

Clerc's meter, shown in Fig. 2, is in principle 
analogous to Blondlot's, but differs from it in 
the mode of periodical integration. The clock 
is kept in motion by a derivation from the line. 
It carries along, at a uniform angular speed, a 
crank fixed upon the principal axis. When the 
power expended is nil, the needle fixed upon 
the axis of the movable bobbin is in the position 
represented in the cut. 




FIG. 2. ELECTRIC METER. 

If a current passes into the two bobbins, the 
needle is deflected toward the right by an angle 
that counterpoises, properly arranged upon the 
axis, permit of rendering sensibly proportional 
to the product, e I. The crank carries the 
needle back to zero once per revolution. 

These rotations are transmitted to the revolu- 
tion counter, and totalized by means of a 
mechanical arrangement that may be seen in 
front in the figure. This arrangement consists 
essentially of a small finger suspended from a 
lever fi.xed to the axis of the movable bobbin. 
When the lever moves from right to left, it car- 
ries along the large wheel mounted upon the 
axis of the totalizer. In moving from left to 
right, the finger slides over the felly of the 
wheel, and the rotation effected in the preceding 
movement continues as in the Blondlot appara- 
tus. The needle indicates the power in watts, 
and the counter, the total of the watt-hours fur- 
nished to the consumer. 

The Paccaud-Borel meter is designed for the 
measurement of alternating currents. It be- 
longs to the class of motor counters, and is 
based upon the special properties of the magnetic 
field produced by alternating currents of great 
frequency. Suppose there are two bobbins whose 
axes are arranged rectilinearly, having an un- 
equal number of spirals, and mounted in deri- 
vation, one with respect to the other, so that the 
total current traverses them at the same time 
and divides itself unequally at every instant in 
each of them in consequence of irregularity of 
the coefficients of self-induction. Each of these 
bobbins will tend to produce a magnetic field 
whose intensity will depend at every instant up- 
on the intensity of the current traversing it. 
The resulting field will be rotary in a direction 
determined by the attachment of the terminals 
between themselves. "A thin iron disk placed 
in the rotary field will tend to turn in the di- 
rection of rotation of the field, and so much the 
more quickly in proportion as the field and the 
current producing it is more intense. Upon ar- 
ranging vanes, forming a regulator upon the same 
axis with the disk, and upon properly propor- 
tioning the different parts of the apparatus, it is 
possible, as may be seen, to form a sort of elec- 
tric motor, which, between certain limits, will 
revolve with an angular speed sensibly propor- 
tional to the efficacious intensity of the total 
current. 

It is with a view to obtaining such necessary 
proportions as perfectl)- as possible that the 
practical apparatus does not entirely resemble 
the theoretical one that we have just described. 

In the model represented in Fig. 3 one of the 
magnetic fields is produced by an electro-mag- 
net; on another hand the vanes of the brake are 
movable, and they rise in order to preserve the 
proportionality at great distances in reducing 



the value of the resistant couple due to the air. 
The number of revolutions registered upon a 
counter is proportional to the quantity of ef- 
ficient electricity furnished to the circuit. For 
the cuts and descriptions of the above appara- 
tus we are indebted to La Nature. 



Removal of Police Telephones In Chi- 
cago. 

Considerable attention has been given to the 
action of the Chicago Telephone company in 
removing fifteen instruments from police sta- 
tions and offices in the city buildings, and in one 
instance at least, facts have not only been sup- 
pressed or distorted, but statements have been 
published which were in direct contradiction of 
those that were made to the reporter. The ac- 
tion of the telephone company was directed by 
City Electrician Barrett, who ordered the instru- 
ments removed. To "explain this it is only 
necessary to recall the fact that the Chicago 
Telephone company under a franchise granted 
Januat)', 1889, were directed 'to furnish the 
city nine instruments free of charge, to be 
located in the mayor's office, the department of 
public works, the fire department, the police de- 
partment, the building department, the office of 
city collector, the office of city clerk, the health 
department, and the law department. The or- 
dinance also required that on the first days of 
January and July the president and secretary of 
the company should submit a statement of the 
gross earnings, upon which a tax of 3 per cent, 
was levied. When the bills for the remaining 
fifteen telephones were presented, it was found 
there was no money to pay them, and the service 
was accordingly discontinued. 

The occasion served as an opportunity for the 
daily papers to abuse the telephone company. 
One of these went a trifle too far, however, and 
said: "Prof. Barrett intimated that the telephone 
people sent in bills for these telephones as a re- 
taliation for the tax of 3 per cent." This state- 
ment the city electrician pronounced false. "The 
telephones had to go because there was no fund 
or appropriation to pay the bills. Under the or- 
dinance the telephone company is obliged to 
furnish the city free of charge just nine tele- 
phones. Beginning with nine instruments the 
number was increased from time to time, until 
twenty-five were in use. The fifteen telephones 
ordered removed cost annually $1,975. There 
is no money for that expenditure." 

It appears that these instruments in question 
were not used for official business exclusively, in 
fact, this formed a very small portion of the ser- 
vice. The reason the daily papers take such an 
interest in the matter is the inconvenience it 




1 H 3 niCllvK. MLll 1 

will put them to. The official police work is 
done almost exclusively through the independent 
police and fire service and the instruments that 
were removed were used chiefly by the newspa- 
per reporters and persons in the vicinity of the 
police stations. It will therefore be of little in- 
convenience to the public or the police depart- 
ment. 



New Arc Light Station in Chicago. 

Another central station has been established 
in Chicago, to furnish light and power. The 
Central Illuminating & Power compan)', has 
installed an arc light plant on 22d street, be- 
tween Wabash avenue and State street. The 
capacity of the plant is 120 arc lamps. The 
Western Electric company of Chicago installed 
the plant. 



54 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February :, 1890 




EVERY SATURDAY. 

FTj'BL.is-a.Tioii offices: 
6 Lakeside Building. - - CHICAGO 

Vel*phon« 1746. 

W. A. KREIDLER. Editor and Pablisher. 

J. \V. DICKERSON, J 

.1. B. t-i'IIARA, VAeeociate Editors. 

F. L. PERRY. \ 

A. C. DL'RBOROW, JR., Bueineas Manager. 

Eastern Office: 125 Temple Court,NewYork. 

\V. n. Temple, Manager. 
Trade Supplied by Western News Co. 

COPYUXOHT. — Not only the title, but the entire conientx of 
each nnmlj^r of the Westehx Electrician are copyrighted, 
Thii* itaper is entered at the Chicago Poatoffice aa mail matter of 
the ft?cond claea. 

8UB8CRIPTION, In ad%-ance, postage prepaid, $3.00 for a full 
year of 52 nnml^r?; In clubn of four or more. ^.50, with free 
e.ttra ropy for -^iL'ht f>iib?rriplionB: foreitrn countries, $5.00 a year; 
pIiie;!'' ropU-a, 10 c-nts \\'him chanire of address is requested, the 
old /tiiilr.^-"-; a-^ well as the new shoiiUl be tflven. 

CORRESPONDENCE flatiuL' to electricity, or any of Its prac- 
tical applications, is cordially invited, and the cooperation of all 
elActrical thinkers and workers earnestly desireu. Clear, con- 
cise, well written articles are especially welcome; and communi- 
cation«, %iews. news items, local newspaper clippings, or anv in- 
formation Uk^Iy to interest electricians, will be thankfully 
rccei\ed :ind ciieerfiilly acknowledged- 

ADVEHTI3ING.— Tde WesTEKN ElECTBICLAN— f/l*" onljf ffPtl- 
rrnt etectrieal pnper pubtixbed <« fft^ irp«/— thoroughly 
covers a territory exeiufiirelt, i/« own. Tuis is a claisi which can 

BE MADE BY NO OTHER ELECTRICAL JorRNAL n< THE UNITED 

States- Electrical merchants and manufacturers i/esiriun Wfs'- 
err, (raih will appreciate the UNEqCALEn value of this journal 
as an advertieini: medium In its special lield. Advertising rates 
are moderate and will be promptly furnished on application. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

PAGE. 

Dynamo Room in the Chicago Edison Company^s i^tation. Illus- 
trated 49 

New Yorlt Electric Li?ht Interests Combined 50 

Western Electric Company's High Tension Dynamo. Illustrated 50 

N'cw Induction Coiland Battery. Illustrated. . 50 

Kansas City Convention of the National Electric Light Associa- 
tion 50, 51 

Electrical Method of Finding the Position of Distant Objects. Il- 
lustrated 51 

Electric Locomotive for Metal Mines. Illustrated 51, 52 

Westinghouse Compound Engine and Alternator. Illustrated... 52 

Electricity in the Census 5« 

Overhead Wire Controversy in Chicago 52 

Electrical Execution 52, 53 

Electric Meters. Illustrated 53 

Removal of Police Telephones in Chicago 53 

New Arc Station in Chicago '. 53 

Editorial 54 

Practical Electrical L'nits, by F. B. Badt. Illustrated 55. s6i 57 

A Review of Modern Electrical Theories, by Prof. William A. 

Anthony. Illustrated 58, 59 

Electricity in Warfare S9 

Where to Get the News 59 

DEPAKT.lIRNrt*. 

Correspondence =9.60, 61 

The Electric Light 61 

The Electric Motor 61 

The Telephone 61 

The Telegraph 62 

Electrical Patenis 62 



In the supplement which accompanies this 
issue of the Western Electrician, are pre- 
sented the portraits of the eminent scientists, 
whose names are universally employed to des- 
ignate the practical electrical units. F. B. 
Badt, in an article on another page, gives short 
biographies of these famous men, who labored 
so zealously and successfully in the cause of 
science. It may not be out of place to state 
here that the preparation of the article involved 
no little labor. In spite of the fact that the 
names are so familiar, accurate information re- 
garding the lives of these scientists whose biog- 
raphies are published in this issue, is not easy of 
access. Tocomplete these brief sketches,required 
protracted .search and an extended correspon- 
dence; but the importance of presenting the matter 
in a consistent form seemed to warrant the labor 
devoted to the preparation of the article. It 
was an equally difficult undertaking to secure 
the likenesses which appear in the supplement. 
It was found necessary to send abroad for 
several of the portraits. The article and the 
series of portraits will be of interest, we think, to 
every reader of the Wkstekn Electrician. 



There seems to be every reason for believing 
tliat the convention of the National Electric 



Light association at Kansas City, will be success- 
ful in every way. .A.n article in another place 
in this issue give the latest news in regard to 
the meeting. President Weeks in a brief interview, 
states that the outlook is e.\tremely promis- 
ing. 

.■\n interesting interview with Prof. Ale.\an- 
der Graham Bell, appears in the Kansas City 
letter. He has evidently been subjected to a 
good many of the annoyances accompanying 
greatness, as he speaks of a time when he 
thought he had at last reached a town which 
was without telephone, but alas, was sadly mis- 
taken. 

It was stated a few weeks ago that the pro- 
visional government in Brazil had imposed an 
export tax on rubber at the request of a local 
company. .\11 the exporte-'s protested against 
the measure "in good set terms." According to 
a late dispatch the government has yielded to 
the pressure, and has removed the obnoxious 
tariff. The news may not be reliable, as reports 
from Brazil are not always accurate. 



Ai the last meeting of the Institute of Elec- 
trical Engineers Prof. W. A. Anthony read a 
paper on "A Review of the Modern Theories of 
Electricity." The article is presented elsewhere 
in this issue. The subject is one of great in- 
terest, and it is treated by Prof. Anthony in an 
able and entertaining way. His confident pre- 
diction of the solution by electrical engineers 
of a number of deep problems will be read with 
interest. 



In an interview given in another column, 
Harold P. Brown speaks of the latest arrange- 
ments which have been made for inflicting the 
death penalty by means of electricity. Doubt- 
less the reporter who wrote the interview 
"dressed it up" somewhat, but certainly the glib 
and flippant manner in which the gruesome de- 
tails of executions are referred to, is in abomi- 
nably bad taste. Executions even by electricity 
hardly constitute a subject which should be 
discussed in a trifling, frivolous spirit. 



An illustrated article of more than ordinary 
interest in this issue, describes Lieut. Fiske's 
method of locating the position of distant ob- 
jects. The system is to be put into service on 
the United States cruiser Baltimore, The 
method which Lieut. Fiske has devised was de- 
signed especially to enable gunners to point can- 
non accurately at distant objects where by 
reason of smoke or fog they cannot be seen. 
The method is extremely ingenious, and the 
practical application will be watched with 
interest. 



The movement to secure lower telephone 
rates has again been started in Cleveland. A 
bill has been prepared which the legislature will 
be asked to pass. According to its provisions 
no telephone company in Ohio is to be allowed 
to charge over §3 per month for the rental of 
an instrument. The maximum toll charge is 
limited to fifteen cents for the first five minutes' 
conversation, and ten cents for each succeeding 
five minutes. The measure has a penal clause 
providing for fines and imprisonment in cases of 
where rates higher than those mentioned are 
charged. These provisions are the same as the 
majority of telephone bills considered by state 
legislatures last winter. Probably its fate will 
be the same as that which overtook those meas- 
ures. Such a wholesale reduction as the bill 
contemplates, is absurd. 



The people of New York are beginning to 
realize that a grave injustice was done the elec- 
tric lighting companies by the Board of Elec- 
trical Control, when that body adopted its wild 
project of wholesale destruction of property in 
order to divert public opinion from the real 
point at issue — the failure of the board to per- 
form its duty. Business men experienced in 
electrical affairs, but in no way connected with 
any of the electric light companies, say the dam- 
age to those corporations that has been uselessly 
and unnecesarily inflicted, will exceed $1,000,- 
000, and that burdens have been put upon the 
companies which will increase their deficit by 
another million before the end is reached. In- 



calculable damage to electrical progress has also 
been done by New York's demonstration of how 
easy it is to depress electric light securities. 



Legislative investigation is becoming more 
and more, of a craze. Here is a resolution 
which was introduced in the New York senate 
last week. 

"J^fst'/iv,/, That the Committee on (leneral 
Laws of the senate be authorized to investigate 
the methods employed in furnishing electricity 
for lighting and power purposes as now con- 
ducted in this state, and such other matters 
connected with said business, and to report to 
the senate on or before April i, 1890, such rec- 
ommendations as the committee may deem 
proper for the information and guidance of the 
senate in framing proper legislation for public 
safety. The committee is further authorized to 
summon witnesses, send for books and papers, 
employ experts and stenographers and to sit 
whenever and wherever it pleases." Senator 
Erwin, the author of the measure, defended it by 
saying; there was a general demand for such an 
investigation as the resolution contemplated. 
This statement is more than doubtful; what is 
needed beyond that which the census office is 
trying to do, it would be hard to explain. A New 
York paper says, "This is simply the unloosing 
of another pack to make forays on the metrop- 
olis." 



CiTv Electrician Barrett of Chicago, con- 
tinues to oppose overhead wires with his accus- 
tomed vigor, and his position on this question 
has caused members of electric light companies 
in the suburbs of Chicago, considerable appre- 
hension. It is conceded that the companies 
have a legal right to string wires overhead un- 
der franchises granted them before their respec- 
tive districts were annexed to Chicago, yet the 
mayor hoped under the police laws to prevent 
them from doing so. "The law department of 
the city government questioned the right of the 
city to rescind the ordinances of the suburban 
districts, which the annexation act had declared 
should be respected, and on the other hand the 
mayor and city electrician considered it unfair 
to compel the companies in the old district to 
bury their wires and allow the new companies to 
maintain overhead circuits. After several con- 
ferences, representatives of the companies 
agreed if permitted to go on with their work, to 
string their wires only where they would not in- 
terfere with existing lines, and in no case on the 
same side of the street with telegraph and tele- 
phone wires. Wherever practicable, the poles 
and wires will be placed in alleys or carried over 
house tops. In crossing streets on which tele- 
graph and telephone lines are already established, 
the new companies will be required to go under- 
ground. It is expected this proposition will be 
accepted. 

The work of organizing state associations of 
electric lighting companies is receiving the en- 
couragement the movement deserves. The 
reasons for such organizations are obvious. The 
growing tendency of legislators to make political 
capital by enacting, or at least advocating/, laws 
encroaching on the rights of corporations, war- 
rants the organization of these companies to 
protect themselves against adverse legislation. 
Those who have followed the course of the Illi- 
nois legislature will remember the efforts made 
during the last session, to secure the passage of 
laws affecting at least one department of elec- 
trical activity, and those who were interested in 
this field will remember the struggle that was 
required to defeat the passage of the bill. This 
has naturally suggested to those interested in 
other electrical fields the necessity of providing 
against like contingencies, and it is agreed tha\ 
the only practical method to pursue is to secure 
thorough organization. Therefore the officers 
of the Illinois State Electric Lighting association 
are endeavoring to interest every central station 
company in the state, and secure their co-oper- 
ation in this important movement. The enter- 
prise is worthy the attention of managers of 
central stations, and should receive their support. 

The policy adopted by the electric light com- 
panies is commended by Light, Heat and Poiver, 
a gas journal published at Philadelphia, and the 
attention of the gas companies is directed to the 
advantages to be derived from this course. 



>•• 



r'^.m 








M 

z 



February i, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



55 



Practical Electrical Units. 

Bv F. B. Badt. 

The statement is frequently made that the 
calculations of electricians are mere guesswork, 
because we do not understand the nature of 
electricity. Such an assertion is, of course, ab- 
surd. Mathematics is an exact science, 
whether applied to astronomy, hydraulics or 
electrical engineering. While they do not know 
what gravitation is, astronomers are able to cal 
culate eclipses of the sun and moon, and the 
movements of celestial bodies with absolute ac- 
curacy. Thus it is in dealing with electricity; 
while we may know little of its nature, we are 
still enabled by means of mathematics and by a 
knowledge of the simple laws discovered by 
Ampere. Ohm, Joule and others, to make calcu- 
lations with entire accuracy. 

Gauss first proposed the substitution of abso- 
lute units for measuring electrical quantities in 
place of the arbitrary vmits used up to his time. 
He showed that all quantities could be referred 
to the fundamental units of length, time and 
mass. The unit of length now adopted is the 



raphies of the scientists, whose names are em- 
ployed to designate them. That this mforma- 
tion might be readily accessible, the writer 
undertook the preparation of this article.' In 
the supplement which accompanies this issue of 
the Western Electrician are presented with 
one exception the portraits of all the eminent 
scientists by whose names the practical units are 
or were designated. The portrait of Coulomb is 
missing, and it is extremely doubtful if there is one 
extant. In the accompanying table is presented a 
summary of the information relating to the prac- 
tical units. Following are short biographies of 
the eminent men whose work marked signal 
advances in scientific attainment, and whose 
names are or were the familiar designations of 
the practical units: 

WEBER. 

Weber, Wilhelm Eduard, born at Wittenberg, October 
24, i?04. In 1831 he was professor of physics at the Uni- 
versity of Goettingen and in 1S43 was professor at the 
University of Leipzig. In 1849 he is found again at the 
University of Goettingen. He pubHshed with Gauss from 
iS36-'4i the results of observations of the Magnetic asso- 
ciation. (See Gauss.) In 1840 he published the "Atlas of 
the Earth's Magnetism." From 1S46 to 1878 he compiled 



Ampere. (See Ampere.) He greatly improved the con- 
struction of the galvanometer, and invented the electro- 
dynamometer. To these instruments he applied the mirror 
scale and telescope method of reading which had been sug- 
gested by Poggendorfl and used by him and Gauss in mag- 
netic measurements about 1S33. In 1846 he tested by 
means of his improved apparatus the fundamental laws of 
Ampere. The result of his researches was to establish the 
truth of Ampere's principles as far as experiments with 
closed circuits could do so, with a degree of accuracy far 
beyond anything attainable with the simple apparatus of 
the original discoverer. 

Applying his improved instruments he also obtained ac- 
curate verifications of the laws of induction, which by this 
time had been developed mathematically by Neumann and 
himself. The experiments of Weber must be considered as 
the experimental evidence establishing the theory of Am- 
pere, and as such they form one of the comer stones of 
electrical science. Clausius and Siemens proposed the 
terra Weber for the practical unit of the strength of the 
magnetic pole. This unit is equal to 10^ C. G. S. units. 
The term has not yet been generally adopted as a practical 
unit. The term Weber was formerly employed to desig- 
nate the unit of strength of current. This term is now re- 
placed by the ampere. 

GAUSS. 

Gauss. Carl Friedrich, bom it Brunswick. April 30. 
1777; died at Goettingen Feb. 23, 1855. Gaoss was bom 
of humble parentage. He received an education, thanks 
to the notice which his talents procured for him from the 



PRACTICAL MAGNETIC AND ELECTRO-MAGNETIC UNITS. 

PREPARED FOR THE WESTERN ELECTRICIAN, FEBRUARY I, iSoO. 



BY F. B. BADT. 



Quantities to be 
Measured. 



Strength of 
Pole. 



Intensity of 
Magnetic 
Field. 



Synonyms. 



Symbol. 



Name of Practi- 
cal Unit Now 
in Use. 



Quantity of Magnetism. M. 



Intensity of Magnetiza- „ 
tion . 



Strength. 
Intensity. 
Rate of Flow. 
Coulomb Per Second. 
Volume (obsolete). 



Obsolete Names. 



Ampere. 



Comparative Values. 



Value in 
C. G. S. 

or Absolute 

Units. 



VForce X (Di&tance)2 ■ 



Force -f- Strength of Pole. 



Farad. 

Weber Per Second. Coulombs-t- Seconds. 
Jacobi. Volts-i-Ohms. 

Daniell-H Siemens. 



Dimensions of Remarks. 

the Absolute Fundamental or absolute or C. G. S. Units are- 

Units. 
L= Length. 
M = Mass. 
T=Time. 



Centimeter (C) for Length. 
Gramme fG) for Mass. 
Second (S) for Time. 



iThe pole of unit strength is that which, at a distance of one centi- 

T STin rn il ™^^s''. repels an equal and similar pole with a force of one 

JU^JMs' X "iyne . The dyne is that force which, acting for one second on a 

body weighing one gramme, is able to move it at a velocity of 

I one centimeter per second. 



T i]\T-l 'T' — i'Thefield&f unit intensity is that which acts with a force of one 
dyne on a magnetic pole of unit strength. 



L*M*T- 



One Ampere deposits .00032959 gramme, or .005084 grain of cop- 
per per second on the plate of a copper voltameter. 



Quantity. 



Ampere-Second. 



Q. Coulomb. 



Amperes X Seconds. 



^ T I fi/ti One hour=3,6oo seconds; hence one ampere-hour=3,6oo ampere- 

10 ^ I -^ -L'J— seconds, or=3,6oo Coulombs. 



Electromotive 

Force. 
Difference of 

Potential, 



Capacity. 



Pressure . 
Tension. 



E.M. F. 
or 
E. 



Amperes X Ohms. 
' Joules H- Coulombs. 



108 [Lf Mi T ' One voIt:=.926 standard Daniell cell. 



Power. 
Activity. 



Electrical Horse Power i p 

Rate of Doing Work. or Pw Watt 

^Sect or ll. P. (Volt-ampere ) 

Work-i-Time. 



Work. 
Heat. 
Energj'- 



p w-r- ^^- Joule 

Kower,-. lime. ^^ ^y- ,Volt-coulomb.) 



.Volts -4- Amperes. 



Coulombs-*- Vol t" . 



I VoltsX Amperes. 
i(Amperes)2xOhms. 
I(Volts)2^0hms. 
i Joule -1- Seconds. 



Joulad. 



WattsX Seconds. 
' VoItsX Coulombs. 
(Amperes)3x Ohms :< Seconds. 
(Volts,2xSeconds-s-Ohms. 



LT-' 



The unit of self induction which manifests itself as apparent in- 
creased resistance is the Secohm (Second X Ohm), which equals 
1U» C. G. S. units. 



L -' T^ 



L= MT- 



The Microfarad, one millionth of a Farad=:10— '^ q_ c_ §_ unjts, 
has been generally adopted as a practical unit; the Farad istoo 
large a unit for practical use. 



One Watt=-^g electrical horse power. 

One electrical horse power=YHlH^^^^P£I£5:. 
746 

One electrical horse power=^^"'P"^>^XQ^'°^- 

r ".^ 

One electrical horse power=:_i — _- \— 

746 Ohms 



One Joule is the work done or heat generated by a Watt in a 
second. 
T ^ l^T — ^ One Joule is the heat necessary to raise .238 gramme of water 1° C- 
■*~^ -L'X J- I or one Joule=. 2,^8 calorie or therm. One JouIe=.7373 foot 
!pouod in a second- 



centimeter; the unit of time is the second, and 
the unit of mass is the gramme. These units 
which form the means of measurement called 
the Centimeter-Gramme-Second system, or the 
C. G. S. system, are known as the absolute or 
C. G. S. units. 

Practical units, however, were adopted for the 
reason that the absolute units for the several 
electrical quantities were found to be either too 
great or too small for practical measurements. 
Multiples of the absolute units, therefore, were 
adopted as practical units, and the names of the 
most prominent scientists who had worked to 
build up a practical system of measurement 
were selected as terms to designate them. 

During the last few years the writer has re- 
ceived numerous letters asking for information 
relative to the derivation of these units. He had 
hoped that an adequate explanation of the origin 
of the terms would be found in Prof. Houston's 
"Dictionary of Electrical Words, Terms and 
Phrases," but he was disappointed. One looks 
in vain for derivations of the units and for biog- 

iSevera! portraits presented in the Supplement were obtained from 
friends in the United States and abroad. A large number of books 
and periodicals was consulted both for portraits and biographies. The 
writer is especially indebted to Encj-clopsedia Britannica; E Jacquez' 
Diciionaire d' Eleciricite et de Magnetismc; Olto Sparaer's Conver- 
sations Lexicon; Erockhaus' Conversations Lexicon: Popular Science 
Monthly: Les Mervcillcsde la Science par Louis Figuicr*'Invcniion;'' 
The London Electrician: Trades' Directory; Hartlebens' Electro- 
cecbni5che Bibliothek, and many others. 



"Electro-Dynamische Massbestimmungen," (Electro-dy- 
namic measurements.) In this latter work Weber intro- 
duces the system of absolute units. 

In the earlier stages of the science several units were in- 
troduced for the measurement of quantities dealt with in 
electricity. In illustration may be mentioned the wire of 
Jacobi (25 feet of copper wire weighing 345 grains), the 
mercury column of Siemens (a meter long, with a section of 
a square millimeter), which at given temperatures fur- 
nished units of resistance, and the Daniell cell, which fur- 
nished the unit of electromotive force. Jacobi's current 
unit was based on the electrolytic decomposition of water. 
One cubic centimeter of oxy-hydrogen gas is formed each 
minute. All these units were perfectly arbitrary, and there 
was no connection of any kind between them. The intro- 
duction of a rational system of unitation, based on the 
fundamental units of time, mass and length, was one of 
the greatest achievements of modem times. The impulse 
came from the famous memoir of Gauss, "Intensitas vis 
Magnetics Terrestris ad Mensuram Absolutam Revocata" in 
1832. (See Gauss.) In conjucction with Weber, hein- 
troduced his principles into the measurement of the earth's 
magnetic force. 

To Weber belongs the credit of doing a similar service 
for electricity. He not only devised three different sys- 
tems of such units — the electro-dynamic, the electrostatic, 
and the electro-magnetic, but he carried out a series of 
measurements which practically introduced the last two 
systems. 

The practical units which are in use to-day are simply 
certain multiples of the absolute or Centimeter-Gramme- 
Second (C. G. S.) units. The absolute units are either too 
great or too small for practical use and for convenience the 
"practical units" were adopted to which the names of the 
most famous electricians are given. 

Weber was the most illustrious among the successors of 



reigning duke. He was appointed director of the Goet- 
tingen Observatory in 1S07, an office which he retained to 
his death. The story goes that he alwa5's slept under the 
roof of his observatory except on one occasion, when he 
accepted an invitation from Humboldt lo attend a meeting 
o^ natural philosophers at Berlin. His first work on the 
"Tbeor}' of Magnetism" was published in 1S32 (Intensitas 
vis Magnetic;^ Terristris ad Mensuram Absolutam Revo- 
cata). Shortly afterward he constructed in conjunction 
with l-'rofessor Wilhelm Weber new appa-atus for obsen- 
ing the earth's magnetism. One of these instruments is 
the bifilar magnetometer. With Weber's assistance he 
erected in 1833 at Goettingen a magnetic observatory free 
from iron. From this obstrvatory he sent tdegraphic sig- 
nals to a neighboring town, thus demonstrating for the 
first time the practicability of an electro-magnetic tele- 
graph. He organized the Magnetic association, whose 
continuous observatior s (■1S36-41; on fixed days extended 
from Holland to Sicily. The results of the observations 
were published from 1S36 to 1339. Gauss was well versed 
in general literature and the chief languages of modem 
Europe, and was a member of nearly all the leading scien- 
tific societies in Europe. His collected works were pub- 
lished by the Royal Society of Cioettingen, comprising 
seven volumes, 1863 to 1871: (1) "Disquisitiones Arith- 
raetic?e;" (2) "Thtory of Numbers;" (3) "Analysis;" (4) 
"Geometr)' and Method of Least Squares;" (5) "Mathe- 
matical Physics;"' (6) "Astronomy," and (7) "Theoria 
Motus Corporum Coelcstium.'' Sir William Thomson 
proposed the name of Gauss for the unit of intensity of 
magnetic field. This practical unit has been generally 
adopted. It is equal to 10^ C. G. S. units. 



Ampere, Andre Marie, born at Lyons Januarj' 12, 1775; 
died at Marseilles June 10, 1S36. Ampere is the founder 



so 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February i, 1890 



of the science of electro-dynamics. He was enthusiastic 
in the pursuit of knowledge from his childhood, and ac- 
cording to tradition he worked out sums by means of peb- 
bles before he knew the figures. In later life he was ac- 
customed to say that he knew as much about mathematics 
when he was iS as ever he knew, but his reading embraced 
history, travels, poetry, philosophy and the natural 
sciences. From about iTw*' Ampere gave private lessons 
at Lyons in mathematics, chemistry and languages. In 
i8oi he removed to Hourg. where he was professor of 
physics and chemistry. After two years' absence he re- 
turned to 1-yons as professor of mathematics at the Ly- 
ceum. In 1S09 he was elected professor of analysis at the 
Polytechnic School at Paris. Mere he continued to prose- 
cute his scientific researches and his niuUifariuus studies. 
He was admitted to membership in the institute in iSi^. 
He established the relations between electricity and mag- 
netism. On his development of the science of electro- 
magnetism, or as he called it, "electro-dynamics," his 
fame rests. On the iithof September 1820, heheaidof the 
discovery of Professor Oersted of Copenhagen that the mag- 
netic needle might be deflected by a voltaic current. He 
set to work at once to develop the important consequences 
which this discovery involved. Physicists had long been 
looking for the connection between magnetism and elec- 
tricity, and had, perhaps, inclined to the view that electric- 
ity was in some way to be explained as a magnetic phe- 
nomenon. Such ideas in pait led Oersted to his discovery. 
Ampere proved that the e.xplanation was to be found in an 
opposite direction. He discovered the ponderomotive 
action of one electric current on another, and by a series 
of well-chos€n experiments he established the elementary 
laws of electro-dynamic action. Starting from this point, 
by a brlliant train of mathematical analysis, he not only 
evolved the complete explanation of all the electro-mag- 
netic phenomena observed before him, but predicted the 
discovery of many new facts. On September i9. 1820, he 
presented a paper to the academy, containing a far more 
complete exposition of the phenomenon observed by Oer- 
sted, which he had in the interval investigated by experi- 
ments, and he proved that magnetic effects can be pro- 
duced without magnets, but by means of electricity alone. 
In particular he showed that the attraction or repulsion of 
two wires connecting the opposite poles of a battery de- 
pends on whether the currents pass in the sa.-ne or in op- 
posite directions. According to his beautiful theory of 
magnetism, every molecule of magnetic matter is acted on 
by a closed electric current, and magnetization lakes place 
in proportion as the direction of these currents approaches 
parallelism. 

This theory of molecular currents gave an explanation 
of that connection between electricity and magnetism 
which had been the dream of previous investigators. 
Hardly any advance in the science of e'ectricily can com- 
pare in point of completeness and brilliancy with the 
work of Ampere, if we except the discovery of the laws of 
induction by Faraday ten years later. 

Ampere anticipated the invention of the electric telegraph, 
as he suggested in 1821 an apparatus having a separate 
wire for each letter. 

To Ampere is due the invention of the solenoid and 
several other kinds of apparatus which he constructed for 
the purpose of demonstrating his theories experimentally. 
The great amiability and childlike simplicity of Ampere's 
character are well brought out in his "Journal et Corres- 
pondence," published by Madame Chevreux. Paris, 1S72. 
His most remarkable reports are found in the publications 
of "L'Academie des Sciences." or in the "Annals de Phy- 
sique et de Chimie." The Paris Electrical Congress of 
iSSi adopted the ampere as the practical unit of the 
strength of the elerfrir current. This practical unit is equal 
to 10 — ' of the C. G, S. unit. 

rui'i.oMH. 

Coulomb, Charles .Auguslin, born at AngouKme. June 
14, 1736. died at Paris, August 23, 1S06. Coulomb be- 
longed to a noble family of Montpellier. He chose the 
profession of military engineer. He gained great distinc- 
tion in 1773 by his "Statistical Problems Applied to 
Architecture," which he presented to the Academy of 
Sciences in 1779; he shared with Van Swinden the prize for 
improvements in the construction of compasses. In 17S1 
he was stationed permanently at Paris. He was appointed 
inspector of public instruction in 1S02, but his health was 
already very feeble and four years later he died. He had 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel of engineers. His fame 
rests chiefly on his most elaborate and important investiga- 
tions in electricity and magnetism, and on his invention of 
the torsion balance in 1777. This instrument has since his 
lime been universally used in all delicate researches, par- 
ticularly in the measurement of electrical and magnetic 
actions. Coulomb proved, by a series of elaborate ex- 
periments, in opposition to the generally accepted theo- 
ries of Cavendish, that electricity, like gravity, varied in 
the inverse ratio of the square of the distance. Adopting the 
two- fluid hypothesis, Coulomb investigated the distribution 
of electricity on the surface of bodies. His experiments on 
the dissipation of electricity possess a high value. He 
found that a thread of gum-lac was the most perfect of all 
insulators: it insulated ten times as well as dry silk thread. 
He found that a silk thread covered with fine scaling wax 
insulated as effectually as gum-lac when it had four limes 
its length. He ascertained that the dissipation of electric- 
ity along insulators was chiefly due to adhering moisture, 
but in some measure also lo a slight conducting ppwer. 
His writings were collected by the Societe de Physique, 
and thanks to Monsieur Poller, form Volume I of the 
Memoirs relating to Physics. The Par's Electrical Con- 
gress of 1S81 adopted the name of Coulomb as the practical 
unit of electrical quantity. The coulomb is etjual to ;o — ' 
of the C. G. S. unit of quantity. 
\OLrA. 

Volta. Count AJessandro, born at Como, F'eb. iS, 1745, 
died in same city, March 6, 1827. He was appointed pro- 
fessor of physics in the Gymnasium of Como in 1774. In 
1777 he left his native city and traveled through Switzer- 



and, where he and De Saussure became intimate friends. 
In 1779 a chair of physics was founded in Pavia and Volta 
was chosen to occupy it. In 17S2 he undertook a journey 
through I'Vance, ( iermany, Holland and England, and 
became acquainted with nearly all the scientific celebrities 
of that day. In 179I he received the Copley medal of the 
Royal Society. In iSui Napoleon, then first consul of 
the French Republic, called him to Paris that he might see 
his experiments on contact electricity. A medal was 
struck in his honor. He was made a senator of the king- 
dom of Lombardy, member of the .Academy of Sciences, 
and received b.ooo francs as a present. In 1S15 the em- 
peror of Austria made him director of the philosophical 
faculty of Padua. In 1819 he retired and settled in his 
native town. Volta is the inventor of the electrophorus, 
the condenser, the straw electrometer and the electric 
pile. Volta's electric pile was first described in a letter to 
Sir J. lianks, then president of the Royal Society. This 
letter, which was dated March 20, iSoo, was read before 
the society on June 2(i of that year. The pile consisted of 
a number of disks of zinc and an equal number of silver or 
copper disks. The zinc and copper plates were in contact, 
and each pair was separated by porous matter which was 
kept moist. lie described a number of experimental re- 
sults obtained with this pile, and finally showed that all 
the effects produced were the same as those which could be 
obtained from electrical machines and that therefore 
"galvanism" and "electricity" were identical. \'olta was 
Jed to the invention of the electric pile by the astonishing 
discoveries of Galvani in 1790. It is very instructive lo 
read the letters and essays in which Volla describes his ob- 
servations and his reasoning which gradually led him up to 
the construction of the electric pile. The muscle of the 
frog soon appeared lo him lo be nothing but a very delicate 
electrometer and not, as was first thought, the source of 
electricity. \'olta lived to see the remarkable development 
of his science by Sir Humphrey Davy, Oersted and Am- 
pere, but he was no mathematician and the subject grew 
beyond his ability lo grasp it. He recognized this fact 
with that frank honesty which is apparent in all his writings 
and during the last twenty- five years of his life he pub- 
lished nothing on electrical subjects. The Paris Electrical 
Congress of 18S1 adopted the word volt (abbreviation of 
the name of \'olta) as the practical unit of electromotive 
force. It is equal to lO** C. G. S. units. 

ohKT. 

Ohm, Georg Simon, born at Erlangen, Bavaria, March 
16, 1789. Died at Munich, July 17, 1S54. The exact 
year of his birth is in doubt. Ohm was the son of a lock- 
smith in Erlangen, Bavaria, and in his boyhood, following 
the custom prevailing in European states, he worked in his 
father's shop. Very early in his life he turned his attention 
to physical science, and having been educated in the uni- 
versity at Erlangen and becoming an accomplished mathe- 
matician, he was in iSoS appointed professor of physics in 
the gymnasium in Cologne. In 1S17 he became professor 
of mathematics in the Jesuits' college in Cologne, and in 
1S18 published his fir.t work, on the "Elements of Geom- 
etry." 

After a few years in Cologne he resigned bis professcr- 
ship and went lo Berlin. He had become deeply interested 
in the phenomena of galvanic electricity. Galvani had 
discovered in 1 790 that the contact of metals produced a 
current of electricity which developed muscular contraction 
in the frog, and in iSoo \'olta had invented the electric 
pile. Pushing his researches in these directions, by the aid 
of his mathematical attainments, Ohm became convinced 
that the flow of the electric current was governed by fixed 
laws, and he bent his energies to the discovery of those 
laws. The result of his studies was embodied in his famous 
work published in 1827 and entitled "Die galvanische 
Kelte malhematisch bearbeitet" (the galvanic circuit 
mathematically determined). This work wps only a pam- 
phlet, but its iniportrince was far-reaching, for here is found 
what has ever since been known as "Ohm's Law." In 1833 
Ohm became the director of the Polytechnic School at 
Nuremberg. In 1852 he was made professor of experi- 
mental physics in the University of Munich. 

Ohm's law completely changed the methods of measuring 
electric quantities. Before his discovery the quantitative 
circumstances of the electric current had been very vaguely 
indicated by the words "intensity" and "quantity,'' but 
these words indicated nothing definite. By Ohm's law, 
however, it became for the first time possible, accurately, 
lo define and measure electromotive force, strength of cur- 
rent and resistance. 

Ohm's law states that the current strength is directly 
proportional to the electromotive force, and inversely pro- 
portional to the resistance. This is generally written as a 
E 

formula C= ; in which C represents current strength 

R 
(in amperes), E electromotive force (in volts), and R re- 
sistance (in ohms.) 

It may be doubted whether Ohm's investigations could 
have been made without the aid of the magnificent work of 
Fourier on the conduction of heat. In fact. thee(|ualion for 
the propagation of electricity formed on Ohm's principles, 
is identical with that of Fourier for the propagation of heat; 
and if in Fourier's solution of any problem of heat conduc- 
tion, we change the word "temperature" to "potential" 
and write "electric current" instead of "llux of heat," wc 
have the solution of a corresponding problem of electric 
conduction. 

Ohm introduced for the first lime into the theory of the 
galvanic pile the equivalent of the modern word "poten- 
tial." Ohm's word was "electroscopic force"or "tension," 
and he showed that with the same current strength the fall 
of potential is uniform along a homogeneous linear conduc- 
tor of even cross-section. 

Ohm continued a long course of experiments with the 
thermo-electric pile, and when he had become thoroughly 
satisfied as lo the correctness of his theory, he published his 
book. Like almost all other discoverers he was ahead of 
his time. The value of Ohm's work was but imperfectly 



recognized until it was stamped by the award of the Copley 
medal of the British Royal Society in 1S41. This society 
is now co-operating with Cerman scientific societies in the 
erection of a statue in honor of ( »hm at Munich, the capital 
of Pavaria, his native country. Since his birth a century 
had passed on March 16, 1S89. The Electrical Congress 
of Paris in 1881 adopted Ohm's name as that of the prac- 
tical unit of resistance. The ohm is equal to 10'' C. (1. S. 
units. 



Faraday, Michael, born at Ncwington near London 
September 22, 1791; died at Hampton Court, Sussex, on 
August 25. i?<Oy. His father, James I'araday, a native 
of ^"orkshire, obtained his livelihood as a working black- 
smith. Faraday's education as a child, was of the most 
ordinary description, comprising little more than the rudi- 
ments of reading, writing, and arithmetic, obtained at a 
common day-school in the neighborhood. At 13 he went 
to Mr. Riebau, of Blandford street, to whom he was ap- 
prenticed in the following year, to learn the business of 
bookseller and bookbinder, and continued to work at that 
trade till 1812. During his term of apprenticeship, a few 
scientific works occasionally fell into his hands. These he 
read with avidity, and aided by patient study and such 
rough experiments in chemistry as could be accomplished 
by a youth with little leisure, and still less pocket money, 
he gradually mastered their contents. Among these were 
"The Treatise on Electricity," the "Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica," and Mrs. Marcel's well-known "Conversations on 
Chemistry " The perusal of the former led to the con- 
struction of his first electrical machine with a glass phial, 
on which he afterward improved by constructing another 
with a proper cylinder, and added other simple apparatus 
for the purpose of making a variety of experiments with 
electricity. Through the kindne.ssof Mr. Dance, a mem- 
ber of the Royal Institution and a customer of his master, 
Faraday was enabled to attend the last four lectures de- 
livered in that building by Sir Humphrey Davy in the 
early part of i8i2. Of these he took careful notes, from 
which he wrote out the lectures in a fuller form, interspers- 
ing them with such drawings as he could make to illustrate 
their contents. His strong desire for some scientific occu- 
pation, even of the humblest kind, induced him to write 
in the December following to Sir Humphrey Davy, in- 
closing his notes and illustrations as a proof of his earnest- 
ness in the cause of science. The reply was prompt as well 
as kind and favorable, nor was it without its results. 
Early in 1S13. his patron, acting for the managers of the 
Royal Institution, offered him the situation of chemical 
assistant under himself, as honorary professor, and Mr. 
Brande as professor of chemistry. This post he accepted, 
and shortly afterward entered upon his duties, taking up 
his residence at the Royal Institution, where he chiefly 
resided. In the autumn of the same year Mr. Faraday 
went abroad as assistant and amanuensis of Sir Humphrey 
Davy, and returned to England in 1815. when he resumed 
his place at the Royal Institution. After a number of 
varied experiments, of which he published accounts from 
time to time in scientific journals, in 1820 he discovered 
the chlorides of carbon, in 1S21 the mutual rotation of the 
magnetic pole and an electric current, and in 1S23 some 
new and important facts as to the condensation of gases. 
In 1S29 he labored hard, and as he thought at the time 
fruitlessly, on the production of optical glass; but though 
unsuccessful in his immediate object, his experiments pro- 
duced the heavy glass which afterward proved of great 
assistance to him in his magnetic investigation. In 1831 
the series of "Experimental Researches in Electricity," 
published in the "Philosophical Transactions." began with 
the development of the induction of electric currents, and 
the evolution of electricity from magnetism. He took up 
the investigation of the chemical decompositions effected 
by the electric current. In 1S33 he announced his great 
law of electrc-chemical equivalents, which made an epoch 
in the history of this department of electricity. He recog- 
nized and for the first time thoroughly explained the 
essential features of the phenomenon. Faraday's discovery 
gave a new measure of the current, and he invented the 
voltameter. In 1S46 he received at one time the Royal 
and the Rumford medals for his discoveries in diamagnet- 
ism, and of the influence of magnetism upon light. In 
1847 he declared the magnetic character of oxygen, and 
the magnetic relations of flame antl gases. 

It should be observed that the "Researches," though 
termed "Experimental," contain many hypothetical ideas 
and many inquiries into theories generally adopted up to 
their time. Among these may be specified the considera- 
tion respecting static induction, atmospheric electricity 
and those relating to lines of force, both representative and 
physical, which, having sufficiently stated his views, he was 
content lo leave for solution to time and future experience. 
It may be added that his last hypothetical view relates to 
the conservation of force, a generalization which later 
researches have established; and that one of his latest 
papers treats of the division of gold and other metals. The 
researches of l-araday were pursued almost exclusively in 
the Royal Institution, Albermarlc street, London, where 
he delivered lectures on scientific subjects every year from 
1S27, when he first appearcti at the lecture table in the 
great theater. In conjunction with his friend, Mr. Brande. 
he had. for some three years previously, delivered early 
morning lectures to students in the laboratory. In 1833. 
when Mr. Fuller founded the chair of chemistry called 
after his name, in the Royal Institution, he nominated 
Mr. Faraday the first professor, expressly desiring that he 
should hold the chair as long as he was attached to the 
institution without being required to give lectures or having 
any other duties exacted of him in consideration of the 
value of his researches to the cause of science. In No- 
vember, 1835, Professor Faraday received from Lord 
Melbourne's government a pension of /^300 per annum as 
a recognition of the importance of his scientific discoveries. 
In iS3fi he was appointed scientific adviser on lights to 
the Trinity House, and became a member of the senate of 
^^e yn\versity gf London. In 18.^5 Professor Faraday 



February i, 1890 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



57 



i 
was elected corresponding member of the Academy o . 
Sciences, a Paris; in iS2(;, a fellowof the Royal Society' 
and in 1S32. the University of Oxford conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law. Numerous 
foreign orders were showered upon him, and he was a 
member of many learned and scientific bodies. He might 
have had a title, but his ambition did not lie that way and 
he always refused such offers. The Paris Electrical Con- 
gress of iSSt named in his honor the practical unit of elec- 
tric capacity the "Farad." This term was also applied pre- 
viously to the unit of current strength which is now 
measured in amperes. One Farad is equal to 10 — '' of theC. 
G. S. unit. 



Watt, Tanies. born al Greenock, January ig, 1736; died 
at Heathfield, August 19. 1819. His father was a small 
merchant at Greenock, who lost his little fortune by unsuc- 
cessful speculation, and the son at an earlyage was thrown 
on his own resources. He devek-ped when a boy a taste 
for mechanics and at the age of ig went to London to learn 
the trade of a scientific instrument maker. In 1756 he 
visited (/ilasgow to obtain work in repairing astronomical 
instruments and subsequently tried to establish himself as 
an instrument maker in Glasgow. As he had not served 
the full term of apprenticeship, the City Guilds refused him 
permissiou. The college took him under its protection and 
in 1757 he possessed the title of mechanical instrument 
maker to the university. Here Watt became acquainted 
with Black, the discoverer of latent heat, then a lecturer on 
chemistr}'. and a student by the name of Robinson, who 
afterward became professor of natural philosophy. The 
three frequently discussed the possibility of improving the 
steam engine, of which, at that time, Newcomen's was the 
most advanced type. His engines were at that time ap- 
plied only to pumping water, generally in mines. They 
were so clumsy and wasteful of fuel that they were but lit- 
tle used. Watt commenced a very close study of this 
steam engine and of the properties of steam. In 1769 be 
took out his first patent, which covers nearly all the feat- 
ures of the modern steam engine. Watt's second steam 
engine patent is dated 17S1. It describes five different 
methods of converting the reciprocating motion of the pis- 
ton into motion of rotation so as to adapt the engine for 
driving ordinary machinery. The simplest way of accom- 
plishing this is by a crank and fly wheel, a method which 
is still used to-day. Jn 17S2 he took out the third patent 
covering a double acting engine; that is to say. both ends 
of the cylinder were alternately put in communication with 
the boiler and the condenser; up to that time, only one end 
of the cylinder was thus connected. Watt also covered in 
this patent, the system of expansive working in which the 
admission valve is closed after a portion only of the stroke 
is performed and the steam inclosed in the cylinder is then 
allow^ed to expand during the remainder of the stroke, thus 
doing additional work upon the piston. In 1784 he took 
out his fourth patent describing the well-known "parallel 
motion," an arrangement of links, by which the top of the 
piston rod is connected to the bottom so that it may either 
pull or push, and is at the same time guided to move in a 
sensibly straight line. Watt is considered to be the father 
of modern steam engineering. He invented the throttle 
valve and centrifugal governor by which the speed of rota- 
tive engines was automatically controlled. He is also the 
inventor of the steam engine indicator .which draws a dia- 
gram of the relation of the steam pressure to its volume 
as the stroke proceeds. This instrument has played the 
most important part in the evolution of the steam engine. 
. No engineer of to-day underestimates its value, and it is a 
surprising fact that the inventor of the modern stearn en- 
gine also invented the instrument by which the working of 
the engine can be determined. Watt was the inventor of 
the letter copying press; he patented the device in 17S0. 
In the year iSoo he retired from business and spent the re- 
mainder of his life at Heathfield Hall, his home near Bir- 
mingham, where he devoted his time to mechanical pur- 
S'dis. The late Sir William Siemens proposed in 1S82 to 
name the unit of activity or power exerted by one volt-am- 
pere the Watt, in memory of the name of the famous in- 
ventor. This practical unit has been generally adopted. 
It is equal to 10'" C. G. S. units- 

JOULE. 

Joule, James Prescott, born at Salford, near Manches- 
ter, December 24, 1S18; died at Sale, near Manchester, 
October 11, iS8g. When he was fifteen years of age he be- 
came a pupil in chemistry of DaUon, who first established the 
atomic theor}' and the principle of the indestructibility of 
matter. He entered into his work with enthusiasm, and not 
many months elapsed before he commenced a series of exper- 
iments with rude apparatus of his own contrivance. One 
of his first papers related to an electro-magnetic engine. It 
was published when he was nineteen years of age. Some 
idea of the immense amount of work performed by him may 
be gained when it is stated t4iat in the Royal Scciety list 
there are titles of ninety-seven papers prepared by him be- 
sides twenty other important papers relating to researches 
undertaken by him in connection with Sir William Tbom-. 
son. Sir Lyon Playfair and others. In these papers a 
great variety of scientific subjects was treated. In many 
of his experiments he had met with great difficulties aris- 
ing as he said "from incomplete descriptions of apparatus, 
and from the arbitrary and vague numbers which are used 
to characterize electric currents. I have therefore deter- 
mined for my own part to abandon my old quantity num- 
bers, and to express my results on the basis of a unit which 
shall be at once scientific and convenient." The unit 
quantity of electricity according to his- method was the 
quantity necessary to decompose nine grains of water. As 
a unit of resistance he adopted a copper wire of specific di- 
mensions. He devised many improvements in galvanom- 
eters and as a result of a series of experiments laid the 
foundation for the department of thermo-dynamics. The 
statement of his discover}' of the mechanical equivalent of 
heat was made at the Cork meeting of the British associa- 
tion in 1841. During the next few years he presented to 



learned societies many communications on the subject. 
These preliminary papers were summed up in an elaborate 
paper which be read before the Royal society in i84g. He 
summarized his investigations as follows: "The quantity 
of heat produced by the friction of bodies, whether solid 
or liquid, is always proportional to the quantity of force 
expended, and the quantity of heat capable of increasing 
the temperature of a pound of water by one degree Fahren- 
heit, requires for its evolution the expenditure of a me- 
chanical force expended by the fall of 772 lbs. through the 
space of one foot." 

Seguin in France and Mayer in St. Petersburg had also 
made noteworthy advances toward the establishment of 
the mechanical equivalent of heat. A hot controversy 
arose, especially in England, as to the relative merits of 
Mayer and Joule. 

Joule distinguished himself also by his experiments with 
electric motors or, as they were formerly called, electro- 
magnetic motors. Early in iS4[ he gave a lecture in the 
Royal Victoria gallery in Manchester, in which he gave 
the results of his experiments, referring also to what had 
been done by Jacobi in St. Petersburg in the way of ap- 
plying electro-magnetism as a motive power (see Jacobij. 
Joule also found experimentally that the quantity of heat 
developed by an electric current in a conductor is directly 
proportional to the resistance of the conductor and to the 
square of current strength and to the time that the current 
lasts. 

This law known as "Joule's law" is now generally ex- 
pressed by the formula: 

„,. C^XRXt 

W|^ 

4.2 

Where ^^'j represents the quantity of heat or work; C 
the current strength in amperes, R the resistance in 
ohms; t the time in seconds and 4.2 Joule's equivalent. 

Dr. Joule has figured but little in the fields of popular 
science. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1850, received the degree of B. C. L. from Oxford, of LL. 
D. from the Universities of Dublin and Edinburgh, and 
was president of the British association in 1S73. 

His work in pure science whieh was followed by practical 
results has been appreciated and gold medals and other 
marks of honor have been showered upon him. In 1878 a 
pension of £200 a year was conferred upon him by the 
British government. He lived a retired life as the result 
both of great modesty and poor health. 

Siemens proposed in 1SS2 the "Joule" as a practical unit 
of electric work (heat or energy). This practical unit has 
been generally adopted. It is equal to ip^ C. G. S. units. 



Siemens, Dr. Werner von; born at Lenthe in Hanover, 
Dec. 13, 1S16. He is the eldest and most famous of four 
brothers, namely: Carl Wilhelm (Sir William Siemens,) 
born at Lenthe April 4, 1823, died in London Nov. 19, 
18S3; Friedrich, born at Menzendorf in 1825, and Carl, 
born at Menzendorf in 1829. Werner was educated at the 
Lubeck Gymnasium. He joined the Prussian artillery in 
1834, ivhere his eminent talents soon attracted notice, and 
having pas'.ed through the military schools, he obtained 
the rank of lieutenant in 1S37. While still holding this 
appointment in the army he applied himself with great zeal to 
the study of practical chemistry and physical sciences, and 
became the inventor of the process of electro-gilding, the dif- 
ferential governor and the electro-automatic recording tel- 
egraph, for all of which patents were granted him in 
Prussia. As member of a commission of the Prussian 
General Staff for the introduction of the electric telegraph 
system in place of the optical telegraphs, he proposed, in 
1S47, the application of subterranean conductors, insulated 
by gutta-percha. Successful experimental lines were oper- 
ated, the wires of which were coated wiih gutta-percha by 
means of a press invented by him for that purpose. The 
press is still used in the manufacture of cables. With the 
help of these insulated wires he first succeeded, with 
the assistance of Prof. Himley, in firing submarine 
mines by electric ignition in the spring of 1S4S. These 
mines were designed for the protection of the harbor of 
Kiel from the Danish fleet. In the same year he directed 
the construction of the first great telegraph line in Ger- 
many, between Berlin and Frankfort-on the-Main, and in 
the following year planned the subterranean line between 
Berlin and Cologne. 

Dr. Siemens left the government service in 1850, and 
subsequently devoted himself exclusively to scientific studies 
and private enterprises. In 1S47 he had already laid the 
foundation of the telegraph manufactory conducted by him 
under the firm name of Siemens & Halske in Berlin, the 
celebrated establishment which was destined to become, 
and at present is, one of the chief centers for the applica- 
tion of electricity to the industrial arts. Its world-wide 
reputation, acquired within a short time, led him to open 
branch works in London and St. Petersburg, which soon 
developed into large independent concerns under the man- 
agement of his younger brothers, Wilhelm and Carl. 

Dr. Siemens' personal achievements are to be found in 
the fields of science as well as in the technical arts. His 
scientific merits induced the University of Berlin to confer 
on him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, honoris causa, in 
]86o. He was honored by admission to membership in 
the Academy of Sciences in Berlin in 1S74. and subse- 
quently in many other academies and societies. Among 
his many and varied achievements in matters relating to 
science and technical arts may be mentioned as particularly 
noteworthy, the invention and practical application of a 
standard unit of resistance known as the Siemens unit, the 
development of methods for testing underground and sub- 
marine cables and of determining the position of faults, the 
invention of polarized relays, of the so-called Siemens ar- 
mature, and of the dynamo-electric machine, the principle 
of which he published first at the meeting of the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences on Januar}' 17, 1867, the electric 
railway, and of numerous other appliances, including the 
pneumatic dispatch tube system, and the Siemens alcohol- 
ometer for registering the quantity of absolute alcohol con- 



tained in any alcoholic liquid passing through the instru 
ment. 

Dr. Siemens has been appointed a member of the Prus- 
sian Order "Pour le Merite," and has become the recipient 
of many other distinctions and honors. The German 
omperor created him a noble He is honorary- member of 
the English Institution of Electrical Engineers and is cor- 
responding secretary for Germany. 

His many papers read before scientific societies up to 
iSSi were published in book form, "Gesammete Abband- 
lungen und Vortraege," published in Berlin by Julius 
Springer in iSSi. 

SIEMENS. 

Siemens. Sir William (christened Carl Wilhelm); bom 
at Lenthe in Hanover, April 4. 1S23; died in London No- 
vember ig, 1533. He was educated in the Polytechnic 
School of Magdeburg and the University of Goettingen. 
He visited England at the age of 19, to introduce a process 
of electro-plating, which he had jointly invented with his 
brother Werner. He subsequently returned to Germany 
and entered as a pupil tte engineering works of Count 
j Stolberg at Magdeburg. IniS44he went again to Eng- 
land to introduce a new invention of his brother Werner, 
the differential governor for steam engines. He then made 
England his home, and in 1S59 became a naturalized 
British subject. In 1851 he established himself as an 
engineer; he worked mainly in two departments, in the 
application of heat and the application of electricity. He 
gained great reputation in both fields. The scientific 
papers which he published from time to time would have 
alone sufficed to establish his reputation. He was elected 
in 1862 to membership in the Royal Society and later he be- 
came president of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, 
the Society of Telegraphic Engineers, the Iron and Steel 
Institute and the British Association. He was given honor- 
ary degrees by the universities of Oxford, Glasgow, Dublin 
and Wueitzburg. He was knighted by the Queen in 1881. 
Siemens originated a great number of valuable inventions. 
Among others he introduced in 1S56 the regenerative fur- 
nace, the idea of his brother Friedrich, with whom William 
had associated himself. Siemens was a strong believer in 
gaseous fuel, and he anticipated that its use would in time 
supersede that of coal for domestic and industrial purposes, 
cheap gas being supplied either from works or directly from 
the pit. One of his last inventions was a house grate, in 
which to burn gas and coke. This combustion he 
regarded as a possible cure for city smoke. Another of his 
inventions is the Siemens electric furnace, in which the in- 
tensely hot atmosphere of the electric arc between carbon 
points melts refractory metals. He also invented a water- 
meter, an electro-thermometer, a pyrometer, an attraction- 
meter, and a bathometer, by which the depths of the sea 
can be found without a sounding line. 

A number of his most valuable papers were published 
under the title, "Einige Wissenschaftlich-Technische 
Fragen der Gegenwart," issued in Berlin by Julius 
Springer, 1879. 

D.ANIELL. 

Daniell, John Frederick, born at Lonaon, March 12, 
1790; died in London March 13, 1845. Daniell received 
from his father, a barrister, an excellent classical education. 
He displayed from his early years a great liking for nat- 
ural science. He studied chemistry, and started, in 1S16. 
wiih Professor Brande, the Quarterly Jounial of Science 
ami A}t. In 1S23 he published h's meteorological essays. 
In 1831 he was appointed first professor of chemistr}' at 
King's College. During the succeeding years he was en- 
gaged in investigations of beat and electricity. In 1S32 
he received the Rumford medal of the Royal Society. In 
1S37 he was awarded the Copley medal for his invention of 
the sulphate of copper battery, which bears his name. In 
1842 he received the Royal medal. He is the only person 
-who ever received all three medals in the gift of the Royal 
Soci ty. The Daniell cell is still used as a standard of 
electromotive force, and was at the time of 'he invention 
a great improvement over other primary batteries. The 
name Daniell was formerly used for the practical unit of 
electromotive force, being equal to the electromotive force 
of one Daniell cell. This name has become obsolete now, 
and is replaced by the volt, which is equal to .926 standard 
Daniell cell. 

JACOBI. 

Jacobi, Aforitz Hermann von, b'nrn at Potsdam Septem- 
ber 21, iSoi; died at St. Petersburg, March 10, 1S74. 
Jacobi received a good common school education. .\t the 
age of 28 he went to Russia, and soon attracted attention 
by his researches in physics. He invented electrotyping 
simultaneously with Thomas Spencer, in Liverpool, in 1837. 
In 1839 Jacobi first succeeded in propelling a boat on the 
river Neva at St. Petersburg by means of a galvanic bat- 
tery and an electro-magnetic motor. His motor was con- 
structed aftei the Ritchie principle, and consisted of four 
stationary and four movable electro-magnets arranged 
around a horizontal shaft, with a paddle wheel on each end. 
The battery consisted of 64 zinc-platinum cells. This 
scientific triumph was, however, not cronned by commer- 
cial success, for the simple reason that primary battery 
power then was and still is too expensive. Jacobi laid 
down the fundamental theories of electric motors. He pro- 
posed practical units of resistance and current strength. 
(See Weber. I He constructed electric telegraphs in St. 
Peterst urg; the most extensive line being 18 miles in 
length betwten two of the imperial residences. He con- 
ducted many experiments on these lines, and made the im- 
portant discovery that by using the earth as a "return" the 
circuit was completed. In 1S40 he published "Die Galvan- 
oplastik" (The Art of Electrotyping), a work which gained 
him admittance to the Imperial .\cademyat St. Petersburg. 
His principal works were published in the " Poggendorff 's 
Annalen" from 1S34 to 1S57. The most important are: 
"Applications of Electro-AIagnetism," "The Phenomena 
of Induction in the Voltaic Pile," "The Laws of Electro- 
Magnets," ' Reports on the Application of Galvanism to 
Electrotyping," "The Ignition of Gunpowder,"' etc. 



58 



WESTERN ELECTRICIAN. 



February i, 1890 



A Review of Modern Electrical Theoriesi 

Hv I'kui, \Vm. a. Anthony. 

The general phenomena of electricity are familiar to us 
all. As children we learned of the attraction and repul- 
sion of electrostatic charges, of condensers, of insulators 
and conductors, of electric currents and electro-magnets, 
of telegraphs, and electric fire alarms and electric btlls, of 
the heating of conductors, and even electric lights. We 
have long been familiar with the effect of the current on a 
magnetic needle, and with the attraction and repulsion of 
currents for each other. We have seen thai these effects 
arc manifested at a distance from the conductors which 
carr)* the currents, and we have been willing to believe 
that the distances at which these phenomena could be rec- 
ognized were limited only by the want of sensitiveness of 
the apparatus through which the effects were manifested. 
I'robably not many of us stop to think ho:,- these effects 
were brought alx)ut. We were content with a general 
statement of the relations of the phenomena, or. at least, 
with the determination of the direction and intensity of the 
forces due to a given conformation of current. We talked 
of the attractions and repulsions as acrion across space, and 
if we thought of them at all as requiring any mechanism 
through which to act, we still felt satisfied when we had 
discovtred and formulated the laws that govern the action 
of these forces. 

It did not matter to us that attraction across empty 
space was unthinkable; it was enough that action took 
place and that we could measure and. to a certain extent, 
control it. We constructed instruments and computed 
forces acting under certain conditions; we multiplied ex- 
periments, and thought we had developed a vast science. 
But there have not been wanting, even among the 
earlier philosophers, some who could not feel satisfied with 
the idea of action at a distance. Kxperience gives no clue 
to any explanation of action of one body upon another at a 
distance, except through some intervening mechanism, 
and if we (ind cases where such intervening mechanism is 
not apparent, to say that in these cases action at a distance 
is taking place, is only to say that the action is unex- 
plained. 

Gravity acts upon the distant planets and, we believe, 
upon the most distant stars; but it is not enough to say 
that gravity acts, that it decreases as the square of the dis- 
tance increases: we want to know /lo-.r it acts. By what 
means or through what medium does our earth reach out 



CL- 



l 



I 

J 



r 



FIG. I. — A REVtEW OF MODERN ELECTRICAL THEORIEi;. 

to the distant planets and affect their movements? These 
are the questions that the dissatisfied few have asked in 
the past, and to day it is not the few but the many who 
would be glad to have the question answered. Faraday 
early taught us that the mere statement of the law of elec- 
trical attraction or repulsion was no explanation, and he 
sought the explanation in the action in the intervening 
medium. He demonstrated by experiments, that have be- 
come classic, that the effect of induction depends upon the 
nature of the medium intervening between the conductors; 
a demonstration that here, at least, the intervening medium 
took part in the action and helped to determine the result. 
Magnetic and electro-magnelic phenomena were to Fara- 
day also effects propagated through the medium; and Max- 
well, following Faraday's work, subjected the whole matter 
to a searching mathematical analysis. It was necessary, 
in order to complete the theory, to assum'e the existence of 
a medium In which the forces were exerted; but as a me- 
dium had already been assumed to account for the phe- 
nomena of light, it would hardly be scientific to assume an- 
other to account for electrical phenomena But would not 
one medium suffice for electrical and optical phenomena as 
well? .Maxwell showed how the question of the identity of 
the two media could be tested, and our modern views of 
electricity are mainly the results of his work. What do we 
kno'c oi electrical phenomena? We know that pieces of 
glass and silk rubbed together and then separated attract 
each other: that the property of attraction can be imparted 
to metals if they are insulated; that if two such masses of 
metal be connected by a wire the power of attracting each 
other disappears, and at the same lime the wire is waimed 
and for an instant exerts magnetic force at right angles 
with the wire. Numerous other facts we know, but these 
will suffice as illustrations of the phenomena. When a 
metal conductor is discharged by touching It with a wire, 
we say the wire carries a current, and we have been accus- 
tomed to ascribe the heating and magnetic effects to that 
current. We have looked upon the thing, whatever it is, 
that takes place in the wire as the origin of all that lakes 
place around it. T